A Short History of the Phoenicians
Bloomsbury Publishing, 30 квіт. 2017 р. - 256 стор.
The Phoenicians present a tantalizing face to the ancient historian. Latin sources suggest they once had an extensive literature of history, law, philosophy and religion; but all now is lost. Offering new insights based on recent archaeological discoveries in their heartland of modern-day Lebanon, Mark Woolmer presents a fresh appraisal of this fascinating, yet elusive, Semitic people. Discussing material culture, language and alphabet, religion (including sacred prostitution of women and boys to the goddess Astarte), funerary custom and trade and expansion into the Punic west, he explores Phoenicia in all its paradoxical complexity. Viewed in antiquity as sage scribes and intrepid mariners who pushed back the boundaries of the known world, and as skilled engineers who built monumental harbour cities like Tyre and Sidon, the Phoenicians were also considered (especially by their rivals, the Romans) to be profiteers cruelly trading in human lives. The author shows them above all to have been masters of the sea: this was a civilization that circumnavigated Africa two thousand years before Vasco da Gama did it in 1498.
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agricultural Akko ancient Near East ancient Phoenicia ANET appears archaeological Arwad Ashtart Assyrian attested Ba‘al Ba‘alat Berytus bowls Byblian king Byblos Canaanite Carthage city’s classical coast coastal cities colonies commercial construction craftsmen cultic cultural Cyprus decoration deities depicted Despite divine Early Iron Age eastern economic Egypt Egyptian eighth century Empire Esarhaddon Eshmun evidence excavations exchange figurines funerary Greek Hiram Iberia identified important indigenous inscriptions instance Iron Age Ithobaal ivory king’s Kition Late Bronze Age Lebanon Levant Levantine located mainland Mediterranean Melqart merchants metal millennium monarch motifs North Africa overseas period Persian Phoenician alphabet Phoenician art Phoenician cities Phoenician history Phoenician language Phoenician settlements political pottery production record recovered region religious reveals ritual role royal Sarepta scholars seventh century Sidon Sidonian Significantly silver sixth century social sources stone Syria temple texts tomb trade routes tribute types Tyre Tyre’s Tyrian Ugarit vessels whilst worship