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an Arabian. 'Dr. Wallis conceives they Vitruvius also makes the same remark; were generally used in England about the he says, “ Ex manibus denarius digitorum year 1130.
numerus." In the indexes of some old French books We have refined, however, upon the conthese figures are called Arabic ciphers, to venience which nature has furnished us distinguish them from Roman numerals. with to assist us in our calculations; for
we not only use our fingers, but likewise
various figures, which we place in different NUMBER X, 10.
situations, and combine in certain ways, to
express our ideas. It is observed by Huet as a remarkable circumstance, that for calculation and nu. merical increase the number 10 is always used, and that decimal progression is pre
Many unlettered nations, as the inhabitferred to every other. The cause of this
ants of Guinea, Madagascar, and of the preference arises from the number of our interior parts of America, know not how
to count farther than ten. fingers, upon which men accustom them
The Brasilians, selves to reckon from their infancy. First, and several others, cannot reckon beyond they count the units on their fingers, and five; they multiply that number to express when the units exceed that number, they their
fingers and toes
. The natives of Peru
a greater, and in their calculations they use have recourse to another ten. - If the number of tens increase, they still reckon on
use decimal progression; they count from their fingers; and if they surpass that num
one to ten; by tens to a hundred ; and by ber, they then commence a different species hundreds to a thousand. Plutarch says, of calculation by the same agents; as thus
that decimal progression was not only used -reckoning each finger for tens, then for among the Grecians, but also by every unhundreds, thousands, &e.
civilized nation. From this mode of reckoning by the fingers then, we have been led to prefer the number ten, though it is not so convenient and useful a number as twelve. Ten can only be divided by two and five, but twelve
Omniana. can be divided by two, three, four, and six.
The Roman numbers are adduced in proof of the origin of reckoning by the
FOX, THE QUAKER, number ten, viz. The units are marked by the letter I,
This individual, many years deceased, which represent a finger.
was a most remarkable man in his circle; The number five is marked by the letter a great natural genius, which employed V, which represents the first and last finger
trivial or not generally interestof a hand.
ing matters. He deserved to have been Ten, by an X, which is two V's joined known better than he was. The last years at their points, and which two V's represent of his life he resided at Bristol. He was a the two hands.
great Persian scholar, and published some Five tens are marked by an L; that is translations of the poets of that nation, half the letter E, which is the same as C, which were well worthy perusal. He was the mark for a hundred.
self-taught, and had patience and perseverFive hundred is marked by a D, half of ance for any thing. He was somewhat the letter o, which is the same as M, the eccentric, but had the quickest reasoning mark for a thousand.
power, and consequently the greatest cool. According to this, the calculation of the ness, of any man of his day, who was able Roman numbers was from five to five, that
to reason. His house took fire in the is, from one hand to the other. Ovid makes night; it was situated near the sea; it was mention of this mode, as also of the num: uninsured, and the flames spread so rapidly ber ten :
nothing could be saved. He saw the con
sequences instantly, made up his mind to “ Hic numeris magno tunc in honore fuit.
them as rapidly, and ascending a hill at Seu' quia tot digiti per quos numerare solemnus, some distance in the rear of his dwelling, Seu quia bis quino femina mense parit.
watched the picture and the reflection of Seu quod ad usque decem numero crescente venitur: the flames on the sea, admiring its beauties, Principium spatiis sumitur inde novis.”
as if it were a holiday bonfire.
within eight or ten days afterwards, and
the curate was paid his fees in his own The first diving-bell we read of was note of hand. nothing but a very large kettle, suspended by ropes, with the mouth downwards, and planks to sit on fixed in the middle of its concavity. Two Greeks at Toledo, in 1588,
THE TANNER. made an experiment with it before the emperor Charles V. They descended in it,
AN EPIGRAM. with a lighted candle, to a considerable
A Bermondsey tanner would often engage, depth. In 1683, William Phipps, the son
In a long tête-à-tête with his dame, of a blacksmith, formed a project for un
While trotting to town in the Kennington stage, loading a rich Spanish ship sunk on the
About giving their villa a name. coast of Hispaniola. Charles II. gave him a ship with every thing necessary for his
A neighbour, thus hearing the skin-dresser talk, undertaking; but being unsuccessful, he
Stole out, half an hour after dark, returned in great poverty. He then en
Pick'd up in the roadway a fragment of chalk, deavoured to procure another vessel, but
And wrote on the palings—“ Hide Park!"* failing, he got a subscription, to which the duke of Albemarle contributed.. In 1687, Phipps set sail in a ship of two hundred tons, having previously engaged to divide
FRIENDSHIP ON THE NAIL."} the profits according to the twenty shares of which the subscription consisted. At
When Marigny contracted a friendship first all his labours proved fruitless; but at
with Ménage, he told him he was last
, when he seemed almost to despair, he his nail.” It was a method he had of was fortunate enough to bring up so much speaking of all his friends; he also used it treasure, that he returned to England with
in his letters; one which he wrote to Methe value of 200,000l. sterling.
