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lar or useful. He who aspires,' says Robert Hall, tosh, that Dr Clarke was a man “eminent at ovce as *to a reputation that shall survive the vicissitudes a divine, a mathematician, a metaphysical philoof opinion and of time, must aim at some other cha- sopher, and a philologer; and, as the interpreter racter than that of a metaphysician. In his prac. of Homer and Cæsar, the scholar of Newton, and tical sermons, however, there is much sound and the antagonist of Leibnitz, approved himself not admirable precept. In 1727, Dr Clarke was offered, unworthy of correspondence with the highest order but declined, the appointment of Master of the Mint, of human spirits.' vacant by the death of his illustrious friend, Newton. The situation was worth £1500 2-year, and the dis- [Natural and Essential Diference of Right and Wrong.] interestedness and integrity of Clarke were strikingly evinced by his declining to accept an oflice of The principal thing that can, with any colour of such honour and emoluments, because he could not reason, seem to countenance the opinion of those who reconcile himself to a secular employment. His deny the natural and eternal difference of good and conduct and character must have excited the admi- evil, is the disticulty there may sometimes be to deration of the queen, for we learn from a satirical fine exactly the bounds of right and wrong; the allusion in Pope's Moral Epistle on the Use of variety of opinions that have obtained even among Riches (first published in 1731), that her majesty understanding and learned men, concerning certain had placed a bust of Dr Clarke in her hermitage in questions of just and unjust, especially in political the royal grounds. "The doctor duly frequented matters ; and the many contrary laws that have been the court,' says Pope in a note ; ‘but he should made in divers ages and in different countries conhave added,' rejoins Warburton, with the inno- cerning these matters. But as, in painting, two very! cence and disinterestedness of a hernit.' In 1729, different colours, by diluting each other very slowly Clarke published the first twelve books of the Iliad, and gradually, may, from the highest intenseness in with a Latin version and copious annotations; and either extreme, terininate in the midst insensibly, and Homer has never had a more judicious or acute so run one into the other, that it shall not be possible commentator. The last literary efforts of this inde- even for a skilful eye to determine exactly where the fatigable scholar were devoted to drawing up an

one ends and the other begins; and yet the colours may Erposition of the Church Catechism, and preparing really differ as much as can be, not in degree only, but several volumes of sermons for the press. These entirely in kind, as red and blue, or white and black: were not published till after his death, which took so, though it may perhaps be very difficult in some nice place on the 17th of May 1729. The various talents and perplexed cases (which yet are very far from ocand learning of Dr Clarke, and his easy cheerful curring frequently) to define exactly the bounds of disposition, earned for hin the highest admiration right and wrong, just and unjust (and there may be and esteem of his contemporaries. As a metaphy

some latitude in the judgınent of different men, and the sician, he was inferior to Locke in comprehensive laws of divers nations), yet right and wrong are neverness and originality, but possessed more skill and theless in themselves totally and essentially different ; logical foresight (the natural result of his habits even altogether as much as white and black, light and of mathematical study); and he has been justly darkness. The Spartan law, perhaps, which permitted celebrated for the boldness and ability with which their youth to steal, may, as absurd as it was, bear he placed himself in the breach against the Neces- much dispute whether it was absolutely unjust or no; sitarians and Fatalists of his times. His moral because every man, having an absolute right in his doctrine (which supposes virtue to consist in the

own goods, it may seem that the members of any regulation of our conduct according to certain fit- society may agree to transfer or alter their own pronesses which we perceive in things, or a peculiar f it could be supposed that a law had been made at

perties upon what conditions they shall think fit. But congruity of certain relations to each other) being Sparta, or at Rome, or in India, or in any other part inconsequential unless we have previously distin- of the world, whereby it had been commanded or guished the ends which are morally good from those allowed that every man might rob by violence, and that are evil, and limited the conformity to one of murder whomsoever he met with, or that no faith these classes, has been condemned by Dr Thomas should be kept with any man, nor any equitable com. Brown and Sir James Mackintosh.* His specula- | pacts performed, no man, with any tolerable use of tions were over-refined, and seem to have been coloured by his fondness for mathematical studies, in among them in other matters, would have thought

