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prove the words used indiscriininately in the New Testament, are full enough to persuade the Reader that they are not so used. Ilis first instance is, i Pet. iv. 13.
. Rejoice [Zoipele] inasmuch as ye are partakers of
aconípéte “ Christ's sufferings; that when his glory shall be re“ vealed (zapõte dyaddouuevos] ye may be glad with
exceeding joy. See you not here (says he) the direct
reverse of what you say; that xabpw signifies the joy “ which arises upon prospect, and dyadiocoman that which “ arises from possession?" [Consid. p. 143.] No indced; I see nothing like it. The followers of Christ are bid to rejoice, xxigele. Tor what? For being partakers of Christ's sufferings. And was not this a blessing in possession? But it seems our Doctor has but small conception how suffering for a good conscience can be a blessing. Yet at other times he must have thought highly of it, when, in excess of charity, he bespoke the Magistrates application of it on his Neighbours, under the name of WHOLESOME SEVERITIES. He is just as wide of truth
. when he tells us, that dyanaokou os signifies the joy which arises on possession. They are bid to rejoice now in sufferings, that they night. be glad with erceeding joy at Christ's second coming. And is this the being glad for a good in possession ? Is it not for a good in prospect? The reward they were then going to receive. l'or I suppose the appearance of Christ's glory will precede the reward of his followers. So that the Reader now secs, he has himself fairly proved for ine, the truth of my observation, That in the exact use of the words, cwadanou signifies that tumultuous pleasure which the certain expectation of an pouching blessing occasions; and xaópw that calm and settled Joy that arises from our knowledge, in the possession of it.
“Rev. xix: 7. Let us be gled and rejoice [zainwel ev xj dyan doua etx] for the marriage of the Lamb is come. Where both : wurds (says hc) refer to blessings in possession. Ayain, Mait. v. 12. Rejoice
He goes on.
" and be erceeding glad [xaipele xy danião be] for great is
your reüard in Heaven; where both refer to blessings in
prospect.” [Consid. pp. 143, 144.] His old fortune still pursues him. The first text from the Revelations, Be glad and rejoice, For the marriage of the Lamb is come; bids the followers of Christ now do that, which they were bid to prepare for, in the words of St. Peter, that when his glory shall be revealed, ye may be glad with erceeding joy. If, therefore, where they are bid to prepare for their rejoicing, the joy is for a good in prospect (as we have shewn it was) then, certainly, where, they are told that this time of rejoicing is come, the joy piust still be for a good in prospect. And yet the words refer to blessings in possession. Again, the text. frorn St. Matthew----Rejoice and be exceeding glad, FOR great is your reward in hcaren, has the same relation to the former part of St. Peter's words [Rejoice inasmuch as ye are partakers of Christ's sufferings] as the text in Revelation has to the latter. Blessed are ye (says Jesus in this gospel) when men shall revile you and persecute you, and shall sily all mamer of evil against you falsely for my sale. Rejoice, and be erceeding glad, for great is your recard in heaven. Rejoice! for what? Is it not for the persecutions they suffer for his sake? A present blessing sure; though not perhaps to our Author's taste. The reason why they should rejoice, follows, for grant is your reward in heaven. And yet here, he says, the words refer to blessings in prospect. In truth, what led him into all this inverted reasoning, was a pleasant mistake. The one text says---- Be glad and rejoice, For, T.--The other, Rejoice and be exceeding glad, for, Orr---Now he took the particle, in both places, to signify propter, for the sake of; whereas it signifies quoniain, quia, and is in proof of something going before. So that lie read the text-Rejuice, for the marriage of the Lamb is come ;--- As if it had been—". Rejoice, for the marriage " of the Lainb, which is come:' Andrejoice, for
great is your reward in heaven; as if it had been,
Rejoice for your great reward in heaven."
But now let us consider these texts in another view, in order to do justice to his delicacy of judgment. I had said that, in the exact use of the two Greek words, they signify so and so; and applied that observation to a FACT; where a person was said to have rejoiced, fc. In order to disprove this criticism, he brings three passages, in which those Greek words are used, where NO FACT is related ; but where men are, in a rhetorical manner, called upon, and bid to rejoice, &c. In which latter case, the use of one word for another, is an elegant conversion. Those, in possession of a blessing, are bid to rejoice with that exceeding joy, which men generally have in the certain expectation of one approaching; and those in expectation, with that calm and settled joy, which attends full possession. And who but our Examiner could not see, that the use of words is one thing, in an historical assertion; and quite another, in a rhetorical invocation?