Of this nage begins thus: “Oh! illustrious of my sum - he got about 20,0001., and the duke
nail.” 90,0001. Phipps was knighted by the king,
When Marigny said, “ you are upon my and laid the foundation of the fortunes of nail,” he meant two things one, that the the present noble house of Mulgrave. person was always present, nothing being Since that time diving.bells have been
more easy than to look at his nail; the employed. On occasion of the breaking
that good and real friends were in of the water of the Thames during the
so scarce, that even he who had the most, progress of the tunnel under the Thames, might write their names on his nail. Mr. Brunel, frequently descended in one to the bed of the river.
TO THE CHANCE CUSTOMERS -“The ruling passion strong in death." In.“ Arliquiniana” avarice, and love of gaming, are exemplified by the following COMPANY OF FLYING STATIONERS. anecdote :
A French woman, who resided on her Formerly there was a numerous class estate in the country, falling ill, sent to the who believed every thing they saw in print, village curate, and offered to play with him. It is just possible that a few of these perThe curate being used to gaming, gladly entertained the proposal, and they played
suadable persons may survive;
I therefore together till he lost all his money. She venture to remark, that my name printed then offered to play with him for the ex
on the squibs now crying about the streets penses of her funeral, in case she should is a forgery. die. They played, and the curate losing
W. HONE. these also, she obliged him to give her his note of hand for so much money lent, as
June 8, 1827. her funeral expenses would amount to. She delivered the note to her son, and died;
* New Monthly Magazine.
The parish of Beckenham lends its is an enticing field-path to Beckenham, but
to the hundred, which is in the occasional sights of noble trees kept us lath of Sutton-at-Hone. It is ten miles along the high road, till the ring of the from London, two miles north from Brom- blacksmith's hammer signalled that we were ley, and, according to the last census, con close upon the village. We wound through tains 196 houses and 1180 inhabitants. it at a slow pace, vainly longing for someThe living is a rectory valued in the king's thing to realize the expectations raised by books at 161. 18s. 9d. The church is dedi- the prospect of it on our way. cated to St. George.
Beckenham consists of two or three old Beyond - Chaffinch's River" there farm-like looking houses, rudely encroached Vol. 1.-25.
upon by a number of irregularly built search of the church-keys at the parish-clerk's, dwellings, and a couple of inns; one of from whence I was directed back again, 10 them of so much apparent consequence, as
“the woman who has the care of the church," to dignify the place. We soon came to an and lives in the furthest of three neat edifice which, by its publicity, startles the almshouses, built at the church-yard side, feelings of the passenger in this, as in by the private benefaction of Anthony almost every other parish, and has perhaps Rawlings, in 1694. She gladly accomgreater tendency to harden than reform the panied us, with the keys clinking, through rustic offender—the “cage,” with its acces- the mournful yew-tree grove, and threw sory, the “pound.” An angular turn in open the great south doors of the church. the road, from these lodgings for men and It is an old edifice-despoiled of its ancient cattle when they go astray, afforded us a font-deprived, by former beautifyings, of sudden and delightful view of
carvings and tombs that in these times
would have been remarkable. It has rem“ The decent church that tops the neighb'ring hill."
nants of brasses over the burial places of On the right, an old, broad, high wall, deceased rectors and gentry, from whence flanked with thick buttresses, and belted dates have been wantonly erased, and with magnificent trees, climbs the steep, to monuments of more modern personages, enclose the domain of I know not whom ; which a few years may equally deprave. on the opposite side, the branches, from a There are numerous memorials of the plantation, arch beyond the footpath. At late possessors of Langley, a predominant ihe summit of the ascent is the village estate in Beckenham. One in particular church with its whitened spire, crowning to sir Humphry Style, records that he was of and pinnacl'ing this pleasant grove, point- great fame, in his day and generation, in ing from amidst the graves-like man's last Beckenham : he was "Owner of Langley in only hope towards heaven.