his reason, whatever diversity of judgment might be forgetfulness that mental philosophy cannot, like that such a law could have authorised or excused, physical, be deinonstrated by axioms and definitions much less have justified such actions, and have made in the manner of the exact sciences. On the whole, them become good : because 'tis plainly not in men's we may say, in the emphatic language of Mackin-power to make falsehood be truth, though they may

alter the property of their goods as they please. Now * See Brown's Philosophy and the Dissertations of Stewart (if, in flagrant cases, the natural and essential differ. and Mackintosh. Warburton, in his notes on Pope, thus sums ence between good and evil, right and wrong, cannot up the moral doctrine: • Dr Clarke and Wollaston considered but be confessed to be plainly and undeniably evident, moral obligation as arising from the essential differences and the difierence between them must be also essential and relations of things; Shaftesbury and Hutcheson, as arising unalterable in all, even the smallest, and nicest and from the moral sense; and the generality of divines, as arising most intricate cases, though it be not so easy to be solely from the will of God. On these three principles practi discerned and accurately distinguished. For if, from cal morality has been built by these different writers.' has God been pleased,' adds Warburton, to give three differ

Thus the difficulty of determining exactly the bounds of right ent excitements to the practice of virtue; that men of all ranks, concluded that just and unjust were not essentially

and wrong in many perplexed cases, it could truly be constitutions, and educations, might find their account in one or other of them; something that would hit their palate, different by nature, but only by positive constitution satisfy their reason, or subdue their will. But this admirable and custom, it would follow equally, that they were provision for the support of virtue hath been in some measure not really, essentially, and unalterably different, eren defeated by its pretended advocates, who have sacrilegiously in the most flagrant cases that can be supposed; untwisted this threefold cord, and each running away with which is an assertion so very absurd, that Mr Hobbes the part he esteemed the strongest, hath atlixed that to the himself could hardly vent it without blushing, and throne of God, as the golden chain that is to unite and draw discovering plainly, by his shifting expressions, his all to it.'-Divine Legation, book i.

secret self-condemnation. There are therefore certain



necessary and eternal differences of things, and cer- took up Hoadly's works with warmth, and passed a tain fitnesses or unfitnesses of the application of dif- censure upon them, as calculated to subvert the ferent things, or different relations one to another, not government and discipline of the church, and to depending on any positive constitutions, but founded impugn and impeach the regal supremacy in matunchangeably in the nature and reason of things, and ters ecclesiastical. The controversy was conducted unavoidably arising from the differences of the things with unbecoming violence, and several bishops and themselves.

other grave divines (the excellent Sherlock among the number) forgot the dignity of their station and the spirit of Christian charity in the heat of party

warfare. Pope alludes sarcastically to Hoadly's DR WILLIAM Lowth (1661-1732) was distin

sermon in the Dunciad'guished for his classical and theological attainments, and the liberality with which he communicated his Toland and Tindal, prompt at priests to jeer, stores to others. He published a Vindication of the Yet silent bowed to Christ's no kingdom here. Divine Authority and Inspiration of the Old and New The truth, however, is, that there was nothing Testaments (1692), Directions for ihe Profitable Reading of the Holy Scriptures, Commentaries on the Pro whatever in Hoadly's sermon injurious to the esta phets, &c. He furnished notes on Clemens Alex. cipline and government of the English church, even

blished endowments and privileges, nor to the disandrinus for Potter's edition of that ancient author, in theory. If this had been the case, he might have remarks on Josephus for Hudson's edition, and annotations on the ecclesiastical historians for Read been reproached with some inconsistency in becoining's Cambridge edition of those authors. He also ing so large a partaker of her honours and emoluassisted Dr Chandler in his Defence of Christianity for open immoralities, though denying all church

ments. He even admitted the usefulness of censures from the Prophecies. His learning is said to have authority to oblige any one to external communion, been equally extensive and profound, and he accom

or to pass any sentence which should determine the panied all his reading with critical and philological remarks. Born in London, Dr Lowth took his de condition of men with respect to the favour or disgrees at Oxford, and experiencing the countenance pleasure of God. Another great question in this and support of the bishop of Winchester, became controversy was that of religious liberty as a civil the chaplain of that prelate, a prebend of the another related to the much debated exercise of

right, which the convocation explicitly denied. And cathedral of Winchester, and rector of Buriton.

