Зображення сторінки
PDF
ePub

are any whole number of units. All the ariihmetical operations in this system are by the easy rule of decimal fractions.

Note.—The words dollar, gallon and degree, are abbreviated by cutting off the last syllable, thus: dol. or $; gal. or g.; deg. oro

I.-MONEY MEASURES OF VALUE.

The dollar is the unit of measure of money; should weigh, when coined, of gold, 3.68 milli-pounds; of silver, 5.59 centi-pounds. The standard of gold and silver is 900 parts of pure metal to 100 of alloy, in 1,000 parts of coin.

Sub-Multiples Decimally Expressed. 10 milli-dollars (mills) make

1 centi-dol. (or cent).01 ct. 10 centi-dol. (or cents) make

1 deci-dol. (or dime) .1 d. 10 deci-dols. (or dimes) make

1 dollar (or unit) 1. $ The multiples of the unit are any number of dollars.

Coins of Gold Thús 5 dollars make

1 half eagle,

5.$ 6 10 dollars make

= 10.$ 20 dollars make

1 double eagle, = 20.$ And i dollar is also a gold coin,

1.$ Tłe coins of silver are dollar (1.$), half dollar (50c.), quarter dollar (25c.), dime (10c.), half dime (5c.); of copper and zinc, cents and half cents; also, three cent pieces.

The modus operandi of this United States money is dollars on the left of the period (.) and cents, or .01, on the right. Carry by 10 and it is all right.

=

1 eagle,

[ocr errors]

II.-LINEAR, OR MEASURE OF LENGTH.

.1 d. y.

The yard is the standard and base unit of extension; is a brass rod at the temperature of 62° Fahrenheit, barometer at 30 inches. Sub-Multiples of the Yard in Decimals.

Dec.Val. Sign. 10 milli-yards (m. y.) make

1 centi-yard. .01 c. y. 10 centi-yards make

1 deci-yard. 10 deci-yards make

1 yard (unit). 1 y. Multiples of the Unit in Whole Numbers. 22 yds., 66 ft., or 4 rods, make

1 Gunther's chain of 100 links. 1,760 yards, or 5,280 feet, make 1 mile, on land. 2,046.58 yds., or 6,120.74 ft., make 1 nautical, or sea mile.

Common Binary Divisions of the Unit. Half=.50 ; quarter=.25; eighth=.125; sixteenth=.0625. Horizontal scale, counted both ways from the period: 2,046.58. 1,760, 22 Y. (.) 10 d. 10 c. 10 M.

m.

These are tolerated in trade or exchange, and for other purposes.

The Foot is the minor unit of the above measure; is one-third of the yard, and is proper to be used in long, surface, or solid measures, like the yard.

III.-SQUARE, OR MEASURE OF SURFACE. The units of this measure are the sqaare yard, the square foot, and sqare area, or square acre.

The sub-multiples are 10x10=100 centi-feet, centi-yrds, or centiarea, make 1 square area, yard or foot. 1 milli-area, yard or foot=.001 of an area, yard or foot.

The Multiples of this Measure are 9 sqr. feet make

1 sqr yrd, or 4840 sqr. yrds.=1 acre. 48.4 square areas, make

1 square acre. 3097600 square yards, or 645 sqr. acres

1
square

mile. 6 miles sqr., or 36 sqr. miles or sections,

1 township, 10 square Gunter's chains make

1 square acre. The arithmetical operation in the above land measure is by chains and hundredths.

IV.-CUBIC, OR MEASURE OF SOLIDITY.

The unit of this measure is a cube of any measure, yard or foot. A cube is any regular solid body, with six equal square sides, and containing equal anglez.

One milli-cube is equal to a thousandth part of a cube. 10x10x10=1000 milli-cubes, make 1 cubic foot or yard.

The multiples of this measure are 4.20-27 cubic yards, or 128 cubic feet, make 1 cord of wood; 27 cubic feet equals 1 cubic yard. Forty cubic feet of hewn, or fifty cubic feet of round timber, make one ton.

V.-BALANCE, OR MEASURE OF WEIGHT. The pound is the standard unit of weight; is the same as the averdupois pound; is equal in weight to 59 milli-cubic feet of distilled water taken in air at its maximum density, the barometer at 30 inches; or is equal to 7,000 troy grains.

Sub-Multiples in Decimals. 10 milli-pounds make

1 centi-pound. .01 c. p. 10 centi-pounds make

1 deci pound. 10 deci-pounds make

1 pound, or unit. The binary divisions are halves, quarters, eighths and sixteenths.

Multiples of the Pound in Whole Numbers. 25 pounds make

1 quarter. 2,000 pounds make

1 ton.

FIGNS.

.1 d. p.

1 p.

One hundred pounds is the standard weight of measures for all dry commodities, without regard to quality, as grain and the like.

Operations in this, and all the tables, are the same as that of Federal money, or Table I.

Note.—66 Pound is an ancient term for a well-known weight, and is very generally used in more than thirty different countries.

[ocr errors]

VI.- -CONTENTS, OR MEASURE OF CAPACITY.

The unit of this measure is the gallon, equal to a cubic box whose edge is 1.8 deci-yard. The contents of which shall weigh 8.338822 pounds of distilled water weighed in air at the temperature of 61° Farn., the barometer at 30 inches.

[ocr errors]

Sub-multiples of the unit in Decimals and Binary Fractions.

