Twenty Years After Brown: A Report of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights
The Commission, 1974
Four reports issued in commemoration of the twentieth anniversary of the decision in Brown v. Board of Education, each assessing the status of civil rights or lack thereof in all the states.
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achieve action administration agencies amendment American areas assistance authority basis Board Brown Census central cities cities citizens Civil Rights Civil Rights Act color Commission on Civil Congress constitutional construction continued Court decision Department desegregation discrimination districts economic Education effect efforts employment enforcement equal established Executive existing fair families Federal female findings force Government groups headed homes housing programs included income increased issue Justice labor laws limited living low-income lower-income majority ment metropolitan minority mortgage Negro neighborhoods nonwhite occupancy Office opportunity origin percent persons plans population practices President problems projects proportion public housing pupils race racial recommendations responsibilities result segregation selection separate Service Source South Southern status substantial Supreme Court tion United urban women workers York
Сторінка 13 - We come then to the question presented: Does segregation of children in public schools solely on the basis of race, even though the physical facilities and other "tangible" factors may be equal, deprive the children of the minority group of equal educational opportunities?
Сторінка 3 - To separate them from others of similar age and qualifications solely because of their race generates a feeling of inferiority as to their status in the community that may affect their hearts and minds in a way unlikely ever to be undone.
Сторінка 112 - Today, education is perhaps the most important function of state and local governments. Compulsory school attendance laws and the great expenditure for education both demonstrate our recognition of the importance of education to our democratic society. It is required in the performance of our most basic public responsibilities, even service in the armed forces. It is the very foundation of good citizenship.
Сторінка 113 - Court relied in large part on "those qualities which are incapable of objective measurement but which make for greatness in a law school.
Сторінка 88 - I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men are created equal.
Сторінка 114 - Segregation of white and colored children in public schools has a detrimental effect upon the colored children. The impact is greater when it has the sanction of the law; for the policy of separating the races is usually interpreted as denoting the inferiority of the Negro group. A sense of inferiority affects the motivation of a child to learn. Segregation with the sanction of law, therefore, has a tendency to retard the educational and mental development of Negro children and to deprive them of...
Сторінка 89 - ... faith we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day.
Сторінка 15 - Full implementation of these constitutional principles may require solution of varied local school problems. School authorities have the primary responsibility for elucidating, assessing, and solving these problems; courts will have to consider whether the action of school authorities constitutes good faith implementation of the governing constitutional principles.
Сторінка 115 - Amendment. This disposition makes unnecessary any discussion whether such segregation also violates the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment . Because these are class actions, because of the wide applicability of this decision, and because of the great variety of local conditions, the formulation of decrees in these cases presents problems of considerable complexity.