private judgment in religion, which, as one party meant virtually to take away, so the other perhaps

unreasonably exaggerated.'* The style of Hoadly's Dr BENJAMIN HOADLY, successively bishop of controversial treatises is strong and logical, but Bangor, Hereford, Salisbury, and Winchester, was a

without any of the graces of composition, and hence prelate of great controversial ability, who threw the they have fallen into comparative oblivion. He was weight of his talents and learning into the scale of author of several other works, as Terms of AccepWhig politics, at that time fiercely attacked by tance, Reasonableness of Conformity, Treatise on the the Tory and Jacobite parties. Hoadly was born Sacrament, &c. A complete edition of his works in 1676. In 1706,* while rector of St Peter's-le-Poor,

was published by his son in three folio volumes ; London, he attacked a sermon by Atterbury, and his sermons are now considered the most valuable thus incurred the enmity and ridicule of Swift portion of his writings. There can be no doubt and Pope.

He defended the revolution of 1688, that the independent and liberal mind of Hoadly, and attacked the doctrines of divine right and aided by his station in the church, tended materially passive obedience with such vigour and perse

to stem the torrent of slavish submission which then verance, that, in 1709, the House of Commons re- prevailed in the church of England. commended him to the favour of the

The first extract is from Hoadly's sermon on The Iler

queen. majesty does not appear to have complied with this Nature of the Kingdom or Church of Christ, preached request; but her successor, George I., elevated him before the king on 31st March, 1717, and which, to the see of Bangor. Shortly after his elevation to

as already mentioned, gave rise to the celebrated the bench, Hoadly published a work against the Bangorian controversy. nonjurors, and a sermon preached before the king at St James's, on the Nature of the Kingdom or

[The Kingdom of Christ not of this World.] Church of Christ. The latter excited a long and vehement dispute, known by the name of the Ban

If, therefore, the church of Christ be the kingdom gorian Controversy, in which forty or fifty tracts of Christ, it is essential to it that Christ himself be were published. The Lower House of Convocation the sole lawgiver and sole judge of his subjects, in all

points relating to the favour or displeasure of Almighty * Hoadly printed, in 1702, • A Letter to the Rev. Mr Ficet. God; and that all his subjects, in what station soever wond, occasioned by his Essay on Miracles. In the preface to they may be, are equally subjects to him; and that a volume of tracts published in 1715, in which that letter was no one of them, any more than another, hath autho. reprinted, the eminent author speaks of Fleetwood in the fol. rity either to make new laws for Christ's subjects, or lowing terms:- This contains some points, relating to the to impose a sense upon the old ones, which is the subject of miracles, in which I differed long ago from an ex

same thing; or to judge, censure, or punish the sercellent person, now advanced, by his merits, to one of the vants of another master, in matters relating purely to highest stations in the church. When it first appeared in the conscience or salvation. If any person hath any other world, he had too great a soul to make the cominon return of notion, either through a long use of words with inconresentment or contempt, or to esteem a difference of opinion, sistent meanings, or through a negligence of thought, expressed with civility, to be an unpardonable affront. So far let him but ask himself whether the church of Christ from it, that he not only was pleased to express some good be the kingdom of Christ or not; and if it be, whether liking of the manner of it, but laid hold on an opportunity, this notion of it doth not absolutely exclude all other which then immediately offered itself, of doing the writer a very considerable piece of service. I think myself obliged, | legislators and judges in matters relating to conscience upon this occasion, to acknowledge this in a public manner,

or the favour of God, or whether it can be his kingwishing that such a procedure may at length cease to be uncommon and singular.'

