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of the cooperation of the French brethren in sending teachers for the schools at the Gaboon, remarks: “ The French Society may do yet more for this mission. A deputation sent by them to visit the Congo region proposes to visit also the Gaboon and Corisco field, and it has been intimated by them that the report of this deputation may be such as to induce the French Society to assume that part of the work of our own Board which now lies within French territory. This will completely cut the Gordian knot which has occasioned so much trouble and such painful suspense both to the Board and to all the missionaries, for several years.” The French, it appears from the “ New York Evangelist," not only require all European teaching in the missionary schools to be in French, of which no very serious complaint need be made, as things are, but even forbid any vernacular teaching in the missionary schools. Whether the French learned this vexatious interference with religious rights from our Indian Commissioner or he from them does not appear. Probably in each case it was a spontaneous growth of authority, thinking that religious rights are a sort of dust in the balance, that are to give way whenever some heady impulse of civil policy comes in their kvay, just as the English government in the seventeenth century effectually quenched all hope of gaining the Irish for Protestantism by ordaining that rather than Gaelic, which all then knew, the Church Service should be read in English, which was known to few, or in Latin, which was known to none. May we be saved from learning any of the tricks of English despotism in the past, or of French despotism in the present!

“A very remarkable revival," says the “ Church Abroad and at Home," " was reported as in progress at Kangwe on the Ogove a year ago. This still continues. The spiritual interest among the people in this region has been very marked throughout the entire year. It is the custom of our missionaries to have an inquiry class formed of those who expect to unite with the church. These are generally kept under special instruction for the space of one year. Ninety-three new inquirers were enrolled in this class at the March communion, and by the end of June the number had risen to 117. The aggregate number of these inquirers for the year reached 379. Meantime, from those admitted previously to the class, 44 were received into full membership with the church, making the number of such accessions through the year on confession of faith 91. Mr. Good' writes in one of his letters, We have striven to raise the standard of piety in the church, and in order to do this we have been more than usually strict in exercising discipline. The general spiritual tone of the church, though leaving much to be desired, is improving.'

“At Kangwe the usual congregation in the church on the Sabbath is from 50 to 150, while at the quarterly communions as many as three or four hundred attend, bringing their own food with them, and availing themselves of such shelter as is at hand.

“Miss Harding at this station has continued her work as usual, journeying from town to town along the river with a boat and Kangwe crew, and at every place conversing with and teaching the people. She writes : 'It has been a great pleasure to me to visit towns during this cheering revival year, when the people are eager to hear God's message and drink in the words of their spiritual teacher with avidity. On Sundays I have a large class of Fans, sometimes numbering twenty, so that we are beginning to reach that large and interesting tribe.'—“Talaguga, 215

miles up the Ogove River, is the home of those patient and courageous missionaries, Dr. and Miss Nassau. Here for long years this devoted brother and sister have labored in one of the loneliest points in the dark heathen world. From among the forests and river villages they have already won a few converts to Christ, have put into their rude language the first lessons of gospel truth, and there every Sabbath day, in the midst of the all surrounding heathenism, may be seen an humble little chapel, with its clay floor and bamboo walls, filled with worshipers."

Dr. E. W. Blyden, of Sierra Leone, himself a colored man, and, we believe, a pure negro, has been known as maintaining that Christianity as represented by the white man, and above all by the English race, so disdainful, in both its branches, of African peculiarities, has no prospect of making its way in Africa against Islam, which is entirely indifferent to distinctions of race. The banner of Mohammed was first raised by a negro, and intermarriage with negro slaves has been so general in Arabia that the whole Arab race is now a race of mulattoes. But it appears that Dr. Blyden has no thought of representing Mohammedanism as final in Africa. He writes to the Presbyterian Board, May 19, 1888 : “I am persuaded that when the negroes from the United States begin to press into the interior of Africa with their new civilization, their improved methods of industry, their towns, their farms, their schools, their churches, their temperance regulations, their superior social organization, they will introduce a new spirit into the pagan and Mohammedan tribes. All the Semitic and Arabic elements will be eliminated, and Mohammed as the prophet of a tribe will retire before the Prophet of humanity, the Prophet of the universe." But how far is there a prospect of such a negro emigration from our country, and how far does the present condition of Liberia warrant the hope that such an emigration would have these brilliant results ?

