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* Shall an inferior magistrate, a governor, who holds his whole powa of the Roman peuple, in a Roman province, within sight of Italy, hind, scourge, tor. ure with red hot plātes or iron, and at last put to the inruinous death of the mons, a Roinan citizen!"
"High on a throne of royal state, which far
Satan exalted sat" In the foregoing, the monotone adds much to the dignity of the homposition. The examples which follow present a striking conrast:-to read them with the monotone would mak. Elias Hosipilian sting
“What the weak head with strongest bias r :!r.
By reason, my life let me square;
VI. Modulation, By Modulation is understood that pleasing varietv in itse manage xent of the voice, which constitutes à graceful delivery. It is one of he most important acquisitions of a gooil speaker
, and at the same ime the most difficult to define.-In an extended sense, it may be un lerstood as including every modification of which the voice is capable.
It is easier to point out the defects in modulation, than to define the constituents of its excellence :-Of those we shall notice a few. But in order to be fully understood, we will caution the learner against unfounding high with loud, and low with soft sounds. A person nay pronounce a word in a voice hardly audible, and again very loud, spon the same kcy, or equally low. He may do the same upon a key qually high. This distinction between pitch and volume of sound, aust be clearly understood. Let the following line,
"Shall Rome be taken while I am Consul ?” ?ve read on a low key note, and with a small voice. Let it be repeated pveral times in succession, a little louder each time, without varying The pitch or key note, and the difference will be very apparent.
This distinction being understood, the first prominent defect in modulation that we shall notice, consists in inflating the lungs at the beginning of each sentence, and pouring out a volume of sound, which in every stage of progression is graduated by the stock of breath on hand. The first part of the sentence, therefore, is uttered with a loud voice, and generally upon a high key; but terminates in a low and feeble closc. This manner of reading, which is common is illustrated by the following example.The capital letters represent the greatest strength of sound, which gradually falls away to the italic:
“ GENTLENESS IS THE GREAT AVENUE TO MUTUAL enjoyment AMIDST THE STRIFE OF INTERFERING INTERESTS IT TEMPERS THE VIOLENCE OF CONTENTION, AND KAEPI ALIVE the seeds of harmony. IT SOFTENS ANIMOSITIES, RENEWA ENDEARMENTS, AND LANDFRI THB COUNTENANCE OF MAN I refreshment lo man."
Another great defict in modulation arises from an unskilfal effort avoid the monotone. It consists in a periodical elevation of the oica, both in pitch and volume, on one or more words in every senence; while it gently undulates upon the rest, varying but little from he monotone. Let the words in snall capitals in the following eximple, be paonounced with a füller voice, and on a higher key than be rest, and this manner of reading will be exhibited.
"Our sight is the most perfne, and most delightful of all our senser. It nihes ne inind with the largest VARIBTY of ideas, converses with its objects et REATEST distance, and continues the longest in action without being TIRED or taliated with its proper enjoyinents "
There is one other manner of reading deserving of notice. It sometimes adopted in the pulpit, from the mistaken notion that it alds solemnity to the suliject inatter. It consists in adopting two ones of voice, generally two or four notes distant from each other, and ronouncing every word upon these notes, changing alternately from one to the other. The difference between this manner, and that exhibited in the last example, is, that in this, several words are often soundw upon thi hiyher note in succession, and on the remaining words ihere is no variation from the monotone. This manner may le exhibited by reading the words in Roman letters, in the cxanıple following, in a strictly monotonous manner, and the words in Italic a minor third, or tone and semitone above them :
"I tell you thongh ou, though all the workil, though an angel from heuven, should declare the truth of it, I would not believe it."
The learner will find much benefit in practicing upon examples like he foregoing: by doing it understandingly, he will be led to the dis overy of his own peculiarity of manner, if he have any, and be able o apply the corrective.
VII. The reading of Verse. The same rules may in general be observed in the reading of erse. hat apply to prose. There is, however, a peculiar charm in poetry, which cntitles it to a few additional remarks.
First-Although the beauty of poetry consists in the smoothness nd harmony of its numbers, the poetic measure should not be permitred to destroy the sense by usurping the proper emphasis or accent. Ve sometimes hear sentences like the following, read thus :
"False clo-quence, like the prismatic glass,
An exile from Ameri.ca." In some cases, when the metrical and the customary accent do not mite upon one syllable, they can both be indulged, as in the follow. ig:
"Our su.preme foe in time may much relent." t is a general rule, however, that neither the rights of the customary ccent, nor the emphasis, should be infringed. There are two kinds of pauses which belong to poetry: the cæsu
pause, which falls about the middle of the line, and the pause at he end of it. In poctry in which the cæsural pause unites with a ditiskun maile by the sense, the line is harinonivus, as in the following :
"Warms in the sun, I refreshies in tlie breeze,
Apreads undivided, I operates unspent." But when the cæsural pause requires a place which the sense de nies to it, a difficulty occurs. The only alternative in such cases is to regard the sense, and let the poct be answerable for the consequence. The following presents a case of this kind :
"I sit, with sad civility I read." Here the sense requires the pause after sit, and it would do it violence not to obsery it, although the melody would require it after sad, where the sense denies the least suspension of the voice.