* IIallam's Constitutional IIistory of England,

dom if any mortal men have such a power of legisla- contrary to the interests of true religion, as it is tion and judgment in it. This inquiry will bring us plainly opposite to the maxims upon which Christ back to the first, which is the only true account of the founded his kingdom ; who chose the motives which church of Christ, or the kingdom of Christ, in the are not of this world, to support a kingdom which is mouth of a Christian ; that it is the number of men, not of this world. And indeed it is too visible to be whether small or great, whether dispersed or united, hid, that wherever the rewards and punishments are who truly and sincerely are subjects to Jesus Christ changed from future to present, from the world to alone as their lawgiver and judge in matters relating come to the world now in possession, there the kingto the favour of God and their eternal salvation. dom founded by our Saviour is, in the nature of it,

The next principal point is, that, if the church be so far changed, that it is become, in such a degree, the kingdom of Christ, and this ‘kingdom be not of what he professed his kingdom was not--that is, of this world,' this must appear from the nature and end this world; of the same sort with other common of the laws of Christ, and of those rewards and punish- earthly kingdoms, in which the rewards are worldly ments which are the sanctions of his laws. Now, his honours, posts, offices, pomp, attendance, dominion ; laws are declarations relating to the favour of God in and the punishments are prisons, fines, banishments, another state after this. They are declarations of galleys and racks, or something less of the same sort. those conditions to be performed in this world on our part, without which God will not make us happy in [Ironical View of Protestant Infallibility.) that to come. And they are almost all general appeals to the will of that God; to his nature, known

[From the Dedication to Pope Clement XI., prefixed to Sir by the common reason of mankind, and to the imita- R. Steele's Account of the State of the Roman Catholic Retion of that nature, which must be our perfection.

ligion throughout the World.'] The keeping his commandments is declared the way Your holiness is not perhaps aware how near the to life, and the doing his will the entrance into the churches of us Protestants have at length come to kingdom of heaven. The being subjects to Christ, is those privileges and perfections which you boast of as to this very end, that we may the better and more peculiar to your own : so near, that many of the effectually perform the will of God. The laws of this most quick-sighted and sagacious persons have not kingdom, therefore, as Christ left them, have nothing been able to discover any other difference between us, of this world in their view; no tendency either to the as to the main principle of all doctrine, government, exaltation of some in worldly pomp and dignity, or worship, and discipline, but this one, namely, that to their absolute dominion over the faith and religious you cannot err in anything you determine, and we conduct of others of his subjects, or to the erecting of never do: that is, in other words, that you are infalany sort of temporal kingdom under the covert and lible, and we always in the right. We cannot but name of a spiritual one.

esteem the advantage to be exceedingly on our side The sanctions of Christ's law are rewards and punish- in this case ; because we have all the benefits of inments. But of what sort ? Not the rewards of this fallibility without the absurdity of pretending to it, world ; not the offices or glories of this state; not the and without the uneasy task of maintaining a point pains of prisons, banishments, fines, or any lesser and so shocking to the understanding of mankind. And more moderate penalties ; nay, not the much lesser you must pardon us if we cannot help thinking it to negative discouragements that belong to human so- be as great and as glorious a privilege in us to be ciety. He was far from thinking that these could be always in the right, without the pretence to infallithe instruments of such a persuasion as he thought bility, as it can be in you to be always in the wrong, acceptable to God. But, as the great end of his king with it. dom was to guide men to happiness after the short Thus, the synod of Dort (for whose unerring deciimages of it were over here below, so he took his sions public thanks to Almighty God are every three motives from that place where his kingdom first be- years offered up with the greatest solemnity by the gan, and where it was at last to end; from those re- magistrates in that country), the councils of the rewards and punishments in a future state, which had formed in France, the assembly of the kirk of Scoti no relation to this world ; and to show that his ‘king- land, and (if I may presume to name it) the convocadom was not of this world,' all the sanctions which he tion of England, have been all found to have the very thought fit to give to his laws were not of this world same unquestionable authority which your church at all.