The committee of the Presbyterian Council appointed to wait upon the King of the Belgians with reference to the liquor traffic on the Congo met in Brussels on the 16th of July, and proceeded together to the summer palace at Ostend. Being presented to Leopold II., the committee read a brief address, of which one paragraph is as follows: “A deep interest is felt in your Majesty's efforts to prevent the extension of the baneful traffic in ardent spirits in the Free State, and we feel assured that the measures which your Majesty has adopted, or may hereafter employ, for the restriction of that evil or of any other abuse of commerce, which tends to the ruin of weak and untutored races, will meet with the approval and gratitude of Christians in all lands." The king replied in English, expressing his gratification. Then “observing that the delegation was largely American, he expressed his satisfaction at the assurance that the people of the United States were in sympathy with his efforts, for he had had the impression, perhaps an incorrect one, that the United States were in favor of an unrestricted liquor traffic in West Africa.” What a sting for us! America has freely consented that Madagascar may prohibit the import of liquor; why does she make any demur to giving King Leopold the same power of protecting his African subjects? What demons of the still have gained access to the ear of the Washington government? We can remove them if we will; will we?

The Presbyterian magazine for last November says : “ The Roman Catholic missionaries on the Ogove give fair notification to our Protestant French teachers at Kangwe and elsewhere that they will fight them and fight us at all points. We have therefore one more element of opposition than Paul encountered. We have not only the world, the Aesh, and the devil,' but by way of culmination the Jesuit is added.” We presume the editors are here quoting Paul for “ substance of doctrine.” They add : “One would think that the habitations of cruelty are dark enough — that fetishism, the murder of witches, the burial of wives in funeral celebrations, the slave-trade, cannibalism, the liquor traffic under the flags of Christian nations, were sufficient to unite all branches of the Christian Church in the rescue ; but no: the motto of the Catholics is, • Down with the Protestants !'"

The “Missionary Yearbook " for 1889 gives the Gaboon Mission of the Presbyterian Church as having originated in 1842. Including 284 communicants in Liberia, with 272 scholars, and 984 in Sunday-schools, its African missions stand : Nine American ministers, 4 natives ordained, 3 licentiates ; 4 American lay-helpers, 8 American ladies ; 26 native helpers ; 14 churches ; 1,031 communicants ; 97 additions. The Church Missionary Society began its mission in West Africa in 1804. It has at present 46 stations ; 11 ordained, 6 unordained foreign agents ; 49 ordained, 233 unordained native agents ; 23,781 adherents ; 11,110 communicants ; 97 schools, and 7,945 scholars.

Charles C. Starbuck. ANDOVER.


Last August a series of events occurred in London, the importance of which it is hard to magnify. The laborers at the London Docks struck for higher pay, and, after remaining on strike for a full month, succeeded in wresting from their masters all that they demanded. The great feature of this movement was the way in which many unskilled workers, with no organization and little to draw or keep them united save a common employment under hard conditions, have managed to hold out amid great privations and many temptations in order to achieve a common good. The "Times" and other capitalist newspapers were confident early in the strike that the movement would soon collapse. But the “dockers” showed growing determination and were too well supported both by the public generally, large sums being subscribed to keep and feed the families of the strikers, and by others of the laboring class, the men of many employments striking in sympathy, and in most cases succeeding like the dock-workmen in bettering their condition. The magnitude of the strike may be judged from the facts that families numbering 250,000 persons were closely affected, and that it has been roughly calculated that the total amount of loss to the dock companies, to laborers for wages, and to shippers and others is equal to the sum of $7,500,000. Considering these facts, it is truly marvelous that there have been no riots nor destruction of property, and that the police have not once been obliged to interfere. It has been said, probably with truth, that no such exhibition of patience and self-restraint has been given on so large a scale in our country since the days of the cotton famine in Lancashire, when nearly a million men, women, and children were made to pass through such severe sufferings. Another aspect of “the great strike” has been the sympathy shown for the workers by all classes ; even the city of London, generally dominated by its capitalist instincts, sent largely to the strike fund; and the Lord Mayor of the city proved one of the best friends of the workmen in discussing their claims with the dock company's directors. The Bishop of London and (even more) the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Westminster, Cardinal Manning, together with members of the Houses of Lords and Commons, showed themselves active in the same way; indeed, sympathy came from many unexpected quarters, and herein lies much promise for the future. It seems as if all earnest men of whatever views and station were coming to see that all are interested in doing away with social wrongs. Equally remarkable has been the energy and ability shown by Mr. John Burns, the real leader of the strike, who has been previously mentioned in these “Notes from England” (see vol. xi. p. 435). He has displayed a genius for leading men and for ordering and arranging as well as for diplomatic negotiation, which mark him out as possessed of real political ability. He will be a candidate for a seat in Parliament at the next General Election. Possibly he may become a real weight in English politics.

