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from some one or other of the Romance languages — I should say either French or Spanish. Portuguese only admits of final m, never n, whereas of Spanish exactly the reverse holds good. While on the subject I may add that there are numerous other geographical names in English which, having come to us through a third language, are more corrupt than they need have been had we taken them direct from their original sources. One of the most striking instances is that of the capital of Zulu land, Ekowe, unique so far as its k is pronounced like the ch in church, the reason being that it was first written down by the Norwegian missionaries; of late there has sprung up a more rational orthography, Etsnowe, and even (less correctly) Esnowe. In another part of Africa, the Gold Coast, the Dutch have left traces of their former presence in such old spellings as Sianti for Asnantee (still recorded in all our gazetteers) and Juffer as an alternative for the town we now call Tufel.
James Platt, Jun.
The Roman "posca" (9th S. i. 369).— Although there is a little overlapping in the meanings of posca and acetum, there is no doubt that posca was a wine. The etymology of the word, poto and e.ica=food, shows that. There is no feeding quality about acetum, or vinegar in the ordinary sense. Pesca is another form of the word. See Cruden's 'Concordance,' s.v.; also 'The Bible Handbook,' by Dr. Angus, 18.r>5, p. 244, where he says, "A common acid wine diluted in this way [with water] was the common drink of labourers and [Roman] soldiers."
"Posca, vinegar mixed with water, was the common drink of the lower ordei-s among the Romans, as of soldiers when on service" (Smith's 'Dictionary of Antiquities'). See authorities referred to; also Smith's 'LatinEnglish Dictionary.' Robert Walters.
Rich has the following, s.v. :—
"An ordinary drink amongst the lower classes of the Roman people, slaves, and soldiers on service; consisting of water and sour wine or vinegar, with eggs beat up in it. Plaut., 'Mil.,' iii. 2, 23: Suet., 'Vit.,' 12; impart., 'Hadr.,' 10."
Adam says, "The ordinary drink of soldiers, as of slaves, was water mixed with vinegar, called posca," and refers to Plautus, as above, but adds this note :—
"' It would appear that the name was sometimes applied to other sorts of liquor; for we are told by Suetonius that Asiaticus, the favourite frecdman of Vitellius, after he first quitted tho emperor, had become a vender [sic] of posca at Puteoli; and it can
hardly be supposed that the mere mixing of vinegs: and water could by itself have formed a distio- branch of trade' (Henderson, p. 78)."—' K i. Antiquities,' p. 343.
C. C. B.
St. Kevin And The Goose (9th S. L 467).— If Glendalough will forward me his address I shall be glad to send him the words of the song he asks for. A. R. Maiden.
The Close, Salisbury.
Authors Of Quotations Wanted S. i. 129).—
Heathcote himself and such large-acred men.
B. M. Dl
(9th S. i. 129, 198.) Better to leave undone than by our deed. Acquire too high a fame when him we serve 's anr. "Him," which appears in all the modern editions, is certainly ungrammatical, and can hardly be explained by Dr. Abbott's ingenious theory of case absorption. I presume this reading comes from th* folios. In Theobald's edition it is altered to "he." This is probably one of Pope's corrections. The suk stitution of the nominative for the accusative case in " Damn'd be Aim that first cries—Hold! enough'." ('Macbeth,' V.) is another. Was not this alteration also justifiable? In this sentence the relative is also in the nominative case, and the construction, therefore, cannot be explained by Dr. Abbott's theory. The second line, as your correspondent observes, is certainly hypermetrical aa compared with the first. But why take this as the standard! In the whole scene there is only a small minority of lines with ten feet. Are we to consider the rest hyper- or hypo-metrical? Those with twelve feet distinctly predominate. J. Foster Palmxk. (9th S. i. 289, 378.) Suspirat, gemit, incutitque dentes: Sudat frigidus intuens quod odit. In an anthology entitled 'Illustrium Poetarum Flores per Octavianum Mirandulam colleeti' A • werp> 1588) these verses form part of an "invidi.* descriptio ' attributed to Virgil. This means that they are of unknown authorship, for it is certain that Virgil did not write the poem. Twenty-five verses are printed in the above-named 'Flores. which I will copy in full for your correspondent if he wishes. F. Adams.
