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cock is with the Parsis the re adoration to the Supreme. As surrection symbol.

they began to corporealise themIn this difficult business of selves by feeding first upon water, revival man is not without a helper. and in succession upon fruit, milk, There is Sosiosh (Saoshyâs) the and flesh, so now they will reverse kindler, the victorious, the uplifted the process. They will cease to amid the corporeal. “He is so help take flesh, then milk, then fruit, ful that he will save the whole and finally will drink water only. corporeal world; he is so high Then will appear the Helper, and amongst the corporeal, that he man will feed no more, and yet endowed with body and vital he will not die. powers, will withstand the destroyer The account of the process of of the corporeal.” He has a double resurrection we must leave for a attribute, probably owing to modi. succeeding paper, as also sundry fications of doctrine by lapse of parallelisms to be shown between time. He is a prophet appearing the Aryan tradition and that most before the close of a millenium to familiar to ourselves. rearrange the world, and prepare Our Aryan progenitor would for the resurrection. He is the appear to be rather a spectral being, victorious dead-restorer, who raises but if we follow the creed of our the dead or causes the resurrection Zoroastrian cousins, that on awaby means of the power and kening from the sleep of heedlessassistance of wisdom. * In the ness, we shall recognise that the former sense he is a successor to earth life has been but an instrucKaiômart; in the later he would tive dream, we ourselves, being yet seem to be almost identical with within that dream, must now him in function.

appear even more shadowy still As the millennium draws near before that reverend ancestor who the force of nature weakens. Men so long ago rubbed away the heavy will pass three days and nights in mist from his eyes.

* Mainyo-i-khard.


THAT strange perversity of the human understanding, by which the most absurd and monstrous dogmas, religious and other, have been unhesitatingly received, while a belief in the general habitability of the universe, a belief agreeable to reason as well as to analogy, has been scouted as at best an idle fancy, is not the least curious of phenomena in the history of specu. lation.

In antiquity, the Greek philosophy, which was not bound by any particular religious creeds, regarded the question much more independently than was possible in later Christian times. The Greeks, however, seldom ventured to speculate beyond the Moon. For the sort of arguments which may be supposed to have been current in the second century, on both sides, we are indebted to the author of the “Parallel Lives,” by his treatise “ On the Face which appears in the Moon.” Lactantius (tutor to the sons of Constantine), as cham pion of the orthodox faith, with à special reference, no doubt, to Plutarch, ridicules those of the pagan theorists who ventured to indulge in such speculation, and demands, with some reason, why they don't go a little further, and people the Sun as well as the Moon, “Why not?” asks the bishop. “What would it cost you when you have gone so far? But I suppose you were afraid they (the solar people] would be burned to cinders, and the mischief might be laid at your doors." What the

Christian father treats with so much scorn has been affirmed in our day by no less authorities than the elder Herschel and Arago.

At the establishment of Chris. tianity, to deny the Earth to be the sole habitat of rational, or indeed of any sort of existences, was naturally a highly heretical and anti-Biblical proposition; and during the mediæval ages orthodoxy on this point was pretty well undisturbed. Down to the middle of the seventeenth century the subject was abandoned for the most part to the romancists, or if it was referred to at all by the learned, it was only with the purpose of covering it with ridicule. Even the philosophic Lucian had classed those who assigned inhabitants to the Moon amongst the wildest dreamers, although in his « True History" (the original and entertaining source of the modern comic romance, and written in ridicule of the travellers' tales of the day) he is at the pains of inventing some beings of very mongrel breeds for both the Sun and Moon. In this, the first romance connected with the plurality of worlds, the author pretends, while on a voyage of discovery into the Western Ocean, to have been whirled upwards, with his ship and companions, into the celestial regions. They are landed upon the Moon, and there find the Selenites on the point of setting out on a campaign against their enemies the Heliots—the people of the sun,-the casus belli being the opposition of the latter to the

