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journalistic matter, have been transmitted in twenty-five minutes. This represents more than thirty hours' work

graphing :

The following is the mode of tele- of an experienced telegrapher with the Hughes machine now in use, and more than five days and five nights of consecutive labor with the Morse system.

The telegram is placed in the machine, the cylinder turns, and the dispatch runs unaided on the line. Upon arrival, the current enters the receiving telephone, the positive attracting the telephone plate on one side and the negative on the other. Under this double influence, the plate oscillates and vibrates, but so slightly that the oscillation can not be utilized directly, so a small metal stem or wire is attached to the center of the plate and to this little stem is attached a diminutive mirror lighted by a lamp. This idea is borrowed from submarine telegraphy. The luminous ray is reflected by the mirror, and the smallest deviation of this mirror brings about a great disturbance at the extremity of the ray. It can thus be imagined how the oscillation of the telephonic plate acts upon the mirror, which in its turn determines an appreciable movement at the extremity of the ray of light. This ray is projected on a rolling cylinder carrying sensitive paper, and at each oscillation of the plate the luminous pencil marks on the turning cylinder an upright V or inverted corresponding to the positive or negative sign transmitted. It remains only to develop the sensitive paper and to read the signs and words.

The speed of the Pollak and Virag machine is unprecedented, but it has its disadvantages, in the opinion of the consul. He enumerates the following points: The telegram must first be changed into characters, after the manner of the Morse system; then the strips must be perforated, as in the Wheatstone system; after reception, the photographed strips must be developed and then translated into ordinary language. It is thought that this complicated manipulation may lead to many errors in transmission, and for present use in France he concludes that the Baudot machine actually employed answers all requirements.

The idea consists of reception by telephone and inscription by mirror as in the Thompson system of submarine telegraphy. The results obtained by the system, therefore, have been the transmission at a distance of 1,000 kilometers (621 miles) of eighty thousand words in one hour over two bronze wires of great conducting power. Forty thousand words, or sixteen pages of

acts on one brush and the negative on the other, and the two currents go forth in the wire of the line,

Harvest Fields.

A hundred million dollars a year appears to be the present market offered to the manufacturers of the United States by Cuba, Porto Rico, Hawaii, and the Philippines, provided they are able to supply the normal demand in those islands for foreign products and to exclude manufacturers from other countries. This estimate is based upon their actual consumption in years of normal conditions. How rapidly this will increase remains to be seen, but if the experience of the past year in Hawaii is an indication of what will happen elsewhere, the increase must be very rapid. This information is obtained from United States Treasury statistics, which states that the exports from the United States to Hawaii in the ten months of 1899, whose record is now

complete, are more than double those can reap the great profits yielded by of the corresponding months of 1897, present prices and demand, without and nearly double those of the corre- dividing these profits with their emsponding months of 1898, while to ployes. The news comes that the Cuba they promise to exceed in 1899" Big Four" Railway has restored onehalf of the former reduction of wages that is, while the road reduced wages ten per cent. during hard times, it has granted a five per cent. increase during good times. This is a good deal like the cat in the well, which climbed up two feet and slipped back three feet, the final result being that the cat was drowned. If the employers increase wages five per cent. during prosperity and reduce wages ten per cent. during panics, the employe will sooner or later be in the condition of the aforesaid cat.

those of any preceding year, even surpassing that of the great reciprocity year 1893, when the exports to that island were double the average of earlier years. More than one-half of the supplies which Cuba, Porto Rico, and the Philippines have received from other parts of the world in former years have been furnished them by Spain, and this fact has led to the preparation by the Treasury Bureau of Statistics of a series of tables showing the exportation of principal articles from Spain to each of these islands in 1896, the latest year in which commercial conditions in those islands were at all normal.

We learn that the New England cotton and woolen mills are restoring some of their wage reductions of a few years $25,951,103 ago, and from other sources it is 7,268,498 learned that restorations of former 7,403,047 $40,622,648


Puerto Rico.


The vast profits that have accrued to Spanish capitalists will now, by the nature of circumstances, come to American capitalists.

wages has been the employes' share of the present boom. The question which some ask, as to the reason why working men do not have their wages increased in proportion to the prices of their products, the following information, which is taken from the records of the office of the Commissioner


Immigration and Wages.
By many it has been difficult to un-
derstand where the great supply of
labor comes from, necessary to carry
on the enormous business of the coun-
try. It is also a matter of surprise that
employers of this vast army of labor Average money brought by im-

Total immigration into the United
Percentage of Increase..........
Total number of illiterate..
Percentage of illiterate in total
immigration over fourteen years
of age.....

migrants, in dollars.......


General of Immigration, may answer:

1898. 1899.



311,715 36 61,468

19.7 17




Proclamations were issued from time
to time, from which the following, issued
in Shoshone county, is selected:

After a series of disputes, extending over several years, between the corporation known as the Bunker Hill and Sullivan Company, of Wardner, Idaho, and its employes, a riot was precipitated on April 29, 1899, resulting in an explosion which destroyed considerable of the property of the company. It was claimed by the company that the Miners' Union was responsible for this unlawful act, while the latter protested that the explosion was occasioned by the ex-employes of that company, who were not members

of the union.