NOTES ON BOOKS, ftc. The Church Towers of Somersetshire. Etched bv E. Piper, R.P.E. With Introduction and Descriptive Articles by John Llovd WTarden Page. Parts L, IL, III. (Bristol, Frost k Reed.) We have received from the enterprising Bristol publishers, Messrs. Frost & Reed, the first three numbers of a fine-art work, the interest an-.i value of which will extend far beyond thai Somersetshire public to which it makes most direct appeal. It will consist of a series of fifty-one etchings, signed artist's proofs, by Mr. E Piper, of the Royal Society of Painter-Etchers, representing the most famous of the Somersetshire church towers, drawn and etched especially for the work, with descriptive articles upon each edifice by Mr. Warden Page, a well-known and able Somersetshire author and archaeologist. The work is limited to one hundred and seventy-five copies, issued to subscribers only, in twenty-five parts, each part containing two etchings, the plates to be destroyed on the completion of the work. To add to the value of the production, the late Prof. Freeman's papers on "The Perpendicular Architecture as exhibited in the Churches of Somersetshire,' delivered before the Somersetshire Archaeological Society in Bath, in 1851-2, will, by permission, be reprinted in the work. In early ecclesiastical edifices Somersetshire is deficient. In spite of the early foundation of Glastonbury and its traditional associations, Somersetshire can claim no British and no Saxon ecclesiastical edifices. A few ribs and arches, a fragment of stone let into a porch and containing an alleged Saxon carving, are all to which the antiquary can point. In Norman work, even, it is not specially rich. The Norman work in the beautiful so-called Chapel of St. Joseph is of late execution, and partakes, as Mr. Warden Page says, "of the Transitional character." Christen Church, near Axbridge, has fine Norman arches in the chancel and porch. St. Andrew's Church, Clevedon, with its memorials of the Hallams, is an interesting building. The church of St. George, Dunster, has Roman, and even, it is said, Early English remains; and the restored church of St. Catherine, Montacute, has one or more Roman arches. Other churches may be mentioned. To make amends for shortcomings in this respect, Somersetshire is very rich in churches of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, and it can point, in the Cathedral of Wells, to perhaps the most dreamlike and inspired edifice among all our lovely English cathedrals, a building which, with the unequalled beauty and repose of its surroundings, rests in the memory with a supremacy all but unchallenged. With an admirably executed etching of this cathedral the work opens. It is when we come to the Perpendicular style that we find the architectural glory of Somersetshire. To the noble towers—not seldom in Somersetshire so superior to the rest of the church as almost to convey a sense of want of proportion—the work is specially devoted. That the towers in the northern portion of the county are better than those in the southern, and that the fine towers of St. Mary Magdalene and St. James's, Taunton, may not in general effect compare with those of churches about the skirts of the Mendips, is ascribed to the higher quality of the stone in the north. To the general quality of the Somersetshire stone, the most beautiful that can be found in the country, is attributed the general superiority of tho church towers. To the exquisite natural setting of many of them a portion of their influence over the spectator is justly ascribed. In the first part are also given etchings of St. John the Baptist, Axbridge, and St. James's, Winscombe, the tower of the former with its pierced parapet, as seen over the surrounding buildings, constitutingaverybeautifulobject. Winscombe tower, which is but three miles from that of Axbridge, situated like it among the Mendips, bears a strong resemblance to its neighbour. It is visible in the etching in all its fine proportions, being ninetyfire feet in height. By the side of the towers before
mentioned that of Long Ashton looks almost squat. It is seen from the churchyard. Next in order conies St. Luke's, Brislington, near Bristol, which again rises to a height of ninety feet and is particularly graceful and symmetrical. It is noteworthy for its canopied niches sheltering dilapidated figures. The tower of St. Mary the Virgin, Portbury, a church the interior of which is more remarkable than the exterior, possessing arcades with Norman bases, is of very mixed architecture, and has iu recent times been more than once restored. Last, so far as the work has at present gone, comes the church of SS. Quiricus and Julietta, Tickenham, with its figures, "placed on canopies in each face, high up iu tho very battlements,' telling the story of the martyrs to whom the edifice is dedicated. Most styles of architecture, from the Roman to the Perpendicular, are here illustrated. The chancel has a Norman arch plain to rudeness, while the arch to the porch is Early English. The work is in all respects an Edition de luxe, and will be dear to all interested in our church architecture. Its production reflects great credit upon the publishers, and the book will, on its completion, occupy a conspicuous place among illustrations of ecclesiastical archaeology.