claims, solely upon the infallibility which resides in St Paul understood this so well, that he gives an it; and the people to be under the very same strict i account of his own conduct, and that of others in the obligation of obedience to their determinations, which same station, in these words : ‘Knowing the terrors of with you is the consequence only of an absolute inthe Lord, we persuade men :' whereas, in too many fallibility. The reason, therefore, why we do not Christian countries since his days, if some who profess openly set up an infallibility is, because we can do to succeed him were to give an account of their own without it. Authority results as well from power as conduct, it must be in a quite contrary strain : 'Know- from right, and a majority of votes is as strong a ing the terrors of this world, and having them in our foundation for it as infallibility itself. Councils that power, we do not persuade men, but force their out-may err, never do: and besides, being composed of ward profession against their inward persuasion.' men whose peculiar business it is to be in the right,

Now, wherever this is practised, whether in a great it is very immodest for any private person to think degree or a small, in that place there is so far a change them not so; because this is to set up a private from a kingdom which is not of this world, to a king-corrupted understanding above a publie uneorrupted dom which is of this world. As soon as ever you hear judgment. of any of the engines of this world, whether of the Thus it is in the north, as well as the south; greater or the lesser sort, you must immediately think abroad, as well as at home. All maintain the exercise that then, and so far, the kingdom of this world takes of the same authority in themselves, which yet they place. For, if the very essence of God's worship be know not how so much as to speak of without ridicule spirit and truth, if religion be virtue and charity, in others. under the belief of a Supreme Governor and Judge, if In England it stands thus : The synod of Dort is true real faith cannot be the effect of force, and if of no weight; it determined many doctrines wrong. there can be no reward where there is no willing | The assembly of Scotland hath nothing of a true choice—then, in all or any of these cases, to apply authority ; and is very much out in its scheme of force or flattery, worldly pleasure or pain, is to act I doctrines, worship, and government. But the church

And upon

of England is vested with all authority, and justly which, above all others, a difference of opinion is most challengeth all obedience.

allowable ; such as are acknowledged to be very abIf one crosses a river in the north, there it stands struse and unintelligible, and to have been in all ages thus : The church of England is not enough reform- thought of and judged of with the same difference and ed ; its doctrines, worship, and government, have too variety. much of antichristian Rome in them. But the kirk of Scotland hath a divine right from its only head,

CHARLES LESLIE. Jesus Christ, to meet and to enact what to it shall seem fit, for the good of his church.

CHARLES LESLIE (1650–1722), author of a work Thus, we left you for your enormous unjustifiable still popular, A Short and Easy Method with the claim to an unerring spirit, and have found out a Deists, was a son of a bishop of Clogher, who is said way, unknown to your holiness and your predecessors, to have been of a Scottish family. Educated at of claiming all the rights that belong to infallibility, Trinity college, Dublin, Charles Leslie studied the even whilst we disclaim and abjure the thing itself.

As for us of the church of England, if we will believe many of its greatest advocates, we have bishops in a succession as certainly uninterrupted from the apostles, as your church could communicate it to us.

this bottom, which makes us a true church, we have a right to separate from you ; but no persons living have a right to differ or separate from us. And they, again, who differ from us, value themselves upon something or other in which we are supposed defective, or upon being free from some superfluities which we enjoy ; and think it hard, that any will be still going further, and refine upon their scheme of worship and discipline.

Thus we have indeed left you ; but we have fixed ourselves in your seat, and make no scruple to resemble you in our defences of ourselves and censures of others whenever we think it proper.

We have all sufficiently felt the load of the two topics of heresy and schism. We have been persecuted, hanged, burned, massacred (as your holiness well knows) for heretics and schismatics. But all this hath not made us sick of those two words. We can still throw them about us, and play them off upon others, as plentifully and as fiercely as they are dispensed to us from your quarter. It often puts me in mind (your holiness must allow me to be a little ludicrous, if you admit me to your conversation), it often, I say, puts me in mind of a play which I have seen amongst

Charles Leslie. some merry people : a man strikes his next neighbour with all his force,

and he, instead of returning it law in London, but afterwards turned his attention to to the man who gave it, communicates it, with equal divinity, and in 1680 took orders. As chancellor of zeal and strength, to another; and this to another; the cathedral of Connor, he distinguished himself by and so it circulates, till it returns perhaps to him who several disputations with Catholic divines, and by set the sport agoing. Thus your holiness begins the the boldness with which he opposed the pro-popish attack. You call us heretics and schismatics, and designs of King James. Nevertheless, at the revoburn and destroy us as such ; though, God knows, lution, he adopted a decisive tone of Jacobitism, there is no more right anywhere to use heretics or from which he never swerved through life. Remove schismatics barbarously, than those who think and ing to London, he was chiefly engaged for several speak as their superiors bid them. But so it is. You years in writing controversial works against quakers, tħunder out the sentence against us.

