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Self-love, why made the Measure of our

That the State we find ourselves in is


very pr per for a state of Discipline Summary of our Duty to our Fillow-


in Virtue



Various Instructions for this purpose

Of Negative Goodness

presented to us by Nature, by our

Of Justice and Injustice, with respect
own Bodies and Minds, by the Consti-

to our Neighbour's Property-10 bis
tution and Course of the World, and

Reputation-to his Person-and to


above all, by Revelation


his Soul

The whole species forined naturally ca-

of social Duties, and first, of the Love

pable of future Happiness


of our Country


Difficulties in the Divine Economy of

Reciprocal Duties of Parents and Chil.

the moral World attempted to be

dren-of Spiritual Pastors and their

clared up


Flocks-of Teachers and Scholars-of

Difficulties to be expected, and even to

Masters and Servants-ot Husbands

be looked upon as a Beauty, in a

and Wives--of collateral Relations

Scheme su august and extensive 20

--of Friends of the Rich and poor 78

Duty of the Wise and learned, and all


who are possessed of uncommon

That our Species, and all Rational A.

Talents and Advantages


order to their performing

Duty to Benefactors and Enemies ib.
their Part properly, and contributing
to Universal Perfection and Happi-

Divine Intention in engaging us in

such a Variety of Connexions ib.
ness, must risolve tu act agreably to

Selfiexamination on the foregoing Heads

the thre fuld Obligation which they recommended


are under, to wit, with regard to

Themselves, their Feilow-creatures,


and their Creator


of our Obligations with respect to our

Cur Duty, with respect to Ourselves,

Creator; and first, of impressing our

consists in the proper Care of the

Miuds with a rational and practical

Belief of his Existence


two Parts of our Nature, the men.
tal* and the bodily


Oi bis Right to our Obedience and Ado-
of the Passions or Motions of the Mind


Previous Directions necessary towards

Useful Moral Reflections on the Di.

the due Regulation of the Passions 24

vine Attributes


Absurdity of Pride, and Advantages of

On the Omnipresence of God--his


Eternity-his Power-his Wisdom--
Necessity of Self-knowledge, and of Self-

alid bis Goodness



of the Duty of Prayer, and Objections

General Rule for the Conduet of the





Of Public Worship

of the Passion of Love, or Desire, its

Of Fanily Relizion



proper Objects, and due Regulation ib. Of Praising God

Or Seli love

34 Amazing Stupidity of Numbers of Man-

Of Ambition, or Desire of Praise 35 kind, who altogether neglect their

Of Anger


Creator, and all the Duty they owe

Of the Passions of Envy, Malice, and






of Sympathy

40 One Hundred and Sixty Miscellaneous

Of Fear

ib. Thoughts and Directions, chiefly Mo-

Of Grief

41 ral


of the Love of Life



O: the Love of Riches


of the Appetites of Hunger and Thirst,


the Us and Abase of thein

44 That supposing it possible, or probable,
or the mutual Desires of the Sexes 48

that a Revelation may have been
of the Love of Sleep and Indulgence- given by God, it is a Duty of Natural
of Diversions—and of Finery in Dress 51

Religion to inquire with Candour,

into its Pretensions, and to give it a
of oor Obligations with respect to our

proper Recaption


Fellow creatures, the Foundation of That there is nothing absurd, or incre.

all which Duties is Benevolence 56 dible, in supposing that a Revelation

may have been given


Improvement of the Understanding of the Guilt of' wilfully opposing or

treded of in the foregoing Book.


neglecting a Revelation from God



of the Wisdom of attending to Reve- vine Dispensation to that People


133 and the Christian Scheme


A direct Revealed law highly proper Reflections on the wbole


and fit for such Beings as Mankind 134


Revelation given as a part of our Trial

Consideration on some Particulars in

and Discipline



The World probably never wholly with

Revealed Religion

The Doctrine of Providence, though a

out a Revelation


Previous Requisites for a proper In-

Point of Natural Religion, more pro-

perly considered under Revelation;

quiry into Revelation


as receving from thence its chief




Previous Objections against a Revela- Arguments for its Truth, first, from

tion in general, and that of Scripture Reason, as from the Necessity of a

in particular, considered. And first,

continued Divine Interposition, and

of the Need Mankind stood in of ex:

Agency, in the Natural World 180

press Information from Heaven, in Other Arguments and Presumptions

from Reason


answer to the Objection of the Suf-

ficiency of Human Reason for all Best established by Revelation


Moral Purposes

137 The Difficulties relating to the Effects

The Hottentots, and other barbarous Na. of the Fall, upon the Species in ge.

tions, the only tair Examples of the neral, considered


Reach of mere Human Reason; most

of the general D«luge


Parts of the civilized World bave

of the Fallen Angels


been partly illuminated by Revela- of the Incarnation and Humiliation of



tion, and therefore not altogether in a
State of Nature

138 of the Efficacy of his Death for the Rese

or the State of the Antediluvian and toration of Mankind


succreding Times, and Countries, in

of the Resurrection of the Body ib.

which Revelation was but little

of the future general Judgment 197




of the Incapacity of mere Human Rea. Considerations on the credibility of

son, in religions Matters, as it ap- Scripture


pears in the Mahometan and Popish Requisites for thoroughly examining

141 the various kinds of Evidence for
Revelation not intended to supersede, Revelation

but improve Reason

142 Fallacious Proceedings of the Opposers

Objection, of the Abuse of Revelation, of Revealed Religion

by weak or designing Men, consider: Testimonies of Heathen Writers, which


143 countenance Scripture


of its being unworthy of the Divine Simplicity of the Narration, an Argu.

Wisdom to have Recourse to an ex. ment for the Truth of the Accounts

traordinary Interposition

144 given in Holy Scripture


Revelation analogous to the Constitu. or the Seripture Miracles


tion and Course of the World 145 of the Difficulties of the Dæmoniacs 213

Absurdity of opposing Revelation on of Prophecy


account of its not suiting our pre-con- A view of some of the most unquestion-

ceived Notions

146 abl. Predictions of Holy Scripture 220

Difficulties to be expected in a Reve- No satisfactory Account to br given of

lation from God

148 the Prevalence, and Establisbment

Difficulties no objection; though direct of Christianity, but its being really a

absurdities and Contradictions are 150 Divine Institution


That Revelation might be expected That Christ must have either been truly

to suit our Notions in some particu. the Son of God and Saviour of the

lars, and in others to differ froin them 151 World, or an Impostor, or Madman 234

of the Scripture-Style

153 That he could not be either of the lat-

ter, shown



That' the Christian Religion is not a

A Compendious View of the Scheme pious Frau , shown


of Divine Revelation

155 Presumption in Favour of Christianity
Thoughts on the Extent of the Pros.

from the Conduct of those who lived
peet opened hy Revelation

156 at the Time of its first Apprarance-

The Accounts given by it, plainly supe- of the Apostles, and particularly of

rior to Humon Sagacity

157 St. Paul

of the Creation-the Fall, and Death, The Character and Conduct, or Christ


its Consequence-of the first Prophe himsell considered more particularly,

cy of a future Restoration of 'Man- as a Presumption in Favour of his

kind-of the general Deluge-the Religion

Noachic Dispensation-the Tower of


Babel-the Destruction of the Cities Self-examination recommended to the

of the plain-the call of Abraham- Reader, on the chief Points in which

the miraculous History of his Poste- the Dignity of Haman Nature con-

rity, the Israelites and Jewe-the Di. sists.







SECTION V. The present very proper for a state of Discipline. Objections answered.

Were we to imagine a plan of a state of discipline, for improving a species of beings, such as ours, for high stations, and extensive usefulness, in future states; how could we suppose it contrived in any manner that should be materially, different from the state we find ourselves in ? What scheme could be imagined, likely to answer the purposes

of planting in the mind of the creature the necessary habit of obedience to the Supreme Being; of giving it an inviolable attachment to virtue, and horror at irregularity; and of teaching it to study a rational and voluntary concurrence with the general scheme of the Governor of the Universe ; what method, I say, can we conceive of for these noble purposes, that should not take in, among others, the following particulars, viz. That the species should be furnished with sufficient capacity, and advantages of all kinds, for distinguishing between right and wrong: that the ingenuity of their dispositions, and the strength of their virtue, should have full exercise, in order both to its trial, and its improvement: that they should have rewards and punishments set before them, as the most powerful motives to obedience : and that, upon the whole, they should have it fairly in their power to ata tain the end of their being put in a state of discipline ?