The Lives of the Saints. By the Rev. S. BaringGould, M.A. Vols. XIII. and XIV. (Nimmo.) Mr. Nimmo's new and illustrated edition of the valuable 1 Lives of the Saints' of the Rev. S. BaringGould is rapidly approaching completion, and one more important instalment of two volumes will finish his task. To reap the full advantage of the work the student is compelled to wait for the last volume, which will contain a full index, and so greatly facilitate reference. The saints celebrated under November arc numerous—it may, indeed, be said all-inclusive, since the first day of the month is assigned to the festival of All Saints, and it may be permitted to say that an unedifying criminal, who escaped from a dungeon on that day, declared the prediction to be true which fixed his evasion on the day of his patron saint, since, if he had one, the saint in question must have been commemorated on this day. The following day is the commemoration of All Souls, a festival of which a grotesque mediaeval illustration is supplied from the Vienna Missal. A second design from the same source depicts the raising of the dead. St. Hubert, the patron of huntsmen, is shown, after Cahier, with the stag bearing between its horns the crucifix which was the means of effecting his conversion. A long life of St. Charles Borromeo deals, of course, to a great extent with farts instead of legends, as does, to a less extent, the life of St. Martin of Tours, to which no fewer than six illustrations are affixed, including an engraving of the saint dividing his cloak with the beggar, from the picture by Rubens in the possession of Her Majesty. St. Edmund, Archbishop of Canterbury, is shown in the act of prayer in a design by A. Welby Pugin. The frontispiece to vol. xiv. consists of a procession of saints, from a fresco. A second similar procession, from a kindred piece, is given subsequently. St. Hugh of Lincoln is after Cahier. Among the illustrations to St. Elizabeth of Hungary is one after the famous painting by the elder Hans Holbein. The careers of St. Cecilia and St. Catherine are fully illustrated, a design presenting the wholly imaginary martyrdom ot the latter. Mr. Baring-Gould speaks of the records of her acts as a "wonderful rigmarole." One of the longest and most import ant lives is that of St. Francis Xavier, S.J. This saint is commemorated in the Roman martyrology on 3 December, but is included in the present volume for the sake of convenience.
Weather ■ Lore. By Richard Inwards, F.R.A.S. (Stock.)
Short as has been the period since this comprehensive and carefully edited collection of proverbs, sayings, and rules concerning the weather saw the light, it has sufficed to bnng us three editions. Proof more convincing how useful and trustworthy the book has been found is not to be desired. Drawing attention previously to its merits (8"1 S. v. 179), we dwelt on the fact that the weather-lore of our ancestors, nonsensical and contradictory as much of it is, yields in few respects of sanity to the pseudoscientific guessing by which it is being replaced. It must be remembered, moreover, that the observations chronicled are drawn from very different latitudes, and that what is said, for instance, concerning weather in a given month in Spain may not necessarily hold true concerning Norway, or even England. Since its first appearance ' Weather-Lore' has been much enlarged, and in some respects modified. Slight blemishes we ourselves pointed out have been removed, and fresh information of importance has been added. Most im]K>rtant, perhaps, is the list of the average flowering times of well-known plants, contributed by Mr. Mawley, one time president of the Meteorological Society. This is said to be the result of many thousands of observations in Central England. Large as is the list thus obtained, it might with advantage be extended. Another addition is a useful bibliography of weather-lore, comprising books in Italian, 1' rench, German, and other languages. A frontispiece, with representations of cloud land, taken direct from nature by Col. H. M. Saunders, of Cheltenham, constitutes a noteworthy and an artistic feature. To our previous notice we have only to add that in its amended form the work is even more worthy of the support of the folk-lorist, the meteorologist, and the antiquary.
The Heart of Midlothian. By Sir Walter Scott.
With Introductory Essay and Notes by Andrew
Lang. (Nimmo.) Wk have here another volume, the sixth, of the large-type "Border Edition" of the Waverley Novels, with Mr. Lang's prelimiliary dissertation and his useful notes, and witli the ten illustrations of the earlier issue, by Sir John Millais, Mr. Wal Paget, and other artists. With what Mr. Lang says concerning the weakness and lack of reality of the conclusion we are in accord. Anxious to enforce an exemplary moral, Scott slays the father at the hands of the son, and is unwise in so doing. In proportion as we love the central interest do we dislike not only the closing scenes, but the passages in which Scott dwells on the married felicity of the Butlers. The praise that is bestowed on Madge Wildfire is merited, and the comparison betwixt Effle Deans and Hetty in 'Adam Bede' is capital.
In the Days of King James. By Sidney Herbert
Burchell. (Gay & Bird.) Mr. Burchkli, knows a good deal concerning literature and life in the epoch with which he deals, and has more command of language in Stuart times than many of those who employ antiquated phraseology. His invention, however, is not on a par with his
knowledge, and his narrations are thin and ineffective. "You had not riled me" is a very modern colloquialism to be employed, though it is, perhaps, just defensible: "roiled" would have been better. We trace few slii>s of importance.
The Spectator. With Introduction and Notes by
George A. Aitken. Vol. VII. (Nimmo.) One more volume will complete Mr. Nimmos admirably artistic edition of the Spectator. The seventh volume has a portrait of Henrv Grove and a charming vignette of York Gate. Mr. Aitken * notes remain, as heretofore, few and helpful, and the edition is all the student can desire.
The new catalogue of Messrs. A. Maurice 4 Co., of Bedford Street, Covent Garden, contains a remarkable assortment of French illustrated works in fine bindings.
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