Selenite colonisation of the Morning thing really worth looking at. Star. The earth-born adventurers Such as chance to lose their own, are invited to join in the expedi. borrow eyes from a neighbour. So tion, The Selenite allies are of the much for the natives of our satel. most heterogeneous and nondescript lite. Between the Pleiades and species that could well be imagined, Hyades, Lucian afterwards arrives 6.g., the Psyllotoxoto (fea-archers, at a city called Lychnopolis, where each magnificent steed being equal nothing in the way of life but in size to a dozen elephants) and ambulatory lamps are visible all the Anemodromi, who, instead of hurrying from place to place. wings, use their long robes, which These highly-illuminated people they tuck up and make into sails are for the most part very dimi. By means of web bridges, con nutive beings, but some are very structed by enormous spiders, one bright and shining lights. By a spider having the bulk of all the favourable change in the wind, Cyclades put together, they cross Lucian is at length able to descend over into the enemy's territory. upon the terrestrial seas, where, It must be enough to state that the we may just state, he and his comSelenites, at first victorious, suffer panions are swallowed, ship and a terrible reverse ; and a treaty, all, by an enormous whale capable with the most exact stipulations, of holding 10,000 inhabitants, beis concluded between the contend. sides hills, forests, &c. After a ing powers.

few astonishing adventures, our As for the nature of the Selenites, involuntary colonists escape from they have at least one or two little their cetacean prison by setting advantages, as compared with us, fire to the interior and hoisting although they are only our satel. sail, first taking the precaution of lites. When the inevitable hour propping up the huge jaws of the of dissolution arrives, the Selenite whale to secure their exit. Of has not to submit to the trying their experiences in the Islands of ordeal of death: he simply dis- the Blessed, the meeting with solves into particles of air in which Homer and with Helen (who main. be mixes, as it were, like smoke. tains in those regions her character Of that element his beverage is for levity by running away from composed, which, strained through her heroic husband again) and the & vessel, becomes a sort of dew. Onoscelere, seductive ladies of the Their stomachs open and shut at Sea, highly interesting as they are, pleasure, and serve them for con- we have no space here to repeat venient sacks; and, as they are the history. * not incommoded with all the gross In the 16th century, after the internal apparatus of the terrestrial revolution effected by the disstomach, they use them, like the coveries of Copernik, Kepler, and Marsupials, as a vehicle and pro others, the ice of orthodoxy tection for their children. Their having been broken, it was a eyes are made to take out, which, natural result that speculation as Lucian justly remarks, is an began to be indulged in by the excellent way of preserving their philosophic portion of the learned sight; and there are many so con- world. An authoritative name on siderate as never to place an eye the heterodox side was that of in its socket, unless there is any. Kepler, who translated the treatise

* Soe 'Alhons 'Istogice (the True History, I. & II.)

of Plutarch; but, possibly as much lot to migrate to our Earth. But from timidity as from want of con- he afterwards preferred the Moon viction, he employs in the dialogue as a residence; “for men are there the doubtful medium of a Lapland lovers of truth - one sees no witch. For much the same reason pedants there ; the philosophers it was that the speculative minds allow themselves to be persuaded of that age chose to display their by reason alone; the authority of opinions on the subject in the a savan or of the greater number disguise of romance, half serious has no advantage, on a question of and half comic. The best known opinion, over a thresher of corn and most clever is that of Cyrano when he reasons as strongly ... Bergerac, under the title of “His. There are the Vulgar here as there, toire Comique des États et des who cannot endure thought upon Empires de la Lune;" which was those subjects to which they are not followed by his “Les Etats et les accustomed. But know that they Empires du Soleil.” They bear treat you on equal terms, and that evident traces of their origin from if anyone from this Earth had the “ True History;" and, as the ascended into yours having the celebrated Greek writer's purpose hardihood to call himself a man, was to ridicule the absurd fictions of your savans would have caused him historians and travellers, such as to be suffocated as a monster." those of Ctesias and Pliny, that of Bergerac finds himself regarded Bergerac was chiefly to satirize the as a species of monkey. That he pedantry and deference to authority comes to be classified with the prevalent in the 17th century. The Simian tribe arose from the follow“ Histoire Comique,” we may add, ing circumstance. A Spaniard of has a special interest for us, as one the name of Gonzales (who had of the originals of Swift's “Gulli. written on the same subject as ver's Travels.”

