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Branches and Associations, and “College Associations," and the reports of the latter are especially significant in this inquiry. They enumerate 170 Young Men's Christian Associations in as many colleges in the United States. These embrace 9250 members, out of 33,000 students in these colleges, and these are the working, as distinct from the professing, Christians. One thousand five hundred students in these colleges professed conversion during the past year. Dr. Ashbel Green said, in A. D. 1813, that there were only two or three students in Princeton College who professed to be religious men. When Dr. Dwight became president of Yale College, in A. D. 1795, only four or five students were members of the church. The reports of 1883 give: in Princeton, 270 professing Christians, who include the great majority of the higher scholars, out of a total of 578 students; and in Yale, 290, out of a total of 611; in Williams, 147, out of 248; and in Amherst, 233, out of 352. In many other colleges the proportions are still more favorable to the prospects of Christianity. It certainly appears as if our cultured” friends gave too much credit to the intelligent common sense of the mass of mankind.”

Third. The third point asserted without proof is, that morality is entirely independent of religious opinion, and will survive without impairment when all positive opinion on religious questions is abandoned. It is obvious that such a question cannot be debated in the limits afforded for this discussion. It will be sufficient if the following points are noted in rebuttal of the absolutely unsupported assertion of our respondent:

(1.) The contention, as determined by our respondent himself, relates to the independence of morals (not only its idea, but its practical realization in the mass of a civilized community) of all the postulates of natural as well as of revealed religion.

(2.) We on our side, instead of denying, affirm that man is essentially a moral being. That “the law written on his heart” and "the light of nature” render him a moral agent, capable of doing right in many relations and responsible in all known relations, irrespective of any supernatural revelation whatsoever.

(3.) The burden of proof rests upon our respondents, and they labor against the presumption created by the whole un. qualified mass of human experience in the past. Morality, as predicable of any community of mankind, never has been separated from religious dogmas and practices. The Buddhists of Siam, Burmah, and China have a low form of religion to which

the morality of those communities corresponds. The princes of heathen morals, Seneca, Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius, Plutarch (A. D. 50-125), all based their morality upon their theology. The latter states the sum of human experience, ancient and modern, when he says: “There has never been a state of atheists. You may travel over the world, and you may find cities without walls, without king, without mint, without theater or gymnasium, but you will never find a city without God, without prayer, without oracle, without sacrifice. Sooner may a city stand without foundations than a state without belief in the gods. This is the bond of all society, the pillar of all legislation.” We do not deny the existence, in this day, of exceptionably lovely characters who are skeptical - often most sadly so as to all religious truth, natural and revealed. We deny, however, that these prove that morality is independent of religion. Morality in them, as in all others, has its root in theology, and their cases are easily explainable on the scientific principles of heredity, education, and environment. The examples of prominent emancipated moral. ists, male and female, - as John Stuart Mill and George Eliot, etc.,- do not re-assure us. The experiments made by communities of atheists in the Reign of Terror and in the Commune in Paris, and the proclaimed principles of the “International Society” of Communists, who declare at once the abolition of God, of marriage, and of property, do not re-assure us. The “cultured” must give us proof, not assertion, for their contention that morality is independent of religion.

(4.) Morality is, as to its essence, authoritative. It is the categorical imperative. It is ultimate, incapable of analysis. There has been no success in the attempt to confound it with utility, nor in the more recent and more pretentious attempts to trace its genesis out of associated sensations or animal impulses. It is sovereign over all these and dominates them from above. It necessarily presupposes personality, moral intuitions, and rational and responsible spontaneity. It has existed, as an ultimate fact, just as we find it, throughout all stages of human history. Hence, it is as spiritual and transcendental as religion itself. The same paralysis of faith which tends to render ineffectual the abundant evidences of religion, natural and revealed, would necessarily tend equally to render obscure and ineffectual genuine moral distinctions and obligations.

(5.) Even natural religion, much more the facts and doctrines of the Christian revelation, beyond all controversy





North American Review.


mary, 257.

ALLEN, G. An American Wild Flower, 1 DICEY, A. V. Some Aspects of De296.

mocracy in England, 317. America, Early Man in, 338.

