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flection, if no inconsiderable observation, you, in your national capacity, must always and which appear to me all-important to the exalt the just pride of patriotism more than permanency of your felicity as a people. any appellation derived from local discrimThese will be offered to you with the more inations. With slight shades of difference, freedom, as you can only see in them the you have the same religion, manners, habits, disinterested warnings of a parting friend, and political principles. You have in a who can possibly have no personal motive to
cause fought and triumphed tobias his counsel."
gether; the independence and liberty you possess are the work of joint counsels, and
joint efforts, of common dangers, sufferings He clearly saw that cor- and successes." Sectional Strife. rupt and selfish men would
In contemplating the causes, which may seek to advance their disturbe our union, it occurs, as a matter of personal interests by preying upon the serious concern, that any ground should
have been furnished for characterizing parsectional prejudices that are so easily
ties by geographical discriminations, Northawakened in a republic. He then real
ern and Southern Atlantic and Western; ized that sectional strife endangered the whence designing men may endeavor to preservation of the nation itself.
excite a belief that there is a real difference
of local interests and views. One of the “ The unity of government, which consti
expedients of party to acquire influence, tutes you one people, is also dear to you.
within particular districts, is to misrepresent is justly so; for it is a main pillar in the edifice of your real independence, the support you cannot shield yourselves too much
the opinions and aims of other districts. of your tranquility at home, your peace abroad; of your safety: of your prosperity; which spring from these misrepresentations ;
against the jealousies and heart-burnings of that very liberty which you so highly they tend to render alien to each other those prize. But it is easy to foresee that, who ought to be bound together by fraternal from different causes and from different
affection. quarters, much pains will be taken, many artifices employed, to weaken in your minds
These prophetic utterances of Washthe conviction of this truth; as this is the ington found their consummation, so point in your political fortress against which far as the Northern and Southern secthe batteries of internal and external enemies will be most constantly and actively War, and to-day we
tions are concerned, in the great Civil
a growing (though often covertly and insidiously) directed, it is of infinite moment that you spirit of hatred and distrust between should properly estimate the immense value the Eastern and Western sections. of your national union to your collective That these conditions are brought and individual happiness; that you should about by the causes ascribed by Washcherish a cordial, habitual, and immovable attachment to it; accustoming yourselves to ington, i. e.,“ the expedients of party think and speak of it as of the palladium of to acquire influence " no unbiased your political safety and prosperity; watch- student can doubt. ing for its preservation with jealous anxiety; discountenancing whatevever may suggest even a suspicion, that it can in any event be
How well Washington foreabandoned; and indignantly frowning upon
saw the destroying influthe first dawning of every attempt to alienate
ence of partizanship this any portion of our country from the rest, or to enfeeble the sacred ties which now link to- farewell address makes evident. Even gether the various parts.
at that time he could almost discern “For this you have every inducement of in the distant future when citizens of sympathy and pity. Citizens, by birth or
the republic would cease to be “ Amerchoice, of a common country, that country has a right to concentrate your affections. icans,” and become servile followers The name of AMERICAN, which belongs to of one or the other of the political
parties. He feared that the day would keep alive the spirit of Liberty. This, withcome when, instead of government of- in certain limits, is probably true; and in ficials representing and working for the ism may look with indulgence, if not with
Governments of a Monarchical cast, patriotgood of all, they would seek only the favor, upon the spirit of party. But in those advancement of their respective par- of the popular character, in Governments ties. He spoke as follows in this purely elective, it is a spirit not to be enmemorable address :
couraged. From their natural tendency, it
is certain there will always be enough of Let me now take a more comprehensive that spirit for every salutary purpose. And, view, and warn you in the most solemn there being constant danger of excess,
the manner against the baneful effects of the effort ought to be, by force of public opinion, spirit of party generally. This spirit, un
to mitigate and assuage it. A fire not to be fortunately, is inseparable from our nature, quenched, it demands a uniform vigilance to having its roots in the strongest passions of prevent its bursting into a flame, lest, inthe human mind. It exists under different stead of warming, it should consume. shapes in all governments, more
or less stifled, controlled, or repressed; but, in those of the popular form, it is seen in its
One hundred years ago, greatest rankness, and is truly their worst
Usurpation when Washington last adenemy.