If we consider the present as a state of discipline, all is ordered as should be. We enter into life with minds wholly unfurnished with ideas, attachments, or biasses of any.



pursue what

kind. After a little time, we find certain instincts begin to act pretty strongly within us, which are necessary to move us to avoid what might be hurtful, and is useful to the support of the animal frame'; and these instincts are appointed to anticipate reason, which does not at first exert itself; and bring us that by mechanical means, which we are not capable of being worked to by rational considerations. Nature has ordered that our parents shall be so engaged to us by irresistible affection, as to be willing to undertake the office of caring for us in our helpless years; of opening and cultivating our reason, as soon as it begins to appear; and of forming us by habit, by precept, and example, to virtue and regularity. As we advance in life, our faculties, by habitually exerting them upon various objects, come to enlarge themselves so as to take in a wider compass. We become then capable of reasoning upon actions, and their consequences, and accordingly, do, in general, reason justly enough about matters of right and wrong, where passion does not blind and mislead us. When we come into the vigorous and flourishing time of life, excited by our passions and appetites, without which, with the slow degree of reason we then enjoy, we should be but half animated, we proceed to enter into various scenes of action. It is true, that innumerable irregularities and follies are the consequence. But without passions and appetites, we could not be the compounded creatures we are, nor consequently fill our proper station between the angelic and animal ranks. Here then is the proper opportunity for exercising our virtue; for habituating us to keep continually on our guard against innumerable assaults; for watching over ourselves, that we may not be surprized, and fall before temptation; or if we fall, that by suffering from our errors, we may be moved to greater diligence and attention to our duty, to a stronger attachment to virtue, and a more fixed hatred to the crimes which have brought such sufferings upon us. And though the necessary propensions of our nature do indeed eventually lead us, through our own folly, into irregularity and vice, it must yet be owned at the same time, that by the wise and kind constitution of nature, we have innumerable natural directions, and ad

vantages, towards restraining and bringing them under subjection, and innumerable ill consequences are made to follow naturally upon our giving a loose to them. Which ought in all reason to lead us to reflect, that the government of our passions and appetites is a part of our wisdom and our duty.

Pleasure and pain, health and disease, success, and misfortune, reward and punishment, often at a very great distance of time after the action, are made the natural, or at least frequent consequences of our general behaviour here; to suggest to us the reasonableness of concluding that an extensive uniformity prevails through the whole of the Divine moral government, and that what we see here in shadow, will in the future state appear in substance and perfection, and that it not only will, but ought to be so, and cannot be otherwise.

If we consider the opposite natural tendencies and effects of virtue and vice, in the present state, we shall from thence see reason to conclude, that the former is pleasing to the Governor of the world, and the latter the contrary, The natural effects of temperance are health, length of days, and a more delicate enjoyment of the innocent pleasures of life. The natural effects of gluttony, drunkenness, and lewdness, are disease and pain, disgust and disappointment, and untimely death. The natural effects of universal benevolence, justice and charity, are the love of mankind, success in life, and peace in one's own mind. The consequences to be expected from ill-will, injustice, and selfishness, are the contempt and hatred of mankind, and punishment by the laws of nations. When we say such an effect follows naturally from such a cause, we mean, that it does so by the Divine appointment. For what is natural, is only so, because the rectitude requires it to be so.

Now, if our bodily frame is so formed that its well being consists in temperance, and that an immoderate indulgence of appetite tends to disorder and unhinge it; if the make of the human mind, and our social state in life, are such, that the social virtues tend to produce universal bappiness, and all this by the constitution and course of nature, of which God himself is the author; if these things be so, who is so blind as not to see, in all this, a moral ge

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