Having thus ably acquitted himself in one criticism, he falls
another. “What shall we do with Yvx?”. What indeed! But no sooner said than done." "Iya “ (says he) is often put for me or Sto, positive as you are, " that it always refers to a future time.” [Consid. p. 144.) Now, so far from being positive of this, I am positive of the contrary, that there is not one word of truth in all he says. I observed indeed, that iva yon, in the text, refers only to a future time. And this I say still, though our Translators have rendered it, equivocally, to see. Yet he affirms, that I say, “ (vce [standing alone) always refers to “ a future time.” That I am positive of it, nay very positive,“ positive as you are," says he. And to shame me of this evil habit, he proceeds to shew, from several texts, that ivæ is often put -for Te or őtı. 66 Thus John
The time cometh THAT [va] whosoever killeth you will think he doth God service. Again: 1 Cor. iv. 3. " With me it is a small thing THAT [re] I should be
" xvi. 2.
judged of you. And nearer to the point yet, 3 John 4. “ I have no greater joy Live axéw] than that I hear, or, " than to hear that my children walk in the truth. " And why not here, Sir; Abraham rejoiced [ive ion]
WHEN he saw, or THAT he saw, or (which is equiva“ lent) TO SEE my Day." [Consid. p. 144.] For all this kindness, the best acknowledgement I can make, is to return him back his own criticism; only the Greek words put into Latin. The Vulgate has rendered ivc pon by ut videret, which words I will suppose the Translator to say (as without doubt he would) refer only to a future time. On which, I will be very learned and critical:" Positive as you are, Sir, that ut always refers ( to a future time, I will shew you that it is sometimes put for postquam, the past.
“ Ut vidi, ut perii, ut me malus abstulit Error! * and sometimes (which is yet nearer to the point) for
quanto–Ut quisque optimè Græcè scirct, ita esse nequissimum. And why not here, Sir, Abraham rejoiced
[ut videret] WHEN HE saw, or that he saw, or which " is equivalent, TO SEE my day?"---And now he says, , there is but one difficulty that stands in his way. And what is this, I pray you? Why, that according to his (Dr. Stebbing's) interpretation, “ the latter part of the sen“ tence is a repetition of the former. Abraham rejoiced " to see my day, and he saw it and was glad; i.e.
Abraham rejoiced to see, and then saw and rejoiced. * But such kind of repetitions are frequent in the sacred “ Dialect; and, in my humble opinion, it has an ele-,
gance here. Abraham rejoiced to see, xaixxi
txapy. HE BOTH SAW AND WAS GLẠD.” [Consid: pp. 144, 145.] Before he talked of repetitions in the sacred Dialect, and pronounced upon their qualities, he should have known how to distinguish between a pleonasm and a tautology; the first of which, indeed, is often an elegance; the latter, always a blemish in expression: and in the number of the latter, is this elegant repetition of
the Doctor's own making. Where a repetition of the same thing is given in different words, it is called a pleonasm; when in the same words (as in the Doctor's translation of the text in question) it is a tautology, which, being without reason, has neither grace nor elegance. Nay the very pretence it has to common sense arises from our being able to understand the equivocal phrase, to see, in my meaning, of, that he might sce. Confine it to the Doctor's, of -- Abrahum rejoiced when he had seen my day; and he saw it and was glad, and the absurdity becomes apparent. For the latter part of the sentence beginning with the conjunction completive xai, it implies a further predication. Yet in his translation there is
there is none; though he makes an effort towards it, in dropping the sense of xai in the sound of BOTH.
P: 32. [P]. Dr. Stebbing tells me, “there is not one
word, in the history of the Old Testament, to justify “ this threefold distinction:" and that I myself CONFESS as much. It is true, I confess that what is not in the Old Testament is not to be found there. And had he been as modest, he would have been content to find a future state in the New Testament only.—But where is it, I would ask, that “ I confess there is not one word,
in the history of the Old Testament, to justify this “ " three-fold distinction?” I was so far from any such thought, that I gave a large epitome * of Abraham's whole history, to shew that it justified this three-fold distinction, in every part of it. His manner of proving my confession will clcarly detect the fraud and falsehood of his charge. For, instead of doing it from my own words, he would argue me into it, from his own infe
“ You confess it (says he); . For you say, that “ Moses's history begins with the second period, and " that the first was wisely omitted by the historian." Let us apply this rcasoning to a parallel case. * From pp. 10 to 14, of this volume.
I will sup