of Power. The alternate domination of one faction
dressed his countrymen, the over another, sharpened by the spirit of revenge, natural to party dissension, which in money power had not yet devised different ages and countries has perpetrated
means of defeating the will of the peothe most horrid enormities, is itself a fright- ple through the use of the judiciary. ful despotism. But this leads at length to a Then men were appointed to positions more formal and permanent despotism. on the Federal bench because of their The disorders and miseries, which result,
legal learning and unsullied integrity, gradually incline the minds of men to seek security and repose in the absolute power of instead of the present method of proan individual; and sooner or later the chief moting corporation attorneys as of some prevailing faction, more able or reward for partisan service. “ Governmore fortunate than his competitors, turns ment by injunction” was unknown, and this disposition to the purposes of his own
the executive branch of the Governelevation, on the ruins of Public Liberty.
Without looking forward to an extremity ment was satisfied to execute the laws of this kind (which nevertheless ought not to enacted by the legislative branch. be entirely out of sight), the common and Washington's premonitions led him to continual mischiefs of the spirit of party are
warn his fellow countrymen against sufficient to make it the interest and duty of
such disasters. a wise people to discourage and restrain it.
It serves always to distract the Public It is important, likewise, that the habits of Councils, and enfeeble the Public Adminis- thinking in a free country should inspire tration. It agitates the community with ill- caution, in those intrusted with its adminisfounded jealousies and false alarms; kindles tration, to confine themselves within their the animosities of one part against another; / respective constitutional spheres, avoiding foments, occasionally, riot and insurrection. in the exercise of the powers of one departIt opens the door to foreign influence and ment to encroach upon another. The spirit corruption which finds a facilitated access to of encroachment tends to consolidate the the government itself through the channels powers of all the departments in one, and of party passions. Thus the policy and the thus to create, whatever the form of governwill of one country are subjected to the pol- ment, a real despotism. A just estimate of icy and will of another.
that love of power, and proneness to abuse There is an opinion, that parties in free it, which predominates in the human heart, countries are useful checks upon the admin- is sufficient to satisfy us of the truth of this Istration of the Government, and serve to position. The necessity of reciprocal checks
in the exercise of political power by dividing the other, betrays the former into a particiand distributing it into different depositories, pation in the quarrels and wars of the latter, and constituting each the guardian of the without adequate inducement or justificapublic weal against invasion by others, has tion. It leads, also, to concessions to the been evinced by experiments, ancient and favorite nation of privileges denied to others, modern; some of them in our country and which is apt doubly to injure the nation under our own eyes. To preserve them making the concessions; by unnecessarily must be as necessary as to institute them. parting with what ought to have been reIf, in the opinion of the people, the distribu- tained; and by exciting jealousy, ill-will, tion or modification of the constitutional and a disposition to retaliate in the parties powers be in any particular wrong, let it be from whom equal privileges are withheld. corrected by an amendment, in the way And it gives to ambitious, corrupted, or dewhich the constitution designates. But let luded citizens (who devote themselves to the there be no change by usurpation; for, favorite nation) facility to betray or sacrifice though this, in one instance, may be the in- the interests of their own country, without strument of good, it is the customaryodium, sometimes even with popularity; weapon by which free governments are de- gilding, with the appearances of a virtuous stroyed. The precedent must always greatly sense of obligation, a commendable deferoverbalance in permanent evil any partial or ence for public opinion, or a laudable zeal transient benefit, which the use can at any for public good, the base or foolish complitime yield.
ances of ambition, corruption or infatuation.
