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sealing nuts have been removed. As soon as the compound has softened, a little pressure with the thumbs on the terminal posts will cause the jar to drop out of the cover. The warming may be accomplished by passing a moderate flame quickly around the cover, taking care not to hold it at any one spot long enough to burn the rubber.

With the single-flange type the sloping sides of the cover and flange at the bottom give a space about a quarter of an inch wide for the sealing compound. To unseal this type of seal a flat-bladed putty knife or a screw-driver is heated in the flame and run through the sealing compound close to the jar wall all the way around. This will loosen the compound and the element can be lifted out of the jar. When taking the elements apart, i. e., separating the positive and negative plate groups, never allow them to stand in the air, but always put them in some weak electrolyte. If the cell jar is broken and the parts are in otherwise good condition it is not necessary to remove the sealing nuts on the single-flange type, as the entire assembly may be lifted back into a new jar. If the cover is cracked it will be necessary to loosen the sealing nuts and to supply a new cover.

If the plates are found to be buckled, the operation of straightening is relatively simple. Spacing boards of suitable thickness are placed between the plates, also outside of the plate group, and the whole is put in a vise, as shown at Fig. 27 B, and subjected to a gradual pressure. If, in addition to the buckling, the negatives have shed active material due to starvation or other abuse, it will be necessary to use a new set of plates. When the active material is very hard and not spongy it is “sulphated," and particular care should be taken in charging, after the cell is reassembled, to make sure that the electrolyte is brought to its maximum gravity.

It is well to examine the wood separators to see that the ribs are not worn off and that there are no splits or other perforations to reduce the mechanical strength or destroy its utility as a separator. The method of removing and inserting separators is clearly outlined at Fig. 27 C. It is always necessary to clean out cell jars thoroughly after the elements have been removed in order to clear out all sediment and fallen active material. In inserting separators it is well to note that the flat side of the wood goes against the negative plate and the rib side against the positive plate. Where perforated rubber sheets are used in addition to

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Fig. 27.—Some Operations When Repairing Exide Battery. A-Re

moving Double Seal Cover. B-Straightening Buckled Plates. C—How to Remove Wood Separators. D—Method of Locking Sealing Nuts on Burned Connector Type Cells.

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the wood separators, these are always placed against the grooved side, one to each wood separator, and the two inserted between the plates together. When the separators are all in place the edges should be tapped with a wood block until they project equally on each side of the plates.

The sealing nuts are tightened with a special wrench, which is shown in Fig. 28. To lock the sealing nuts in place a prickpunch is used to burr the thread in spots above each nut, as shown at D, Fig. 27. This will slightly upset the alloy thread on the post and prevent the nut from coming loose. This is necessary only on those types of cells having burned connections, as in bolted connections the thread of the nut post does not extend above the sealing nut. The top, or clamping nut, acts as a lock to prevent the sealing nut from loosening.

Before sealing a cell, always wipe the surfaces against which the sealing compound is to be placed with ammonia and allow it to dry thoroughly. Otherwise the compound will not stick. In the double-flange type a string of sealing compound about 3/16ths inch in diameter is made by rolling some special compound between two boards. This is packed in the space between the flanges and is heated before the cell cover is pushed in place.

While it is not difficult to release those types of cells having bolted-on connecting strips, the burned-on type connectors cannot be removed as easily. To remove these solid lead links it is necessary to bore the connectors centrally over each post with a 7/8-inch wood bit. Another method is to play a burning flame on the joint to soften the lead and then to pull off the connector with a pair of pliers. The method of taking down the bolted connection is clearly outlined at Fig. 28. The first step is to remove the filling plugs to provide more room for working on the battery terminals. A special socket wrench is provided for the alloycovered top nuts, this being easily turned by a special ratchet wrench. After the top nut is removed the spacing washers and connector strips may be taken off, and it is well to take off the connector strips without bending them. It is also well to save the alloy washers. These are placed one above, one between and one below the two connector straps. Two types of connector strips

are provided, a simple form consisting of a straight piece, and a later type, in which the lead-covered copper connectors are provided with cast lead ends that eliminate the spacing washers.

Do not try to unscrew the sealing nuts with a Stilson wrench. The wrench teeth will not only damage the sealing-nut corrugations, but the pressure may squeeze a nut so tightly into the threads that it can be removed only with difficulty. The special

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Fig. 28.—Tools Used and Method of Disassembling Bolted Type

Exide Connectors.

box wrench illustrated is necessary for removing the sealing nuts without damage. This has a series of small projections which fit into the corresponding spaces on the sealing nut and make it very easy to turn that member. Whenever a bolted connectiontype cell is assembled, the first step is to grease the studs well with vaseline. Slip one of the connector links over the posts of adjoining cells, then an alloy washer over each post, followed by a second connector and a second washer. The last washer is then put in place and the top nut pulled up tight with a properly fitting socket wrench. If a monkey wrench or worn S-wrench is used the soft corners of the alloy-covered nut are apt to be marred if the wrench slips.

Battery Repair Tools.—The following list of tools and apparatus is given in the Gould Instruction Book, and will be found of value in repairing storage batteries of any make: One pair of rubber gloves, to protect the hands from acid; one 7-inch endcutting nippers or one pair bolt cutters, for cutting connectors, plate lugs, etc.; two pairs of combination pliers, for pulling elements from jars; one triangular lead scraper, for cleaning plate lugs, terminals, etc.; one putty knife, for removing sealing compound; one half-inch wide wood chisel, for the same purpose; one five-inch screw-driver, for removing sealing compound and covers; one single-end wrench for removing terminal nuts; several coarse files and handles, for filing plate lugs, straps, etc.; one steel wire brush for cleaning files and battery terminals; one ball peir. hammer, medium size, for general work; one 10-inch ratchet bit brace, for drilling links loose from pillar posts; one 5/8-inch diameter bit-stock drill, for removing 58-inch connectors; one 78-inch bit-stock drill, for removing 73-inch connectors; one small drill, to start holes; one center punch, for centering terminals to drill; one adjustable hacksaw frame and three 8-inch blades to fit it; one iron ladle, for pouring sealing compound; one pair blue glasses, for use when lead burning; one soft-rubber bulb syringe, for flushing and equalizing electrolyte; one burning-rack, with extra guide plates; one hydrometer, for mixing electrolyte; one thermometer, for reading cell and electrolyte temperature, and one lead-burning outfit. A group of the tools recommended by the Electric Storage Battery Company for work on the Exide batteries is shown at Fig. 29. The special terminal and box wrenches shown will fit the Exide battery terminals only.

To Repair Gould Batteries of the Sealed Types.—Batteries to be repaired may have been in service but a short time, the necessity for repairs being broken terminals, leaky jar, plates in one cell short circuited, etc. Under these circumstances it is only

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