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TO HIS GRACE

THE DUKE OF DEVONSHIRE.

MY LORD DUKE,

It is very difficult to write on the subject of the French Revolution without being accused of partiality. I endeavoured to avoid that imputation in my Journal; but a very near connection of yours told me, that, when she was abroad, those who are called Democrates, and had read the book, declared that, with other faults, it had an intolerable leaning towards aristocracy. Those, on the other hand, who are denominated Aristocrates, were of opinion, that its greatest fault was a strong bias to democracy

In the writer's mind, however, there is no more inclination to either than is to be found in the Constitution of Great Britain, as it was established by the efforts of your Grace's ancestor, in conjunction with those of other patriots, at the Revolution in the year 1688. . The present work has been executed in the same disposition, and will be exposed to the same censure.

At a period when prejudices operate with unusual acrimony; when, merely from viewing a particular object in different lights, two sets of men in this country reciprocally accuse each other of designs, of which, I am convinced,

neither are capable ; when that spirit of hatred which ali. enated the minds of men from their countrymen, and even relations, on account of a difference of religious opinions, about the middle of the sixteenth century, seems to revive on account of political ones at the end of the eighteenth; at such a time, the qualities of moderation, of candour, and benevolence, under the direction of a good understanding and scrupulous integrity, derive uncommon lustre from their uncommon rarity. This consideration induced me to address the following Work to your Grace. I remain, my Lord Duke, your most obedient and obliged humble servant,

J. MOORE. CLIFTORD STREET,

May 6, 1796.

CONTENTS

OF THE FOURTH VOLUME.

Chap. I. The Resources of France-Henry IV-Lewis XIV–The Love

of our Country-Loyalty-The Regent-Lewis XV.......................1

II. Lewis XVI—Diffusion of Knowledge--of Riches—The Bourgeoisie of

France The Ancient Noblesse — The Modern The Courtiers The

Queen-American War-Abolition of Household Troops-German Dise

cipline-Practice and Theory.......
..................................................................

..9

III. The Notables-M. de Calonne-The Clergy—The Archbishop of

Toulouse Minister-Abbé Vernon--A Bed of Justice-Parliament of

Paris refuse to register the King's Edicts-Parliament banished-Duke

of Orleans Two Counsellors of the Parliament sent to Prison.........21

IV. Discontents Parliament remonstrates-Cour Pleniere-Bed of Just.

ice at Versailles Members of the Parliament of Paris protest-Certain

Peers address the King-Mild Answer of the King-Other Courts imi.

tate the Example of the Parliament of Paris–The Minister resigns

Instances of Bigotry and Persecution-Reflections.................

..33

V. Exhibition in the StreetM. Necker-Political Pamphlets-Opinions

respecting the Number of Deputies of the Tiers-Etat-Search for Pre.

cedents-Second Assembly of the Notables-French Parliaments The

Notables give their opinion-The States-General are constituted on a

different Plan-The Minister's motives for this.... ....................41

VI. The Nobility of Great Britain and Ireland—The Noblesse of

France.........

.....................................................................................54

VII. The Assembly of the States-General-Jealousies-Disputes respect.

ing the Verification of the Powers of the Deputies-- The King attempts

to conciliate the Three Orders-The Tiers-Etat postpone his Compro.

mise-- Artful Proposal of the Clergy-Eluded by the Commons--- The

Solicitude of the King-The Tiers-Etat proceed to the Verification of

the Returns without the other two Orders, and assume the Legislative

Government-Dispute concerning the Name the Assembly should as.

sume-Observations and Discourses of Mirabeau...........................60

VIll. Mirabeau-Resolutions of the National Assembly-Different Con-

duct of the different Orders_Inflexible and unfeeling Behaviour of the

Tiers-Etat-Imprudent Conduct of the higher ClergyPopularity of

the inferior Clergy-Libels, Lampoons-Universal Prejudice against

the Nobles and Clergy-Reflections on the different Lighe in which

VOL. IV.

b

the French Revolution is viewed by those in different Situations all

over Europe-Mirabeau's Journal Conference between him and M.

Necker.....................................................

.................75

CHAP. IX. M. Necker forms a Plan of Government, which with little Alter-

ation is approved of by the King and Council of State-Majority of the

Clergy determine to join the Tiers-Etat_Proclamation for a Royal

Session-The Tiers-Etat excluded from their Hall-Oath taken in the

Tennis Court- The King's Declaration and Speeches-Marquis de

Brézé-Mirabeau's Answer to him-Decrees of the Assembly_The

Timidity of the Council—The Causes of it............................

............92

X. Great Popularity of M. Necker-Disorders in Paris-Part of the Ora

der of Nobles join the National Assembly-Reflections on that Event-

Populace demand to be admitted, contrary to the King's Orders-De-

putation to the King on that subject--The King desires the Nobles

and Clergy to unite with the Tiers-Etat-Debates on that Subject

The two superior Orders join the National Assembly-Universal Joy-

Disc rse of rabeau-Reflections.........