As avenues to foreign influence in in
numerable ways, such attachments are parWashington feared the time ticularly alarming to the truly enlightened Magnificent would come when Ameri- and independent patriot. How many opporIsolation.
cans would become tired of tunities do they afford to tamper with dotheir simple republic, when the ambi- mestic factions, to practice the arts of tious would long for military glory and fluence or awe the public councils? Such
seduction, to mislead public opinion, to inthe selfish would hunger for the plun- an attachment of a small or weak towards a der of conquest. He dreaded lest great and powerful nation dooms the former these longings would lead Americans to to be the satellite of the latter. join in the politics of the Old World, Against the insidious wiles of foreign inwhose mornings have been war, and fluence (I conjure you to believe me, fellow whose evenings have been desolation, to be constantly awake; since history and
citizens), the jealousy of a free people ought in the centuries past.
experience prove that foreign influence is
one of the most baneful foes of republican The nation which indulges toward another an habitual hatred, or an habitual
government fondness, is in some degree a slave. It is a The great rule of conduct for us, in regard slave to its animosity or to its affection, to foreign nations, is, in extending our comeither of which is sufficient to lead it astray mercial relations, to have with them as little from its duty and its interest. Antipathy in political connection as possible. So far as one nation against another disposes each
we have already formed engagements, let more readily to offer insult and injury, to lay them be fulfilled with perfect good faith. hold of slight causes of umbrage, and to be Here let us stop. haughty and intractable, when accidental or Europe has a set of primary interests, trifling occasions of dispute occur. Hence, which to us have none, or a very remote frequent collisions, obstinate, envenomed, relation. Hence she must be engaged in and bloody contests.
So, like- frequent controversies, the causes of which wiss, a passionate attachment of one nation are essentially foreign to our concerns. for another produces a variety of evils. Hence, therefore, it must be unwise in us to Sympathy for the favorite nation, facilitating implicate ourselves, by artificial ties, in the the illusion of an imaginary common inter- ordinary vicissitudes of her politics, or the est, in cases where no real common interest ordinary combinations and collisions of her exists, and infusing into one the enmities of friendships or enmities.
Our detached and distant situation invites Conditions at Dawson, Yukon Ty. and enables us to pursue a different course. From the Consul at Dawson City it If we remain one people, under an efficient is learned that navigation on the Lower government, the period is not far off when we may defy material injury from external Yukon River practically ceased on Ocannoyance; when we may take such an at tober 12th. The latest arrivals were titude as will cause the neutrality we may at three steamers and one barge, on Octoany time resolve upon to be scrupulously ber 7, from St. Michaels, September respected; when belligerent nations, under
1, 1899, with 1,000 tons of general the impossibility of making acquisitions upon us, will not lightly hazard the giving
Masters report us provocation -- when may choose steamer to follow, being advertised to peace or war, as our interest, guided by jus- leave St. Michaels for Dawson Septice, shall counsel.
tember 15, 1899. The up-river boats Why forego the advantages of so peculiar continued to ply between White Horse a position? Why quit our own to stand
and Dawson, but it was expected that upon foreign ground? Why, by interweaving our destiny with that of any part of within ten days navigation would be Europe, entangle our peace and prosperity suspended. Large quantities of freight, in the toils of European ambition, rivalship, it is reported, was left over at White interest, humor or caprice?
Horse until next spring, and some It is our true policy to steer clear of per- 1,500 tons of goods and merchandise manent alliances with any portion of the foreign world; so far, I mean, as we are
are blockaded at Bennett, owing to the now at liberty to do it; for let me not be lack of facilities for transportation. It understood as capable of patronizing infi- is not thought, however, that there will delity to existing engagements. I hold the be any actual shortage in any line of maxim no less applicable to public than to private affairs, that honesty is always the goods, especially provisions, the warebest policy. I repeat it, therefore. let those houses of the large companies being engagements be observed in their genuine filled with supplies of every description.
