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Fig. 29.—Tools and Apparatus Recommended by the Electric Storage Battery Company

Maintenance and Repair of Exide Batteries.

necessary to make the repairs indicated by test. If, however, the battery has been in service for six months or longer, and the cell or cells to be repaired show general deterioration, it is very probable that the other cells in the battery are in nearly as bad condition, and the elements should be removed from all of the jars in the battery. If, upon inspection, plates are still in good condition, the wood separators should be discarded and new wood separators put in the good cells as well as those requiring repairs.

To Dismantle a Cell: Have battery fully charged before dismantling a cell.

Remove vent cap and washer.

To remove terminal or connecting link, center the tops of terminals and connectors over the terminal. posts with a centerpunch and drill down to depth of 34 inch, using a 18-inch drill if you have 34-inch posts and a 7-inch drill if you have 1-inch posts. Terminals or links can then be removed by working back and forth gently with gas pliers.

To remove top cover. Soften the sealing compound by a jet of steam or a gas flame. The use of the flame requires very careful manipulation and continual attention of the operator. Care must be taken that the flame does not burn or scorch the edges of the cover. Then gently pry the cover from the jar.

With a heated putty knife or screw-driver, clean the compound from the inside edges of the rubber jar. The element can now be removed (with the lower cover) by grasping each terminal post firmly with gas pliers and pulling up slowly but strongly, holding the battery down meanwhile.

If separators are in good condition and a jar replacement only is to be made, set the element, with bottom cover, in electrolyte or water till ready to replace.

Remove the bottom cover from the element after cleaning compound away from the posts. The covers may have warped from the heat. If so they should be heated again by being placed in boiling water, straightened out and laid on a flat surface to cool.

Separate the positive and negative groups and discard the wooden separators. If rubber sheets also are used, those that are not broken should be washed and laid aside for future use. The

negative group should be washed and also laid aside until needed. The negative group should be immersed in water, otherwise it takes up oxygen from the air, which is liable to cause dangerous heating

To remove a leaky jar, pour boiling water in the jar to soften the surrounding compound and lift the jar from the case. If the compound cannot be softened with boiling water, use a jet of steam or a flame on the inside of the jar. To install a new jar, pour boiling water in the jar. When it is thoroughly heated, press it carefully into place.

To Replace an Element: To assemble the new element: inter

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Fig. 30.—Terminal Types Used in Connection With Exide Vehicle

Batteries.

mesh the positive and negative group, positive and negative plates alternating. As a negative group contains one more plate than does the positive, both outside plates will be negative. Lay the element on its side, and put the separator retainers in position. Insert the separators between each pair of plates. If wooden separators only are used, the grooved side of the separator should be next the positive plate. If wood separators and rubber sheets are used, they should be inserted together, the rubber sheet beiween the positive plate and the grooved side of the wood separator. See that the separators are against the retainers and that they extend equally on either side of the element.

Grasping the element by the pillar posts, lower gently into the jar. Fill with electrolyte of the proper density (see "Electrolyte") and let the cell cool for at least twelve hours. Develop the plates. It is advisable to develop with the cover off on account of better ventilation and greater convenience in taking thermometer and hydrometer readings. Furthermore, if a fault develops it can be remedied without having to remove the cover. Proceed as follows: Burn a copper wire (about No. 10) to the top of each terminal post with a few drops of burning material, just enough to make good connection. Connect these wires to the charging source. Develop at a rate equal to six-tenths (.6), the final rate of the battery. The time required to develop at this rate will be about sixty hours. After the developing has gone on for thirty hours, disconnect the charging wires and reconnect so as to charge the balance of the cells in the battery as well as the cell or cells being developed. When the cell voltage and the specific gravity have remained unchanged for five hours, the cell is fully developed. Even up the electrolyte in the cells to 1.300.

Place the upper and lower covers in boiling water. When the lower cover has become thoroughly heated, press it gently into position. Carefully clean the inside edges of the jar and cover with warm water and dry with a flame. Otherwise, the compound will not stick. If there are any openings between cover and jar wide enough to allow the heated compound to run into the jar, work a small amount of compound around these edges, using a putty knife or brush before starting to pour. Pour melted sealing compound around the edge. Allow a few moments for this compound to harden slightly, then pour melted compound until it reaches a point slightly above the top of the expansion chamber, and at once press the heated top cover on the compound. Place a weight on the top cover and let it remain until the top cover cools fast to the compound. Pour melted compound around the edges and to the level of the top of the cover and smooth off with heated putty knife. Burn the connecting links and terminals to the pillar posts.

Repairing Willard Automobile Type Batteries.—In repairing a Willard storage battery a definite routine must be followed in tearing down and building up same in order that it will be in the best condition when reassembled. These steps are as follows:

First: Remove all vent plugs and washers.

Second : Center punch both top connectors in each cell which is to be repaired; then drill 34 inch into top connector with a

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Fig. 31.-Diagram Showing Construction of Points to be Reached in

Rebuilding or Tearing Down Willard Storage Battery.

5/8-inch diameter drill. Now pull off top connector with pair of pliers.

Third : Apply gas flame or blow-torch flame to the top of the battery long enough to soften the sealing compound under the top cover. Now, with heated putty knife, plow out the sealing compound around the edge of the top cover.

Fourth: Insert a putty knife, or any other thin, broad-pointed tool, heated in flame, along underside of top cover, separating it

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