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experience to exist, and, knowing that this condition does exist, has no apology to offer for the statement of various facts in his writings which certainly should be known and understood. Indeed, it is his firm belief that one of the chief factors in obtaining whatever success has come to him in his line of work, is the fact that he has never hesitated to give the minor details and to state simple facts. Certainly if these are not thoroughly understood, the main subject under consideration cannot possibly be digested as thoroughly as it should be.

A third defect that often creeps into trade text books is the lack of systematic treatment of the various subjects considered.

A book so written cannot give to the reader as clear an understanding as a work which takes up the various subjects in proper order. By this we do not mean to infer that there is only one order that may be properly followed, but merely to emphasize the fact that the mere statement of facts is not sufficient. There must be a proper order.

Knowing the tendency toward these errors the author has honestly endeavored to avoid them, and to give his readers such information as will be of practical use to them.

THE AUTHOR. April, 1919.

INTRODUCTION

The intention of the author in presenting this work has been to produce something in the nature of a text book, which should not only appeal to the beginner as a book of instruction, but to his more advanced brother as a book of reference, as comprehensive as our allotted space would allow.

Starting then, with the consideration of the tools of the plumber, the author has in his earlier pages taken up briefly the subject of the manual work of the plumber, following which come several chapters on the various phases of trapping, venting and drainage. This is followed by chapters on certain important classes of plumbing construction. The latter part of the work is devoted to the general subject of hot and cold water supply, and to several special subjects, including a chapter on mechanical drawing, which is especially designed to meet the requirements of the plumber.

As generally applied to-day, the word "plumbing” includes not only the drainage and vent systems, which in reality are parts of the same system, but also the water supply, both hot and cold water piping. Originally by the word "plumber," was meant a lead worker, but the common significance of the term is now entirely different.

Many of the workmen of large firms doing plumbing construction are specialists along certain lines of their trade, but in general, the present-day plumber is required to understand and work at both branches of his trade. It therefore becomes necessary in any comprehensive treatise on the subject of plumbing, to consider both the drainage and water supply systems.

Both these systems have in the past undergone great changes, and are at the present time undergoing change. In general these changes mark great progress, and while it is difficult to see how plumbing construction can be perfected much beyond the point which it has now reached in some sections of the country, it is entirely in the nature of things to look for still further improvement. In conjunction with such improvement, we believe that a less complicated system is to be the result, and the attainment of such a result should be looked upon with favor.

In the interest of improved plumbing, the author takes the liberty of calling special attention to the merits of what is known as “ continuous venting.” It is his firm conviction that the universal adoption of this system of venting would mark one of the greatest strides forward that has ever been taken in plumbing construction.

These final remarks are made, as the author believes, for the best good of the plumbing fraternity, a body of men with whom he has been closely affiliated for many years, and among whom he is glad to count many friends.

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