The strike of the dock laborers in London has certainly taught the workingmen of England in a most clear manner the power of combination and the force with which they can, when united, present their demands. Possibly we shall have to date a new era in our history of the relations of capital and labor from this event. How much the idea of combination for common ends is in the air is shown by a circumstance rather amusing than alarming. The elder school children of several towns in Scotland, especially Glasgow and Aberdeen, have struck, refusing to go to school. In a body they parade the streets carrying banners, singing popular songs, and stopping at convenient spots to air their grievances. Their programme embraces “free education, fewer home lessons, and no more strap(abolition of corporal punishment would be a more polite way of expressing this last item)! This peculiar movement is undoubtedly connected with a change in the law which has just

come into force. Parliament has made education free in the public elementary schools in Scotland for the four lower standards or classes, the two higher classes having to continue to pay school fees. The children in these higher classes seem to resent having to pay when their younger brothers and sisters need not do so, and accordingly they “go out on strike.” The act of Parliament, by which free education is thus all but granted to the Scotch children, has been passed by a conservative government. The advanced Liberals, who have long professed a belief that free education ought to come, are naturally proud that their opponents have begun to accept their views, and there can be no doubt but that free education for Scotland means before long free education for England also.

The months of September and October form the Congress season." This year the first important congress was that of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, held at Newcastle. Though nothing sensational was brought forward, doubtless some good steady work was done, and the address of the President, Professor Flower, was very valuable, insisting on the need of good classification and arrangement in our museums, in order that they may become real centres of instruction and science. Every large town now boasts its museum, though often the museum is a mere collection; what is needed is system and science to display and use the collection to real purpose. The Church Congress at Cardiff and the Congregational Union at Hull have just concluded their sittings ; in neither case has there been anything remarkable said or done ; but it would be wrong to ignore the evidence given of the growth among the churches of a feeling of interest in social movements. The most successful of the sessions of the Church Congress was when the subject was the relations of religion and the drama, and the discussion was opened by Mr. Terry, a popular comedian, well known to London theatre-goers. The most important meeting at the Congregational Union was one held to discuss the land problem, some speakers on which theme openly avowed themselves followers of Mr. Henry George. But after all, many will be inclined to think that the chief value of these congresses is to give a holiday to workers, in which they can meet with men of common aims, and thus become acquainted with those whom they should know as fellow-workers, but who would otherwise remain unacquainted.




pp. iv, 554. Leipzig : Dörffling und Franke. 1887. , A New COMMENTARY ON GENESIS. By FRANZ DELITZSCH, D. D., Leipzig.

Translated by Sophia TAYLOR. 8vo, Vol. I, pp. vi, 412. Vol. II. pp. 408. New York : Scribner & Welford. 1889.

The character of Professor Delitzsch's exegetical work is too well known to need many words here. He has tried, with more than common success, to combine the advantages of the glossarial with those of the reproductive method of interpretation. His word-studies have made his commentaries a mine for the later editors of Gesenius's Lexicon; the grammarian goes to him for the explanation of the minutest peculiarities of the punctuation or the Díassora ; on the other hand the connection of thought is set forth clearly and fully, its moral and religious significance is brought out in a suggestive and often impressive way. He draws largely on the best interpreters, old and new, yet preserves his own originality. His later commentaries are by far his best. They show not only a larger and better digested learning, but riper judgment, a freer critical standpoint, and more critical insight; they are less diffuse, less controversial, less influenced in thought ard phraseology by the formulas of a school.

The last (fourth edition of the Commentary on Genesis appeared in 1872. The author tells us in the preface to the volume before us that among his earlier works this never held a very high place in his own estimation. The New Commentary, in which are embodied the results of fifteen years' unremitting labor, will take rank with the “ Psalms” and “Isaiah.” A complete translation is now interwoven with the comment. Meant to be read with the Hebrew text, not instead of it, the

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