this parish, Knight and Baronet of England This village spire is degradingly noticed
and Ireland, a gentleman of the privy in " An accurate Description of Bromley chamber in ordinary to James I, one of and Five Miles round, by Thomas Wilson, the cupbearers in ordinary to King Charles, 1797.” He says, “ An extraordinary cir- and by them boath intrusted with the cumstance happened here near Christmas, weighty affairs of this countye: Hee was 1791 ; the steeple of this church was de justice of peace and quorum, Deputy lieftestroyed by lightning, but a new one was nant, and alsoe (an hono'r not formerly put up in 1796, made of copper, in the
conferred upon any) made Coronell of all form of an extinguisher.". The old spire, the trayned band horse thereof." built of shingles, was fired on the morning The possession of Langley may be traced, of the 23d of December, in the year seven- through the monuments, to its last herita teen hundred and ninety, in a dreadful able occupant, commemorated by an instorm. One of the effects of it in London I scription; “ Sacred to the Memory of perfectly remember :-the copper roofing Peter Burrell, Baron Gwydir, of Gwydir, of the new “ Stone Buildings" in Lincoln's Deputy Great Chamberlain of England, Inn was stripped off by the wind, and vio,
Born July 16, 1754; Died at Brighton, lently carried over the opposite range of June 29th, 1820, aged 66 years.” After high buildings, the Six Clerks' offices, into the death of this nobleman Langley was Chancery. Lane, where I saw the immense sold. The poor of Beckenham speak his sheet of metal lying in the carriage way, praise, and lament that his charities died exactly as it fell, rolled up, with as much with him. The alienation of the estate deneatness as if it had been executed by prived them of a benevolent protector, and machinery. As regards the present spire no one has arisen to succeed him in the of Beckenham church, its “form," in rela- character of a kind-hearted benefactor. tion to its place, is the most appropriate A tablet in this church, to “Harriet, wife that could have been devised-a picturesque of (the present) J. G. Lambton, Esq. of object, that marks the situation of the vil. Lambton Hall, Durham,” relates that she lage in the forest landscape many miles died“ in her twenty-fifth year." round, and indescribably graces the nearer Within the church, fixed against the view,
northern corner of the west end, is a plate We soon came up to the corpse-gate of of copper, bearing an inscription to this the church-yard, and I left W, sketching it,* import :-Mary Wragg, of St. John's, Westwhilst I retraced my steps into the village in minster, bequeathed 15l. per annum for
ever to the curate of Beckenhain, in trust Mr. W's engraving of bis sketch is op p. 715. for the following uses ; viz. a guinea to
himself for his trouble in taking care that open slit left between the back and the top her family vault should be kept in good enclosure of the lower half; which part, thus repair; a guinea to be expended in a dinner shut up, forms a box, that conceals from for himself, and the clerk, and parish offi- both eye and hand the money deposited. cers; 121. 10s. to defray the expenses of The contrivance might be advantageously such repairs; if in any year the vault adopted in making collections at the doors should not require repair, the money to be of churches generally. It is a complete laid out in eighteen pennyworth of good security against the possibility of money beef, eighteen pennyworth of good bread, being withdrawn instead of given ; which, five shillings worth of coals, and 4s. 6d. in from the practice of holding open plates, money, to be given to each of twenty of and the ingenuity of sharpers, has somethe poorest inhabitants of the parish; if times happened. repairs should be required,
In the middle of two family pews of this to be laid out in like manner and quantity, church, which are as commodious as sitting with 4s. 6d. 10 as many as it will extend parlours, there are two ancient reading to; and the remaining 8s. to be given to desks like large music stands, with flaps the clerk. In consequence of Mary Wragg's and locks for holding and securing the serbequest, her vault in the church-yard is vice books when they are not in use. These properly maintained, and distribution made pieces of furniture are either obsolete in of beef, bread, and money, ery 28th of churches, or peculiar to that of Beckenham; January. On this occasion there is usually at least I never saw desks of the like in a large attendance of spectators ; as many
any other church. as please go down into the vault, and the Not discovering any thing further to reparochial authorities of Beckenham have a mark within the edifice, except its peal of holiday, and “ keep wassel.”
five bells, we strolled among the tombs in There is carefully kept in this church a the church-yard, which offers no inscripsmall wooden hand-box, of remarkable tions worth notice. From its solemn yewshape, made in king William's time, for the tree grove we passed through the “Lichreceipt of contributions from the congrega, gate," already described. On our return tion when there are collections. As an to the road by which we had approached ecclesiastical utensil with which I was un- the church, and at a convenient spot, W. acquainted, W. took a drawing, and has sketched the view he so freely represents in made an engraving of it.
the engraving. The melodists of the groves were in full song. As the note of the parish-clerk rises in the psalm above the common voice of the congregation, so the loud, confident note of the blackbird exceeds the united sound of the woodland choir : one of these birds, on a near tree, whistled with all his might, as if conscious of our listening, and desirous of particular disa tinction.
Wishing to reach home by a different route than that we had come, we desired to be acquainted with the way we should go, and went again to the almshouses which are occupied by three poor widows, of whom our attendant to the church was one, She was alone in her humble habitation making tea, with the tokens of her officebearing, the church keys, on the table before her. In addition to the required information, we elicited that she was the widow of Benjamin Wood, the late parishclerk. His brother, a respectable Trades
man in London, had raised an excellent This collecting-box is still used. It is business, “ Wood's eating-house,” at the carried into the pews, and handed to the corner of Seething-lane, Tower-street, and occupants, who drop any thing or nothing, at his decease was enabled to provide comas they please, into the upper part. When fortably for his family. Wood, the parishmoney is received, it passes through an clerk, had served Beckenham in that capa.