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ILLUSTRATIONS

(SELECTED BY O. M. DALTON, M.A., F.S.A.)

Tue PALACE OF THE PORPHYROGENITUS, CONSTANTINOPLE. The building

commonly known by this name, upon the walls of the city, is considered to date from the thirteenth century...

... Frontispiece From a Photograph by Sébah and Joaillier,

PAOE

10

A NAVAL BATTLE, showing the use of Greek fire. From the fourteenth Cen. tury MS. of Skylitzes at Madrid

From a Photograph by M. G. Millet, Collection des Hautes Études,

Sorbonne, Paris.

EABLY MOHAMMEDAN ARCHITECTURE: the Mosque of Omar, or Dome of the
Rock (Kubbet es Sakkra), Jerusalem; end of the seventh century

From a Photograph by Sebah and Joaillier.

34

40

...

CAPTURE OF SYRACUSE BY THE SARACENS. From the fourteenth Century
MS. of Skylitzes at Madrid

From a Photograph by M. G. Millet, Collection des Hautes Études,

Sorbonne, Paris.

EARLY MOHAMMEDAN ARCHITECTURE: the Mosque of Talun at Cairo; ninth century ...

From a Photograph by Sébah and Joaillier.

56

Silk TEXTILE of the eleventh century, with the two-headed eagle which be

came the Imperial symbol. The stuff formed the shroud of S. Bernardo Calvo, of Vich. Fragments of the original are in the Archiepiscopal Museum at Vich, and in the Kunstgewerbe Museum at Berlin (No. 91,153) ...

From a Water-colour by Herr Paul Schulze, of Crefeld, in the Victoria

and Albert Museum.

134

...

DEFEAT OF THE RUSSIANS BEFORE DRIstra in the reign of John Zimisces.
From the MS. of Skylitzes at Madrid

From a Photograph by M. G. Millet, Collection des Hautes Études,

Sorbonne, Paris.

166

...

OUR LORD BLESSING OTTO AND THEOPHANO : ivory carving of the late tenth

century in the Musée de Cluny, Paris VOL. VI.-6

xvii

178

PAGE

MOHAMMEDAN ORNAMENT; carved friezes with inscriptions from (1) the Mosque

Esh Shaibiyeh at Aleppo A.D. 1150; (2) at Mayafarkin of nearly the same date

233

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...

From Photographs taken and kindly lent by Miss Gertrude Lowthian

Bell.

268

ARAB AND TURKISH COINS
1. Early Arab bronze coin, struck at Tiberias and imitated from coins

of Heraclius.
2. Gold Arab coin of the seventh century struck in Africa and imitated

from Byzantine Coins. 3. Gold dinar of Harūn ar Rashid, Abbassid Caliph, A.D. 786. 4. Silver dirhem of Sulaymān II. (Seljūks of Rūm), about a.d. 1200. 5. Bronze coin of Kutb al-din Il Ghāzi (Ortukids of Māridin), about

A.D. 1176. 6. Gold coin of Hūlagū (Mongols of Persia), about A.D. 1256. 7. Silver coin of Orkhān (Othmanli Sultans), about A.D. 1326. 8. Silver coin of Muhammad II. (Othmānli, A.D. 1451-1481) struck at Constantinople.

All in the British Museum.

THE EMPEROR NICEPHORUS BOTANIATES between St. John Chrysostom and

the Archangel Michael. From the MS. of the Homilies of St. John Chrysostom (MS. Coislin 79) written in the second half of the eleventh century and offered to the Emperor

After H. Omont, Facsimiles des Miniatures des plus anciens Manuscrits,

grecs de la Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, Leroux, 1902.

302

This part

WEST END OF THE Court, GREAT MOSQUE OF DIARBEER (AMIDA).

of the building was reconstructed, as the inscriptions show, by the Inalids (feudatories of the Seljuks) in A.D. 1124-5. The columns and much of the carved ornament were taken from an earlier building, perhaps a palace, and the old arrangement appears to have been followed

From a Photograph taken, and kindly lent, by Miss Gertrude Lowthian

Bell.

348

EARLY MOHAMMEDAN ARCHITECTURE : the Mosque at Mayafarkin, attributed

to Saladin the Ayyubid, who died in A.D. 1093

368

...

THE EMPEROR FREDERICK II., enlarged from an Augustale in the British
Museum

From a Photograph taken and kindly lent by Miss Gertrude Lowthian

Bell.

372

440

A BULGARIAN RULER: THE TSAR JOHN ALEXANDER AND HIS FAMILY

From a Miniature in a Bulgarian Gospel of A.D. 1355-6 (Curzon MS. 153)

deposited by Lord Zouche in the British Museum.

GOLDEN BULLA OF THE EX-EMPEROR BALDWIN II. DE COURTENAY, attached to

a document of a.d. 1269 in the British Museum

454

PAGE

480

COURT AND FOUNTAIN OF THE MONASTERY OF LAVRA, Mount Athos. The carved slabs round the fountain are of the tenth century...

From a Photograph by M. G. Millet, Collection des Hautes Études,

Sorbonne, Paris.

BIZANTINE Houses at Mistra in the Morea, probably of the fourteenth century ...

From a Photograph taken, and kindly lent, by Mr. Walter S. George.

508

...

AS ORTHODOX GREEK MONASTERY: Chiliandari on Mount Athos. Though the

monasteries of the Holy Mountain have been subjected to continual restorations, they preserve in a great measure the original arrangement, & central church enclosed by other buildings

From a Photograph by Paul Zepdji.

530

538

Coiss FROM ALEXIUS I. to ANDRONICUS III. COINS OF DOGES, AND OF KINGS
or JERUSALEM AND SICILY

1. NOMISMA, Alexius I.
2.

Manuel I.
3.

Michael VIII.
4. Silver coin of Andronicus II. and III.
5. Silver "mata pan” of Enrico Dandolo, Doge of Venice (A.D. 1192.

1205)
6. Gold sequin of P. Gradenigo, Doge, A.D. 1289.
7. Silver gros of Bohemund VI., Count of Tripoli.
8. Silver coin of Amaury I., King of Jerusalem.
9. Bronze coin of Roger I., King of Sicily.
10.

William I., King of Sicily.

All in the British Museum.

THE HISTORY

OF THE

DECLINE AND FALL OF THE ROMAN

EMPIRE

CHAPTER LII

The two Sieges of Constantinople by the ArabsTheir Invasion

of France, and defeat by Charles Martel-Civil War of
the Ommiades and Abbasside8— Learning of the Arabs
-Luxury of the CaliphsNaval Enterprises on Crete,
Sicily, and Rome-Decay and Division of the Empire
of the CaliphsDefeats and Victories of the Greek
Emperors

of the

W

conquest

HEN the Arabs first issued from the desert, they The limits

must have been surprised at the ease and rapidity Arabian

of their own success. But, when they advanced in the career of victory to the banks of the Indus and the summit of the Pyrenees, when they had repeatedly tried the edge of their scymetars and the energy of their faith, they might be equally astonished that any nation could resist their invincible arms, that any boundary should confine the dominion of the successor of the prophet. The confidence of soldiers and fanatics may indeed be excused, since the calm historian of the present hour, who strives to follow the rapid course of the Saracens, must study to explain by what means the church and state were saved from this impending and, as it should seem, from this inevitable danger. The deserts of Scythia and Sarmatia might be guarded by their extent, their climate, their poverty, and the courage of the northern shepherds ; China was remote and inaccessible; but the greatest part of the temperate

VOL. VI.-1

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