We think it ill Socinians, and deists, of which, however, none are manners to give it you back again ; but we throw it now remembered, besides the little treatise of which out upon the next brethren that come in our way; the title has been given, and which appeared in 1699. and they upon others : and so it goes round, till some He also wrote many occasional and periodical tracts perhaps have sense and courage enough to throw it in behalf of the house of Stuart, to whose cause his back upon those who first began the disturbance by talents and celebrity certainly lend no small lustre. pretending to authority where there can be none.

Being for one of these publications obliged to leave We have not indeed now the power of burning the country, he repaired in 1713 to the court of the heretics, as our forefathers of the Reformation had. Chevalier at Bar le Duc, and was well received. The civil power hath taken away the act which con- James allowed him to have a chapel fitted up for tinued that glorious privilege to them, upon the re- the English service, and was even expected to lend monstrance of several persons that they could not a favourable ear to his arguments against popery ; sleep whilst that act was awake. But then, every- but this expectation proved vain. It was not posthing on this side death still remains untouched to sible for an earnest and bitter controversialist like us: we can molest, harass, imprison, and ruin any Leslie to remain long at rest in such a situation, man who pretends to be wiser than his betters. And and we are not therefore surprised to find him rethe more unspotted the man's eharacter is, the more turn in disgust to England in 1721. He soon after necessary we think it to take such crushing methods. died at his house of Glaslough, in the county of Since the toleration hath been authorised in these Monaghan. The orks of th remarkable man nations, the legal zeal of men hath fallen the heavier have been collected in seven volumes (Oxford, 1832), upon heretics (for must always, it seems, be exer- and it must be allowed that they place their author cised upon some sort of persons or other); and amongst very high in the list of controversial writers, the inthese, chiefly upon such as differ from us in points in genuity of the arguments being only equalled by the



keenness and pertinacity with which they are on fall downward, and which we call gravity ? taking all occasions followed out; but a modern reader sighs this postulatum, which had been thought of before, to think of vivid talents spent, with life-long perse- that such power might decrease in a duplicate proporverance, on discussions which have tended so little tion of the distances from the earth’s centre. Upon to benefit mankind.

Sir Isaac's first trial, when he took a degree of a great circle on the earth's surface, whence a degree at the distance of the moon was to be determined also,

to be sixty measured miles only, according to the WILLIAM WHISTOx (1667-1752) was an able but gross measures then in use, he was in some degree eccentric scholar, and so distinguished as a mathe- disappointed; and the power that restrained the moon matician, that he was made deputy professor of in her orbit, measured by the versed sines of that mathematics in the university of Cambridge, and orbit, appeared not to be quite the same that was to afterwards successor to Sir Isaac Newton, of whose be expected had it been the power of gravity alone principles he was one of the most successful ex- by which the moon was there influenced. l'pon this pounders. Entering into holy orders, he became disappointment, which made Sir Isaac suspect that chaplain to the bishop of Norwich, rector of Lowe- this power was partly that of gravity and partly that stoffe, &c. He was also appointed Boyle lecturer of Cartesius’s vortices, he threw aside the paper of in the university, but was at length expelled for his calculation, and went to other studies. However, promulgating Arian opinions. He then went to some time afterward, when Monsieur Picart had London, where a subscription was made for him, much more exactly measured the earth, and found and he delivered a series of lectures on astronomy, that a degree of a great circle was sixty-nine and a. which were patronised by Addison and Steele. half such miles, Sir Isaac, in turning over some of his Towards the close of his life, Whiston became a former papers, lighted upon this old imperfect calculaBaptist, and believed that the millennium was ap- tion, and, correcting his former error, discovered that proaching, when the Jews would all be restored. this power, at the true correct distance of the moon Had he confined himself to mathematical studies, from the earth, not only tended to the earth’s centre, he would have earned a high name in science; but as did the common power of gravity with us, but was his time and attention were dissipated by his theo- exactly of the right quantity; and that is a stone logical pursuits, in which he evinced more zeal than was carried up to the moon, or to sixty semi-diameters judgment. His works are numerous. Besides a