Bergerac) had previously reached Lucian's Icaro - Menippus as the Lunarians, and upon his arrival cends to the Moon by the simple had at once been set down in the addition to his person of an eagle's monkey class from his wearing the and a vulture's wing. Bergerac Spanish dress, &c., which the people contrives a special elastic machine had decided was the proper fashion in which, after long travelling for their monkeys, as the most between the two globes, he at ridiculous which, after long medi. length arrives upon our satellite tation, they had found it possible by getting within the sphere of its to devise. As the new arrival attraction. He soon falls in with is dressed in a somewhat different some of the inhabitants, who are style, they jump to the conclusion huge men twelve cubits high, and that he is the female of the same walk on all fours. They take him species; and in consequence they to be some curious and strange are shut up together by the Savans animal, and determine to exhibit for the purpose of obtaining the him for show. In the course breed. In an unlucky moment, of his wanderings in this con. also, our terrestrial resolves to dition he is astonished one day learn the Lunar language. We by hearing the voice of a person say unlucky, for, “Some freespeaking in the Greek language. thinkers began to allege that he This individual is a native of the was endued with reason.” The Sun, which, to relieve a surplus orthodox world opposed this new population, occasionally sends out extravagant notion with the greatest colonies; and it had fallen to his furore, and treated it as “a most

horrid impiety to suppose that a dogma that our earth is merely a creature which did not walk on all moon, and not an inhabited world. fours could be possessed of any In revenge for his bad treatment, species of intelligence. We," said he promulgated an opinion that they, “walk on four feet because their globe is also merely a moon. God would not trust so precious a “But," said they all to me, “you creature to a less firm position, and see here land, rivers, seas; what he was afraid that in walking other then are all these?” “No matwise some accident might befal ter,” replied I, “ Aristotle assures us. For this reason it is he took us that it is but a moon; and if the trouble of securing us upon you had said the contrary in the four pillars, so that we might not classes in which I made my studies, fall. But disdaining to trouble they would have hissed you." himself with the construction of Upon this there was a loud burst these two brutes, he abandoned of laughter. It need not be asked, them to the caprice of Nature, if it was at their ignorance. He is which, not fearing the loss of so conducted back to his cage, and not insignificant a thing, has supported until he made a public recantation them upon two paws only.” Another did he obtain his release. “Good almost equally strong argument, people,” such was his apology, “I relied upon by the orthodox declare to you that this moon of authorities, was what we ourselves yours is not a moon, but a world ; have been long used to consider and that this world below is not a from an opposite point of view, world, but a moon. Such is what the os sublime. “See," said they, the Council finds good that you " they have their heads turned should believe.” One day, seeing towards the heavens. It is the a person of quality arrive, dressed want of all things in which God without a sword, our terrestrial has placed them; for this suppliant shows surprise. “This costume posture testifies that they complain appears to me very extraordinary,' to heaven of Him who has created said I, 'for in our world the mark them, and that they ask to be of nobility is wearing a sword.'” accommodated with our supports. An unlucky remark, which elicited But we have our heads inclined the following apostrophe from the downwards to contemplate the good Lunarian magnate. Malheureuse things of which we are masters, contrée où les marques de generation and as having nothing in our sont ignominieuses, et où celles happy condition to cause repin. d'anéantissement sont honorables.” ing."

We ought to mention that our hero However, finding they were get- contrives to secure the goodwill, ting the worst of the argument, if not the affections, of a Lunarian they published an edict,“ by which young lady, the prototype of Swift's it was forbidden to believe that I Glumdalclitch, by entertaining her was endowed with reason, with a with the manners and customs pecuvery express command to all per- liar to his own little world. He resons of every grade that, though turns home by the intervention of a I might act like a rational being, demon, and is scarcely landed on it was instinct which made me do terra firma before the dogs of a 80.” After escaping from his pri. neighbouring village, smelling the son through the mediation of his odour of the moon, set up a terrific friend from the Sun, he is bn the clamour. In a few days, by walkpoint of being condemned to death ing constantly in the sun, he for the impiety of contradicting the gets rid of the obnoxious odour,

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