Distribution, Coöperative, 327. American Wild Flower, An, 296. Dr. Hammond's Estimate of Woman, ANDERSON, G. Science and Prayer, 495. 185.

Drainage, Sanitary, 57. Astronomical Collisions, 350.

Dynamité as a Factor in Civilization, BLAKE, L. D. Dr. Hammond's Esti. 1. mate of Woman, 495.

Early Man in America, 338. Board of Trade Morality, 372. England, Some Aspects of Democracy Bread, Making it Dear, 118.

in, 317. BROCKWAY, Z. R. Needed Reforms in Evils of the Sub-Treasury System,

Prison Management, 40. Brown, John, of Osawatomie, 435. Expenditures, Public, The Increase Caucus and the Primary, Facts about of, 19. the, 257.

Explosives, Modern, 459. Causes of Felicity, 536.

Facts about the Caucus and the PriChurch Attendance, 76. Class Distinctions in the United Felicity, Causes of, 536. States, 231.

Forces, Social, in the United States, Collisions, Astronomical, 350.

403. Conversations with a Solitary. Part FRANKLIN, W. B. National Defense, III. 469.

594. CONWAY, M. D. The St. Patrick Myth, Freethinking, The Limitations of, 358.

287. COOLEY, T. M. State Regulation of French Revolution, Histories of the, Corporate Profits, 205.

388. Coöperative Distribution, 327. FROTHINGHAM, O. B. Democracy and Crude Methods in Legislation, 158. | Moral Progress, 38. Cruelty to Children, 68.

George, Henry. His Social FallaDAWKINS, W. B Early Man in Amer- cies, 147. ica, 338.

GEORGE, H. Overproduction, 584. Day of Judgment, The, 565.

GERRY, E. T. Cruelty to Children, 68. Defense, National, 594.

Gold and Silver as Standards of Válue, Democracy and Moral Progress, 28. i 307. Democracy in England, Some Aspects Government, The, and the Telegraph, of, 317.

422. DENSLOW, V. B. Board of Trade Government Control of the TeleMorality, 372.

graph, 521.

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“NON-CHURCH GOER.” Church AtHammond, Dr., his Estimate of tendance, 76. Woman, 495.

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Freethinking, 287. HODGE, A. A. Morality and Religion, Politics, Woman in, 137. 614.

Prayer, Science and, 185. HOLMAN, W. S. The Increase of Prison Management, Needed Reforms Public Expenditures, 19.

in, 40. Homes, The Unsanitary, of the Rich, Progress, Moral, Democracy and, 28. 172.

Public Expenditures, The Increase HUBBARD, G. G. Government Con of, 19. trol of the Telegraph, 521.

Public Service, Suggestions in ReImagination, Science and the, 49. gard to the, 488. Increase, The, of Public Expendi- PULLMAN, J. H. Church Attendance, tures, 19.

85. Instruction, Moral, in the Public Railroad and Public Time, 605. Schools, 99.

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Reforms, Needed, in Prison ManageKIDDER, F. A. Morality and Religion, ment, 40. 610.

Regulation, State, of Corporate ProfLast Days, The, of the Rebellion, 8. its, 205. LAUGHLIN, J. L. Evils of the Sub- Religion and Morality, 610. Treasury System, 552.

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92. LLOYD, H. D. Making Bread Dear, St. Patrick Myth, The, 358. 118.

Sanitary Drainage, 57. LOZIER, C. S. Dr. Hammond's Esti Schools, Moral Instruction in the Pubmate of Woman, 507.

lic, 99. Making Bread Dear, 118.

Science and the Imagination, 49. MALLOCK, W. H. Conversations with Science and Prayer, 185. a Solitary. Part III., 469.

SEELYE, J. H. Dynamite as a Factor Man, Early, in America, 338.

in Civilization, 1. Modern Explosives, 459.

SHERIDAN, P. H. The Last Days of MORAIS, N. Dr. Hammond's Esti. the Rebellion, 8. mate of Woman, 501.

Shooting at Sight, 247. Moral Instruction in the Public Silver, Gold and, as Standards of Schools, 99.

Value, 307. Moral Progress, Democracy and, 28. Social Fallacies, Henry George's, Morality and Religion, 610.


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