In reading blank verse, the sense often requires no pause at the end of the line; but the best writers on this subject agree, that however intimately connected one line may be with the next following, in sense, there should be a sufficient suspension of the voice at the end, to enable a hearer to distinguish one line from another. The following will illustrate it :
"O! blest of Ileaven, whom not the languid songs
To charm the enlivened soul." Warren, in speaking of this pause, says "The affectation which most writers of blank verse have of extending the sense beyond the line, is followců by a similar affectation in the printer, who will often omit a
pause at the end of a line in verse, when he would have inserted one in prose; and this affectation is carried still farther by the reader, who will run the sense of one line into another where there is the least opportunity for doing it, in order to show that he is too sagacious to suppose that there is any conclusion in the sense, because the line concludes."
When the vowels e and o in poetry are apostrophized, their sound should not be entirely omitted; but should be spoken in a manner se light, as easily to unite with the following syllable. The following is an example:
“But of the two less dang'rous is th' offense,
NEW ENGLISH READER.
PIECES IN PROSE. 78 28
The great business of man, is, to improve his mind and govern his manners.
The whole universe is his library; conversation living studies; and remarks upon them are his best tutors.
Learning is the temperance of youth, the comfort of old age, and the only sure guide to honor and preferment.
Aristotle' says, that to become an able man in any profession whatever, three things are necessary,—which are, nature, study, and practice.
To endure present evils with patience, and wait for expected good wih long suffering, is equally the part of the christian and the hero.
Adversity overcome, is the highest glory; and willingly undergone, the greatest virtue: sufferings are but the trials of gallant spirits.
It is a Spanish maximd-he who loses wealth, loseth much; he who loseth a friend, loseth more; but he who loseth his spirits, loseth all.
There is no man so contemptible, but who, in distress, requires pity. It is inhuman to be altogether insensible to another's misery.
Envy' is fixed only on merit; and, like a sore-eye, is offended with every thing that is bright.
Never employ yourself to discern the faults of others; but be careful to amend and prevent your own. a Prefer'ment, advancement to office. d Max'-im, an established principle.
e In-sens'-1-hle, destitute of feeling. c Ad-vors':I-ty, affliction, calamity. J En'-vy, pain excited by another's pros
b Ar-is-lo-tle, a wise man of Greeca
There is an odious spirit in many persons, who are better pleased to detect a fault, than commend a virtue.
The worthiest people are most injured by slanderers; as We usually find that to be the best fruit, which the birds have been picking at.
If some are refined, like gold, in the furnace of affliction, there are many more, who, like chaff, are consumed in it. Sorrow, when it is excessive, takes away fervor from piety, vigor from action, health from the body, light from reason and repose from the conscience.
The expectation of future happiness, is the best relief oi anxious thoughts, the most perfect cure of melancholy, the guide of life, and the comfort of death.
Fear unruly passions more than the arrows of an enemy; and the slavery of them more than the fetters of a conqueror.
It is more prudent to pass by trivial offenses, than to quarrel for them: by the last you are even with your adver. sary, but by the first above him.
Restrain yourself from being too fiery and flaming in matters of argument. Truth often suffers more from the heat of its defenders, than from the argument of its opposers. Nothing does reason more right, than the coolness of those who offer it.
Wien, man loses his integrity, he loses the foundation of his yirtue.
A contented mind is a continual feast; and the pleasure of the banquet is greatly augmented, by knowing that each man may become his own entertainer.
Senecad says, there is no difference between possessing a thing, and not desiring it.
Be very cautious of speaking or believing any ill of your neighbors ; but be much more cautious of making hasty reports of them to their disadvantage.
Upon whatsoever foundation happiness is built, when that foundation fails, happiness must be destroyed; for which reason, it is wisdom to choose such a foundation for it, as is not liable to destructive accidents.
We must never undervalue any person. The workman loves not that his work should be despised in his presence. God is present every where, and every person is his work.
What good is it to the blind, that his parents could see? What benefit is it to the dumb, that his grandfather was elo quent ? Even so, what is it to the mean, that their predeces sors were noble } 4 0'-di-ous, hateful, very offensivo. d fen'oca, a Roman pl.losophor. 6 Ex-cessive, exceeding just Himits L-able, subject, responsdble. cTriv'1-aal, small, triding.
JN'aquens, speaking with elogunea