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it into Religious. Hence, we see God giving his instructions to the Prophet, and the Prophet delivering God's commands to the People, in this very manner. Thus far the nature of the action, both in civil and religious matters, is exactly the same.
But in Religion it sometimes happens that a STANDING Information is necessary, and there the Action must be continually repeated : This is done by holding out the particular Truth (thus to be preserved) in a religious Rite. Here then the Action begins to change its nature; and, from a mere significative mark, of only arbitrary import like words or letters, becomes an action of moral import, and acquires the new name of TYPE. Thus God, intending to record the future sacrifice of Christ in Action, did it by the periodic Sacrifice of a lamb without blemish. This was not merely and so DIRECTLY significative of Christ (like the Comnaand to Abraham); but being a religious Rite, and so having a moral import, it was typical, though not DIRECTLY significative, of him. The very same may be said of the Temporal rewards of the Law; they were properly typical of the Spiritual rewards of the Gospel, and had a moral import of their own, as being the real sanction of the Law.
Again, It hath been shewn*, how, in the gradual cultivation of Speech, the expression by Action was improved and refined into an ALLEGORY or Parable; in which the words carry a double meaning; having, besides their obvious sense which serves only for the Envelope, one more material, and hidden. With this figure of speech all the moral writings of Antiquity abound. But when this figure is transferred from Civil use to Religious, and employed in the writings of inspired Men, to convey information of particular circumstances in two distinct Dispensations, to a people who had an equal concern in both, it is then what we call a DOUBLE SENSE; and • In the preceding volume.
undergoes undergoes the very same change of its nature that an expressive action underwent when converted into a Type; that is, both the meanings, in the DOUBLE SENSE, are of moral import; whereas in the Allegory, one only of the meanings is so: And, this (which arises out of the very nature of their conversion, from Civil to Religious matters) is the only difference between expressive actions and TYPES; and between allegories and DOUBLE
From hence it appears, that as TYPES are only religious expressive Actions, and DOUBLE SENSES only religious Allegories, and neither receive any change but what the very manner of bringing those Civil figures into Religion necessarily induces, they must needs have, in this their tralatitious state, the same LOGICAL FITNESS they had in their natural *. Therefore as expressive actions, and Allegories, in Civil discourses, are esteemed proper and reasonable modes of information, so must TYPES and DOUBLE SENSES in Religious; for the end of both is the same, namely, COMMUNICATION OF KNOWLEDGE. The consequence of this is, that Mr. Collins's proposition, that a secondary or double sense is enthusiastical and unscholastic (the necessary support of his grand Argument) is entirely overthrown.
This is the true and simple origin of types and DOUBLE SENSES; which our adversaries, through ignorance of the rise and progress of Speech, and unacquaintance with ancient Manners, have insolently treated as the issue of distempered brains, and the fondlings of Visionaries and Enthusiasts.
II. Having thus shewn their logical propriety, or that they are rational Modes of information, I come now to vindicate their Religious use, and to shew that they are well suited to that Religion in which we find them employed. An Objection which, I conceive, may be made to this use, will lead us naturally into our Argument.
* See note [X] at the end of this Book. VOL. VI,
The objection is this: “ It hath been shewn*, that these oblique Modes of converse, though at first invented out of necessity, for general information, were employed, at length, to a mysterious sécretion of knowledge; which though it might be expedient, useful, and even necessary
both in CIVIL MATTERS and in FALSE RELIGION, could never be so in MORAL MATTERS, and in THE TRUE RELIGION; for this having nothing to hide from any of its followers, Types and Double senses (the same mysterious conveyance of knowledge in Sacred matters, which Allegoric words or Actions are in Civil) were altogether unfit to be employed in it.”
To this I answer, 'The JEWISH RELIGION, in which these Types and Secondary senses are to be found, was given to one single People only; just as the CHRISTIAN is offered to all Mankind : Now the Christian, as Mfr. Collins † himself labours to prove, professes to be grounded on the Jewish.