But, in my opinion, it is unneces- Among the latest improvements in sary and would be unwise to extend them. Dawson is a large and commodious
That Washington little hoped that brick warehouse, erected in the busihis warnings would be heeded, his last ness center of the town, the bricks public utterances would indicate, but being manufactured in Dawson from
clay found in the vicinity. An effort is earnestly he said:
being made to establish public schools In offering to you, my countrymen, these in Dawson this winter. The local counsels of an old and affectionate friend, I council has passed an ordinance, which dare not hope they will make the strong and lasting impression I could wish; that they has been sent to Ottawa for approval will control the usual current of the passions and authority to put into practice. or prevent our nation from running the The work of taking the annual census course which has hitherto marked the des- of Dawson was completed the latter tiny of nations. But if I may even flatter
part of September. The population is myself that they may be productive of some partial benefit, some occasional good; that set down as 4,445 (3,659 male and they may now and then recur to moderate 786 female) and 163 children under the fury of party spirit, to warn against the 14 years of age. Of the inhabitants of mischiefs of foreign intrigue, to guard Dawson, 3,205 are from the United against the impostures of pretended patriot- States, 645 from Canada, and 200 ism — this hope will be a full recompense for the solicitude for your welfare, by which from England, the remainder scatterthey have been dictated.
ing. It is estimated that quite 2,000
people left for Cape Nome district from now established for the United States August 26 to September 26, 1899. range from $4.35 to $4.75 for ten
The question of food supply no longer words, and from 23 to 27 cents for agitates the community. In addition each additional word. No arrangeto ample stocks of canned goods, there ments have been made for the transfer is an abundance of fresh beef, mutton, of money by wire. and pork, and plenty of fresh vegetables. There are also in the markets wild A New Telegraph System. swan, geese, ducks, ptarmigan, grouse, At Budapest, Austria-Hungary, a Arctic hare, squirrels, beaver, bear, new system of electric telegraphy has moose, and cariboo. Boots, shoes, and been invented by which, according to clothing are much lower in price than consular reports, as high as ninety
thousand words an hour have been transCord wood was selling at from $20 to mitted. The inventors conceived the $23, in sixteen and twenty-four foot idea of using a telephone as a receiver. lengths, delivered. There is some coal The transmitter sends forth positive used, an inferior kind of lignite, but not and negative currents in succession, to any great extent; the price at the which act upon a telephonic plate. yard is $30 per ton of 2,000 pounds. The vibrations of the plate are inten
The first snow flurry occurred Sep- sified in a manner described below, and tember 28th. Up to October 12th the are registered before the eyes on a weather had been clear and fine, the paper. The rapid use of the positive thermometer ranging in the twenties for and negative currents economizes so the minimum and in the forties for the much time that the words are telemaximum, one day going as high as graphed almost as rapidly as they are 53o. On the coldest morning so far the spoken. glass marked 10° above zero. This is All dispatches must first be written not unusual weather for this district; out in telegraphic characters, as in the owing to its sheltered position, there is Morse system. Instead of the dots little or no wind, and the cold weather, and dashes of the Morse system, howwhen it does come, is dry and invigor- ever, the V sign is used upright, or inating.
ve d, as follows: 10 These charThe Canadian Government telegraph acters are as easily read after a little line, from Bennett to Dawson, a dis- practice the dots and dashes. tance of 600 miles, with a branch to Another point of resemblance to other Atlin from Bennett of seventy-five telegraphic machines is that the mamiles, was completed to Dawson Sep- chine perforates the strip on which the tember 27, 1899. The line was com- characters are placed, so that the menced early last April, and was con- paper directly over the characters is structed at a reported cost of less than removed. The strip, or tape, is car$130,000. Connection is made at ried a revolving cylinder, on Bennett with the line of the White which press two metal brushes, one Pass Railroad to Skagway, a distance bearing on the upright V, the other of forty miles, messages being for- on the inverted 1, so that the brushes warded from Skagway by first steamer and the metallic roller are brought into to Vancouver, thence by Canadian Pa- contact each time that the characters cific wire to destination. Rates as are perforated. The positive current