The corporation appealed to Governor Steunenberg, the democratic Governor of Idaho, and the latter appealed to President McKinley, the republican President of the United States, the result being that civil law was suspended and martial law substituted. The diverse party affiliations of the Governor of Idaho and the President of the United States are herein stated for the specific purpose of demonstrating that in labor grievances against governmental officials the LOCOMOTIVE FIREMEN'S MAGAZINE has no "political " favors to extend.

General Merriam, representing the President, was soon on the ground with about 800 negro soldiers. General Merriam acted in concert with Governor Steunenberg and his representatives in carrying out the policy adopted.

PROCLAMATION.-Whereas, The following notice has been served upon the mine-owners of Shoshone County, by the duly constituted State authorities, by whom martial law has been declared, to-wit: "To the mine-owners of Shoshone County. Certain organizations or combinations existing in Shoshone County have shown themselves to be criminal in purpose, inciting and, as organizations, procuring property to be destroyed, and murders to be committed, by reason whereof it has been twice necessary to declare martial law in Shoshone County. You are therefore notified that the employment of men belonging to said or other criminal organizations during the continuance of martial law must cease. In case this direction is not observed, your mines will be closed."

Therefore, in order to carry into effect the spirit of the foregoing notice and restore the industries of the district as far as possible, it becomes necessary to establish a system by which miners who have not participated in the recent acts of violence and who are a law-abiding people, may obtain work, and, that order and peace may be established, the following is promulgated for the guidance of all mine-owners and employes in the

affected district.

All parties applying for underground work in any of the following mines will be required to obtain from Dr. Hugh France, the duly appointed and authorized agent for the State of Idaho for this purpose, or his deputy, at Wardner or at Wallace, a permit authorizing said person to seek employment in any of the following mines: Bunker Hill & Sullivan, Last Chance, Empire State-Idaho, Consolidated Tiger and Poorman, Hecla, Mam


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oppressors for their tyranny, as though they were real philanthropists, instead of modern Czars, whose only object in life is similar to that which prompts him, namely the almighty dollar-it becomes my duty to give a brief history of the present conflict between organized capital and the miners in that county from its earliest inception.

Having been a resident of Shoshone County for thirteen years, and a member of the Miners' Union and Knights of Labor, I am familiar with the series of conflicts which began in 1887, and I defy John L. Kennedy or any other enemy of the miners, to contradict a single statement herein contained.

When gold was discovered in the Coeur d'Alenes in 1882, prospectors from all over the West rushed to the new district, that had heretofore lain unexplored, with the result that many valuable mines were discovered.

When these rich mines began operations, which was under adverse circumstances, all underground men received $3.50 per day, and were permitted to board and spend their money as they pleased; they were not compelled to board in a company boarding house and sleep in a company bunk house and buy in the company store, all of which they are now compelled to do.

In June, 1887, the Bunker Hill and Sullivan Mining Company reduced miners' wages from $3.50 to $3 per day, and other underground men from $3.50 to $2.50 per day, but failed to reduce their board, which remained at $1 per day.

When the miners refused to accept this reduction, the company was forced, on account of the scarcity of miners, to return to the old schedule of $3.50 per day for miners, but refused to pay other underground men more than $3, which was a reduction of 50 cents per day.

Then the miners saw that it was necessary for them to protect themselves against another reduction and, on November 17, 1887, organized the first union of workingmen in the county, since known as Wardner Miners' Union.

In 1890 the men employed by the Bunker Hill and Sullivan Mining Company demanded the prevailing wages of the district, $3.50 per day for all underground men, which was refused, and a strike ensued which lasted two weeks; until the company consented to pay the same wages paid by all other mines in the district.

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Hammond immediately set to work and organized the Mine Owners' Industrial Protective Association, for the sole purpose of reducing miners' wages in the west to $2.50 per day, and, in order to carry this scheme into effect, every mine owner who belonged to the association was assessed twelve per cent. per annum on each ton of ore shipped from their respective mines, which went into a sinking fund to be used by the association in reducing the miners' wages.

On January 17, 1892, every mine in the district shut down, throwing thousands of men out of employment in the middle of winter in a severe climate, and on April 1 of the same year the Mine Owners' Association offered to resume operations at a reduction in wages of $1 a day and 50 cents a day respectively, which the miners refused to accept.

The first act of the mine owners was to obtain an injunction from Judge Beattie of the federal court against the miners' union and requested the governor to declare martial law, which he did without hesitation.

Their next act was to purchase 500 rifles and distribute them at the different mines, to be turned over to the thugs and Pinkertons that were brought from the slums of large cities to murder the miners.

Up to the time of the arrival of these hired fighters, there was no disturbance, nor did the union men attempt to interfere with the operation of any mine; nevertheless the first act of the imported thugs was an attempt to drive the union miners out of the county, and began to raid the town of Gem on July 11, 1892.

The union men defended themselves successfully and forced the thugs to retire; then the United States troops arrived and arrested every union man and sympathizer. When they had them all arrested the hired thugs burned the miners' union hall and committed other outrages upon the helpless families of the miners. Said outrages were never punished.

After 1892 all the mines in the district began to pay the former schedule of wages,

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