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Security of property essential to civilization . . .

England has enjoyed this advantage more than any other nation
Constant warfare in Ireland from the time of Henry II. to
that of Cromwell . . . . .

:

Penal Laws unfavourable to industry . . . .

Note on effects of Penal Laws . . . . :

Restrictions on trade . . . . . .

Note on commercial restrictions
Free trade granted and Penal Laws relaxed in 1782 .
Influence of oppressive legislation still felt . . . .
Struggles of the Roman Catholics to obtain the removal of remain-

ing disabilities . . . . . . .

Emancipation Act passed in 1829 . . .

Effects of agitation unfavourable to industry . . .

Ireland has improved in spite of all depressing circumstances .

Agricultural class improved, though still much inferior to that of

England . . . . . . . .

Labouring class not improved . . . . .
Extract from report of Land Commissioners on this subject.
Condition of Irish peasantry the opprobrium of the empire
Must be raised to the position of English labourers, or they will

bring down the English to their own level . . .

Note-Extracts from proceedings of Glasgow Parochial Board .

Irish emigration to England cannot be prevented under present

circumstances . . . . . . .
Note-Extract from Lord Stanley's speech to this effect. .

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Injurious effects of settlements and incumbrances . . .

Middlemen condemned without sufficient consideration :

Unsuitable agents often employed in the management of estates .

Management under the Courts extremely objectionable .

Under these circumstances, land has remained almost unimproved

Wise provisions for the settlement of Ulster .

Industrious character of the peasantry of Ulster . .

Custom of tenant-right

Extract from Report of Land Commissioners respecting tenant-

right . . . . . . . .

Probable origin of this custom . . . . .
Tenant-right compared to copyhold tenure in England .
Large sums of money invested on this security . . .
Any serious attempt to break this custom would be dangerous to

the public peace . . . . . . .

Agrarian outrages . . . . . . .

Note-Extract from Report of Land Commissioners respecting

agrarian outrages

Extent of these outrages . . . . . .

Exciting causes .

Insecurity of possession depresses industry.

Prevents improvement ..

Subdivision of farms . . . . . . .

Note on subdivision

Consolidation of farms; ejectment of tenantry

Note on ejected tenants . .

Difficulty of obtaining a farm . . . . . .

Anecdote illustrative of this difficulty . . . .

Miserable shifts of ejected tenants to support existence .

Wretched condition of cottiers . . . . .

Condition of those who subsist by con-acre still more deplorable.

Estimate of the number of persons supported by con-acre .

Extract from “Digest of Evidence” respecting the labouring

population . . . . . . . .

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67

Note_Extract from Lord Lansdowne's speech. .
Calamity greatly increased by the previous total dependence of

the poor on the potato crop
Fearful results of this calamity throughout the whole country
Note in illustration of these effects . . . . .
Distress very much mitigated in the Eastern counties of Ireland

by their superior resources

All classes affected by the calamity . .

Landed proprietors and others interested in land brought into

great difficulty . .

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