Зображення сторінки
PDF
ePub
[merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors]

APPENDIX Q.—Statistics of the several Counties in England and

Wales, as respects the Area, Population, Annual Value of Pro-

perty, Poor Rate, &c.

. . .

APPENDIX R.-Statement of the Poor Law Unions in each

County in Ireland, with the number of Electoral Divisions, the

Population, the Area, and the Annual Value for the assessment

of the Rate

APPENDIX S.-Statement of the Poor Law Unions and Parishes

in each County in England and Wales, with the Area in statute

acres, and the Population . .

APPENDIX T.-Historical Account of the Tenure of Land in

Ireland

. . . .

APPENDIX U.- Description of the Tenure by Lives renewable for

ever

APPENDIX W.-Remarks on the Management of Land, in respect

to the building of Farm Houses, &c. by the Landlord in Eng-

land, and by the Tenant in Ireland . . . .

APPENDIX X.-Remarks respecting Consolidation of Farms and

Ejectment of Tenantry . . . . . .

APPENDIX Y.-Remarks respecting the Management of Estates

• by the Court of Chancery .

APPENDIX 2._Remarks respecting the sale of Landed Property,

and the advantages which would result from its being more

frequently sold in small lots . .

APPENDIX AA.-Remarks respecting the Con-acre System, and

the general condition of the Labouring Classes in Ireland.

APPENDIX BB.—Extracted from M'Culloch's Geographical Dic-

tionary, in reference to the Distribution of Property in Fee in

the several counties of Ireland

. . . .

APPENDIX CC.-Extracted from M'Culloch's Geographical Dic-

tionary, in reference to the Distribution of Property in Fee in

the several Counties of England and Wales. .

APPENDIX DD.—Comparative Statement of the Exports by steam

vessels, of Horned Cattle, Pigs, and Eggs, from the ports of

Dublin, Cork, and Waterford, in the first ten months of the

years 1846 and 1847

.

[ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors]

CONDITION AND PROSPECTS OF IRELAND.

CHAPTER 1.

Natural features of Ireland_Its advantages imperfectly developed —

Character and circumstances of the people-Ignorance of the English respecting Ireland - The Conquest of England by the Normans contrasted with the imperfect subjugation of Ireland_Confiscation of Munster-Settlement of Ulster-Difference of creed added to other causes of discord-Subsequent contests assume a sectarian character -No serious effort made to convert the Irish to the reformed faithDegrading effects of the penal laws—These laws not strictly enforced - Their relaxation at various periods-Forty-shilling freeholdersPeculiarities in the industrial and social character of Ulster and Leinster as compared with Connaught and Munster.

The natural features of Ireland are peculiar. An extensive limestone plain occupies the central districts, while the mountains lie in various groups near the sea. The generally tame character of the eastern shores, affording few good ports, contrasts strongly with the bold rocky headlands, stretching far into the Atlantic, and the numerous islands which stud the western coast, whose deep and landlocked bays form many safe and commodious harbours. The wild mountain scenery of the western counties is diversified by many lakes, which discharge their waters by short and rapid rivers, offering great facilities of water power; while the drainage of the inland counties is chiefly effected by the Shannon. This great river swells out into several extensive lakes, and finally empties itself into the Atlantic by a broad and deep estuary. A considerable portion of this limestone district is occupied by deep wet bogs, which are yet sufficiently elevated for drainage; but by far the greater part is covered with a light but very fertile soil, producing good crops of corn, and affording excellent pasturage. The sides and bases of the mountains, though partly covered with bogs, support large numbers of cattle and sheep, for which the natural mountain pastures, favoured by the mildness of the climate, afford grazing throughout nearly the whole year. To these advantages it is a serious drawback, that its western sca-coast consists so largely of wild rock and barren mountains, which greatly interrupt the communication of the interior with the sea.

Peculiar as are the natural features of the country, the character and circumstances of its inhabitants are yet more extraordinary and diversified. It possesses a fertile soil, and a climate of almost unequalled mildness. Its rivers and the ocean around it teem with fish. Many of these rivers are navigable for miles inland, while others offer water-power in immediate proximity to the sea. But this fertile soil is ill-cultivated ; these fisheries are neglected ; the navigable rivers bear few vessels on their bosom ; and the rapid current, which might have been made available for various purposes of profitable industry, runs neglected to the ocean. The inhabitants, taken individually, are active and intelligent, fertile in resources, full of hope, kind to their neighbours, affectionate and faithful in the domestic relations of life ; yet they make slow progress in civilization. The time is wasted in party dissensions, which, well employed, might have advanced the prosperity of all. The rich in many cases neglect and oppress the poor, who return their oppression by servility and hatred ; and too often by deeds of cold blooded violence, which are of such frequent occurrence, that they are scarcely regarded, until some outrage of peculiar atrocity fixes the public attention for a time. It is a land of strong contrasts. The splendid mansion looks down on wretched hovels, where a single room, perhaps without window or chimney, lodges the numerous family of the peasant. The luxury of

« НазадПродовжити »