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from the sealing compound. Then, with putty knife, pry the top cover up the sides and off of the terminal posts.

Fifth: Then, with heated putty knife, remove all sealing compound from inner cover.

Sixth: Now play the flame onto the inner cover until it becomes soft and pliable; then take hold of both terminal posts of one cell and remove the elements from the jar slowly; then lift the inner cover from the terminal posts.

Seventh: Now separate positive and negative elements, by pulling them apart sideways. Destroy old separators.

Eighth: To remove a leaky jar, first empty the electrolyte from the jar, and then play the flame on the inside of the jar until the compound surrounding it is soft and plastic; then, with the aid of two pairs of pliers, remove it from the crate, slowly, lifting evenly.

Ninth: To put in a new jar, in place of the leaky one, heat it ihoroughly in a pail of hot water and force it gently.

Tenth: In reassembling the battery, first assemble the positive and negative elements, pushing them together sideways, then turn them on the side, and with both hold-downs in place, insert new separators, being very careful to have the grooved side of the separators next to each side of the positive plate. Also be careful to have the separators extend beyond the plates on each side, so there will be no chance of the plates short circuiting. Now press all separartors up against hold-downs.

Eleventh: Heat up inner cover with the flame; then place same on terminal posts; then take hold of both terminal posts and slowly lower the elements into the jar.

Twelfth: Now, with expansion chamber in place on the inner cover, until it reaches the level of the hole in the top of the expansion chamber, i. e., so that when the top cover is replaced it will squeeze the sealing compound off the top of the expansion chambers.

Thirteenth: Now soften top cover with flame and replace on terminal posts until it rests on top of expansion chamber; then place a weight on top cover until sealing compound cools.

Fourteenth: Now pour sealing compound around the edge of the top cover until it reaches the top of top cover; then, when the sealing compound has cooled, take a putty knife and scoop extra sealing compound off of top cover, making a smooth surface over all the top of the battery.

Fifteenth: In burning the top connector to terminal post, proceed as follows: Scrape the hole of the top connector until the surface is bright and clean; scrape terminal post until top and edge of all surfaces are free of dirt. Now, scrape a piece of lead thoroughly, preferably a small bar; then apply hydrogen-gas flame, mixed with air under pressure, to the top connector and terminal post assembled, at the same time heating lead bar. When top connector and terminal post begin to melt, apply lead bar directly on same, melting it, thus making a firm burned connection. Then fill rest of hole-space with melted lead and smooth off even with top of top connector.

General Care of All Lead Batteries: The battery boxes must be kept clean and dry. The acid-proof paint of both the boxes and the tanks must be kept in good condition by repainting when necessary. The terminals must be kept thoroughly clean and covered by a coating of vaseline. Corroded copper, iron or any other foreign materials must not be allowed to get into the cells. If, through accident, this occurs, the acid in such cells must be thrown away and new electrolyte used. Matches or exposed flames of any kind must not come near the battery boxes, especially when the cells are charging. The gases thus given off are explosive when sufficiently concentrated. Temperatures higher than 100° F. are to be avoided, as the corrosion of the positive plates is accelerated. Low temperatures are not injurious, although they temporarily reduce the capacity of the battery.

Lead-Burning Outfits. In all batteries having permanently jointed connections the various joints are produced by melting of a portion of the parts to be joined by a process termed “leadburning," and forming a solid weld by means of heat to melt the lead, which may be produced with illuminating gas, hydrogen gas or the electric arc. The illuminating gas outfit is the simplest and can be used to advantage wherever that gas is available. It consists of a special-burning tip and a mixing valve. A supply of compressed air is necessary, the pressure ranging from 5 to 10 pounds, and the various parts of the apparatus are joined together by 5/16-inch rubber hose, which is securely wired to the apparatus to insure tight connection. This is made necessary by the air pressure advised. The mixing valve is a very simple fitting, comprising of two shut-off cocks attached to a common outlet pipe. One of the cocks regulates the gas supply, the other controls the amount of air. Naturally, the mixed air and gas issue from the outlet pipe. The burner is a special form, which gives a very hot flame. When the flame is properly adjusted for burning it will have a greenish color. If there is too much gas, the flame will be yellow and be very ragged. If the flame is a blue color, gradually becoming less visible, too much air is provided, and as



Fig. 32.—Lead-Burning Outfits. A-Electric Arc Set. B-Hydrogen

Gas Generator.

a result it is lacking in heating power. The hottest part of a properly adjusted flame is just past the end of the inner point. Do not hold the flame too near the work, as the heating effect of the flame will be diminished if it is spread. If the air pressure is obtained from a tank holding a supply for blowing up automobile tires, for instance, a reducing valve must be introduced in the air line between the tank and the burner. The best method of producing the air pressure is by a small blower.

The apparatus needed for are burning is shown at Fig. 32 A. The advantage of this method is that current from a six-volt battery may be used, not requiring the fitting of auxiliary apparatus. Although called an “arc-burning outfit, it is said that the best results are obtained by using the carbon as a soldering iron after it becomes heated without actually drawing an arc. The outfit is very simple, consisting of a carbon holder with cable, a clamp and a number of 14-inch diameter carbons. The method of using it for reburning connectors is easily understood. The connector to be burned is connected to one terminal of the storage battery by a piece of cable, which can be made fast to the latter by means of a clamp. It is essential that the contact surfaces be scraped bright to secure a good electrical connection. The cable attached to the carbon holder is connected to the other battery terminal. If a battery is partially discharged the three cells will be needed, but if the battery is fully charged three cells may give too much voltage. The amount of current passing through should be sufficient to raise the temperature of the carbon to at least a bright cherry red while it is in contact with the joint. The carbon should be sharpened to a long point and should not project from the holder more than two or three inches. The holder should be cooled off occasionally by plunging it into a pail of water. After being used for a short time the carbon will not heat properly because of a scale film produced on the surface. This should be cleaned off till the bare carbon is exposed before proceeding with the vork.

The hydrogen-gas outfit, such as shown at B, Fig. 32, while more expensive and troublesome than the illuminating gas burner, produces a much superior flame for lead burning, and is very generally used where a large amount of work is done. The hydrogen outfit shown is supplied by the Electric Storage Battery Company, and consists of the following parts: One generator; one washbottle; one air pump and tank combined; one branch pipe; one finger pipe and set of tips; one 50-foot length 5/16-inch rubber tubing; one two-foot length 34-inch rubber tubing; two rubber stoppers; one triangular scraper. The material for charging is : zinc, 15 pounds; water, 12 quarts; sulphuric acid, 212 quarts.

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Fig. 33.—How Hydrogen Gas Generating Outfit is Set Up.

The apparatus is connected up as shown at Fig. 33. The instructions for using are sent with each outfit, but a brief outline of the method of joining the parts may be of some value. The bottom of the reservoir A must be higher than the top of the gas chamber F. Connect the lower outlet M of the reservoir A with the pipe G, coming out of the top of the gas chamber F. Put a short piece of 5/16-inch hose on the outlet E coming from the gas chamber F, and kink this hose to constrict the passage and prevent anything coming through it. Put a rubber stopper in outlet H of gas chamber F, and inspect carefully to see that it is tightly in place. Remove the hand-hole cover X from the top

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