If therefore Christianity was not only professedly, but really grounded on Judaisir (and the supposition is strictly logical in a defence of Types and Double senses, whose reality depends on the reality of that relation) then Judaism was preparatory to Christianity, and Christianity the ultimate end of Judaism : But it is not to be supposed that there should be an intire silence concerning this ultimate Religion during the preparatory, when the notice of it was not only highly proper, but very expedient: 1. First, to draw
* In the preceding volume.. t “ Christianity is founded on Judaism, and the New Testament
on the Old; and Jesus is the person said in the New Testament 6. to be promised in the Old, under the character of the MESSIAH of are the Jews, who, as such only, claims the obedience and submission “ of the world. Accordingly it is the design of the authors of the “ New, to prove all the parts of Christianity from the Old Testament, « which is said to contain the words of eternal life, and to represent *74 Jesus and his apostles as fulfilling by their mission, doctrines, and
works, the predictions of the Prophets, the historical parts of the « Old Testament, and the Jewish Law; which last is expressly said " to prophesy of, or testify Christianity." Grounds and Reasons,
&c. pp. 4, 5.
those under the preparatory Religion, by just degrees to the ultimate; a provision the more necessary, as the nature and genius of the two Religions were different, the one carnal, the other spiritual : 2. Secondly, to afford convincing evidence to future Ages, of the truth of that Ultimate Religion; which evidence, a circumstantial prediction of its advent and nature so long beforehand, effectually does afford * The Ultimate Religion therefore must have had some notice given of it, in the Preparatory: and nothing was better fitted for this purpose than the hyperbolical genius of the Eastern Speech, Thus, when Isaiahı says, Unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given, and the government shall be upon his shoulder : And his name shall be called, Wonderful, Counsellor, The Mighty God, the Everlasting Father, the Prince of Peace, Mr. Collins observes, it is the eastern hyperbole which prevents our seeing that a Jewish Monarch is literally and directly spoken of. Should we allow this, yet we still see, that such a language was admirably fitted to connect together the first and second Senses: the hyperbole becoming a simple speech, when transferred from a Jewish Monarch to the monarch of the world.
Our next inquiry will be, in what manner this notice must needs be given. Now the nature of the thing shews us it could not be directly and openly; so as to be understood by the People, at the time of giving: because this would have defeated God's intermediate purpose; which was to train them, by a long discipline, under his preparatory Dispensation. For, this being a Religion founded only on temporal Sanctions, and burdened with a minute and tiresome Ritual, had the People known it to be only preparatory to another, founded on better Promises and easier Observances, they would never have born the yoke of the Law, but would have shaken off their subjection to Moses before the fulness of Time had * See note (Y) at the end of this Book.
brought their spiritual Deliverer amongst them; as, without this knowledge, they were but too apt to do, on every imaginary prospect of advantage. But St. CHRYSOSTOM will inforce this observation with more advantage. “ Had “ the Jews (says he) been taught from the beginning " that their Law was temporary and to have an end,
they would have certainly despised it. On this ac
count, it seemed good to the divine Wisdom to throw “ a veil of obscurity over the Prophecies which related " to the Christian Dispensation *.” This information, therefore, was to be delivered with caution ; and conveyed under the covert language of their present Economy. Hence arose the fit and necessary use of TYPES and SECONDARY SENSES. For the only safe and lasting means of conveyance were their PUBLIC RITUAL, and the WRITINGS OF THE PROPHETS. And a Speaking action, and an Allegoric speech, when thus employed, had all the secrecy that the occasion required. We have observed, that in the simpler use of speaking by Action, the Action itself hath no moral import: and so, the information having but one moral meaning, that which it conveys is clear and intelligible. But where a Rite of Religion is used for this Speaking action, there the action hath a moral import; and so the information having two moral meanings, that which it conveys is more obscure and mysterious. Hence it
that this mode of speaking by action, called a TYPE, is exactly fitted for the information in question. Just so it is' again with the SECONDARY SENSE: In the mere allegory, the representing image has no moral import : in the secondary sense, for a contrary reason (which the very term imports), the representing image hath a moral import; and so, acquires the same fitting obscurity with information by Types. For the typical Ritual, and the double Prophecy, had each its obvious sense in the present nature and future fortune of the Jewish Religion * Homilia prima, De prophetarum obscuritate.