Dec. Val. Sign. 10 milli-gallons [m. g.] make

1 centi-gal. .01 10 centi-gallons make

1 deci-gal. .1 d.

g. 10 deci-gallons make

1 gallon.

1. G. Binary divisions of the unit for trade and exchange are half g.=.50; quarter g.=,25; eighth g.=.125; sixteenth g.=.0625.

Multiples of the Gallon in Whole Numbers. In dry measure, 4 g.=half bushel; 8 g.=one bushel; in liquid measure, 32 g.=one barre; 64 g.=one hogshead; 128 g.=one tun.

Horizontal scale, beginning at the period and counting both ways: 128, 64, 32, 16, 8, Gallons, (.) 10, 10, 10, Decimals. Operations in the above table the same as in Table I, relating to Fed

eral money.

NOTE.—The "Gallon" in this is the standard in all Dry and Liquid commodities. The British gallon contains 10 pounds avoirdupois of distilled water weighed in air at the temperature of 62° with barometer at 30 inches.

VII.-CIRCULAR, OR MEASURE OF TIME AND LONGITUDE.

The units of this measure are degree, day and year. A degree is equal to the 360th part of a circle. A day is the time while the earth is revolving on its axis, and passes a great circle, 360 degrees.

Sub-Divisions of the Unit in Decimals.

Dec. Val. 10 primes (or milli-d,''!) make

1 second, .01 10 seconds (or centi-d.) make

1 minute, .1 10 minutes (or deci-d.) make

1 Degree, 1

[ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors]

Multiples of the Unit in Whole Numbers. 15 degrees make

1 hour angle,

H. 24 hours make

1 day circle, C. 365 1-4 days make

1 common year,

C. Y. One hundred

years
make

1 century,

Cen. The horizontal scale for the above may be counted in the same manner as in tables II and VI, viz: both ways from the decimal point, or period, i. e. whole numbers to the left and decimals to the right.

These measures uncombined are almost universal. Why should they become less so by union? This combined table is introduced without changing the year, day, or hour, but simply dividing the hour into fifteen parts, or degrees, and the degrees decimally. The multiples of the year are also decimally expressed. The subdivision of the degree is expressed in hundredths.

By its combination we avoid all reduction from time to longitude, and the reverse in navigation and astronomy. The hours being counted from 1 to 24 in succession, imstead of from 1 to 12 twice over.

VIII.-GEOGRAPHICAL AND NAUTICAL MEASURES OF EXTENSION,

Based on the most ancient measure now in use, the foot, which is nearly universal, being the mean average length of measures of that name, in more than forty different counties, and has its approximate type in the human body.

The foot is the minor unit of this measure, and the chain, divided into one-hundredths, the major unit.

Dec. Val. Sign. 10 deci-feet, (or milli-ch.) make 1 f. (or centi-ch.)

F 10 feet, (or centi-chain) make - 1 pole (or deci-ch.) .1 P. 10 poles, (or deci-chain) make

1 Chain,

1. C. The multiples are any whole number of chains. The sub multiples are hundredths of chains or feet.

Nautical Measures.

A log-line should be about one hundred and fifty fathoms long, haying ten fathoms between the ship and first knot for stray-line. A fathom, according to Bowditch, is 5 1-10 feet long; one knot is fifty-one feet, and a sea mile is 6,120 feet.

Ropes and Cables.-6 feet=1 fathom; 120 fathoms=1 cable's length.

One degree on the great circle of the earth is equal to 69.77 statute miles.

Good RULES.—1. Teach one thing at a time.
2. Teach that one thing well.
3. Teach its connections.

4. Feel and teach that it is better to know every thing of something than something of every thing.

Official Department.

OFFICIAL OPINIONS.

Prepared by the Assistant Superintendent. Q. If a district clerk makes a correct return to the town clerk that the sum of one hundred and fifty dollars was voted to be raised at the last regular school meeting for school purposes, and through the carelessness of the town clerk, or other reason, the sum of one hundred dollars only is assessed and collected, what must the district do-must the board borrow money to pay school expenses or must a re-assessment be made?

A. The intent of section 63 would seem to carry the part of the tax not assessed over to the next year's roll. In the mean time, it would not be improper for ihe district to borrow the money, if necessary, nor for the town clerk to pay the interest on the same, if it was through his carelessness that it was not assessed. But another solution of the difficulty is for the district to vote, assess and collect the deficiency, as provided in section 62.

Q. If a tax is voted to build a school-house, can it be assessed on the last assessment roll?

A. Yes, if the meeting that voted the tax is held at any time not specified in section 62 of the School Law, and if it is not to be collected by the town treasurer. (See sections 64 and 65.)

Q. Can a majority of a district vote, legally, to move the schoolhouse?

A. A majority can designate a new school-house site, which involves naturally the removal of the school-house, or the building of a new one. If the minority feel aggrieved at the action, or contemplated action, they have the right of appeal.

Q. Can the teacher suspend a scholar for improper conduct, for the remainder of the day, without the consent of the board for so acting beforenand?

A. Flagrant misconduct, such as in the judgment of the teacher, requires suspension or expulsion, justifies him in this temporary suspension, till the board can be called to act.

Q. Can children over four or under six years of age, be legally excluded from school by the board ?

A. All persons between four and twenty, legally resident in a district, as school children, have an equal right to attend school. The board has no power to exclude any of this class on account of age.

Q. Has a widow woman who resides and pays taxes in a school district, a right to vote therein?

« НазадПродовжити »