..................................109

XI. Means used to prejudice the People against the Nobles-Imprudent

Conduct of the Count d'Artois-Eleven Soldiers of the French Foot

Guards appeal to the People Are taken out of Prison and protected

_Treasonable Expressions-Troops approach Paris and Versailles

Discourse of Mirabeau—An Address from the Assembly to the King-

His Answer-Secret Councils-General Alarm-Feast in the Elysian

Fields-Dismission of M. Necker-Tumults at Paris.....................123

XII. Reflections on the Influence of Public Opinion on Government-

King's Answer to the Assembly's Address occasions In Humour

Formation of an Armed Force by the Inhabitants of Paris-30,000

Muskets found at the Invalides Bastile attacked and taken-Murder

of M. de Launay and others-Deputations from the Assembly to the

King--Scene at the Orangerie“-Speech of Mirabeau_The King changes

his Measures--comes to the National Assembly-A Deputation sent to

Paris-Rejoicings- The King visits Paris-Reflections.................. 138

XIII. M. Necker is recalled--His triumphant Reception at Paris-Re-

commends a General Amnesty-displeases the Sections-Some Mem-

bers of the Assembly blame the conduct of M. Necker, who begins to

lose his Popularity Disorders all over France-The National Assem-

bly greatly alarmed-Decrees of the fourth of August—The Duke of

Rochefoucault-Sacrifices made by the Clergy..

....162

XIV. Reflections on the Cruelty to which the Clergy were subjected

On the Power to be given to the King—The Project of two Cham-

bers--The Galleries of the National Assembly-Maneuvres respecte

ing the Audience-A Feast given by the Gardes-du-Corps to thc Regi-

ment of Flanders at Versailles-The National Assembly displeased with

the King's Answer to their Address The Transactions of the Enter-

tainment misrepresented-Insurrection at Paris M. La Fayette en-

deavours to quell it, without Effect -The first Conductors of the Re.

volution justified-M. La Fayette marches with 20,000 men to Ver-

sailles......

....177

Caar. XV. Daring Conduct of Mirabeau-The Rabble arrive at Versail.

les-A Deputation of Poissardes accompany that of the National

Assembly to the King-He gives a conciliatory Answer to the former,

and the same Night assents to the Decrees of the Assembly-M. La

Fayette, with the Parisian Army, arrives at Midnight The Court, the

Deputies, and M. La Fayette, retire to Rest—The Palace unexpected-

ly attacked in the Morning-Various Scenes of Horror-Insolence of

the Rabble-Magnanimous Behaviour of the Queen- The Royal Fa-

mily carried to Paris-Reception there.......................................197

XVI. Reflections on French and British Loyalty-Anecdote regarding

the Duke of Orleans-Reflections on his Character and the Part he

took in the Revolution_On the Conduct and Views of Mirabeall-Ex-

pressions of Four Persons in a Tavern at Seve-Dismal State of the

Royal Family on their Arrival at the Tuilleries........................... 211

XVII. Some principal Members of the National Assembly retire- The

Royal Family lodge in the Palace of the Tuilleries—The Duke of Or.

leans goes to England-Scarcity-A Baker murdered—Decrees for the

Suppression of Insurrections—Robespierre opposes them—Plan for Ge-

neral Election every two Years-Reflections.....

............................222

XVIII. Decree respecting Bankrupts-Opinion of Mirabeau on that Sub-

ject of the Duke of Rochefoucault--Abolition of Monasteries--For

appropriating the Church Lands-Abolition of Titles-Reflections on

that Subject, and on Armorial Bearings-Respect derived from Anti-

quity of Family The Effect which the Creation of Peers has on it... 234

XIX. Plans of the Noblesse and Parliaments for Resistance ill combine

ed and ineffectual Endeavour to deprive the National Assembly of the

public Confidence-Paper War-The ill Conduct of the French has in.

jured the Cause of Freedom more than the Arguments of their Ene.

mies- The Red Book-Misunderstanding between M. Necker and M.

Camus Power of Peace and War............... .................247

XX. Preparations for the Ceremony of the Confederation-Duke of Or.

leans returns to Paris-Offence taken at the manner of distributing

Tickets-Ceremony-Jealousy and Misunderstanding between the Offi-

cers of the Troops of the Line and the National Guards—An Insurrec-

tion at Nancy-M. de Bouillé ordered to march to that Town-Heroic

Action of a young Officer-Dreadful Scene of Slaughter-Effect it pro-

duced at the Capital...........

.................263

XXI. M. Necker retires-Reflections on that Event-Inveteracy of the

French against Ministers of State and Ecclesiastics-Long Habit more

necessary to acquire Excellence in bodily than in mental Exertions-

The National Assembly insists that the King shall sanction their De.

cree, obliging the Clergy to take the Oath to the Constitution. The

Pope disapproves of it-The Effect this bas on the Minds of the People

The King's Aunts determine to leave France and go to Rome......... 275

XXII. Death and Character of Mirabeau-Insurrection of the Populace

of Paris-Chevaliers du Poignard- The Royal Family stopped as they

were going to St. Cloud-Reflections-Excessive Insolence of the Rabo

ble Société Fraternelle-Libels..........

....288

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