of the earth, and let fall downward by its gravity, Theory of the Earth, in defence of the Mosaic ac- and the moon's own menstrual motion was stopped, count of the creation, published in 1696, and some

and she was let fall by that power which before retracts on the Newtonian system, he wrote an Essay tained her in her orbit, they would exactly fall toon the Revelation of St John (1706), Sermons on the wards the same point, and with the same velocity; Scripture Prophecies (1708), Primitive Christianity which was therefore no other power than that of Revived, five volumes, (1712), Memoirs of his own gravity. And since that power appeared to extend as Life, (1749-50), &c. An extract from the last men

far as the moon, at the distance of 240,000 miles, tioned book is subjoined :

it was but natural, or rather necessary, to suppose

it might reach twice, thrice, four times, &c., the same [Anecdote of the Discovery of the Newtonian

distance, with the same diminution, according to the Philosophy.]

squares of such distances perpetually: which noble

discovery proved the happy occasion of the invention After I had taken holy orders, I returned to the of the wonderful Newtonian philosophy, college, and went on with my own studies there, particularly the mathematics and the Cartesian philosophy, which was alone in vogue with us at that time. But it was not long before I, with immense pains, but no assistance, set myself with the utmost zeal to the

Dr Philip DODDRIDGE, a distinguished nonconstudy of Sir Ísaac Newton's wonderful discoveries in formist divine and author, was born in London, June his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica,' 26, 1702. His grandfather had been ejected from one or two of which lectures I had heard him read in the living of Shepperton, in Middlesex, by the act the public schools, though I understood them not at of uniformity in 1662; and his father, a man engaged all at that time-being indeed greatly excited thereto in mercantile pursuits in London, married the only by a paper of Dr Gregory's, when he was professor in daughter of a Gernian, who had fled from Prague to Scotland, wherein he had given the most prodigious escape the persecution which raged in Bohemia, commendations to that work, as not only right in all after the expulsion of Frederick, the Elector Pala. things, but in a manner the effect of a plainly divine tine, when to abjure or emigrate were the only altergenius, and had already caused several of his scholars natives. The pious parents of Doddridge early into keep acts, as we call them, upon several branches structed him in religious knowledge. I have heard of the Newtonian philosophy; while we at Cambridge, him relate,' says his biographer, Mr Job Orton, poor wretches, were ignominiously studying the fic

* that his mother taught him the history of the Old titious hypotheses of the Cartesian, which Sir Isaac and New Testaments, before he could read, by the Newton had also himself done formerly, as I have assistance of some Dutch tiles in the chimney in the heard him say. What the occasion of Sir Isaac New- room where they commonly sat; and her wise and ton's leaving the Cartesian philosophy, and of dis- pious reflections upon the stories there represented covering his amazing theory of gravity was, I have were the means of making some good impressions heard him long ago, soon after my first acquaintance upon his heart, which never wore out; and therewith him, which was 1694, thus relate, and of which fore this method of instruction he frequently recomDr Pemberton gives the like account, and somewhat mended to parents. In 1712, Doddridge was sent more fully, in the preface to his explication of his phi- to school at Kingston-upon-Thames; but both his losophy. It was this: an inclination came into Sir parents dying within three years afterwards, he was Isaac's mind to try whether the same power did not removed to St Albans, and whilst there, was solemnly keep the moon in her orbit, notwithstanding her pro- admitted, in his sixteenth year, a member of the jectile velocity, which he knew always tended to nonconforming congregation. His religions imgo along a straight line the tangent of that orbit, pressions were ardent and sincere; and when, in which makes stones and all heavy bodies with us | 1718, the Duchess of Bedford made him an offer to


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