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was an high pyramidal cap of cloth or silk, almost concealed by a profusion of pearls and jewels, the crown was formed by an horizontal circle and two arches of gold; at the summit, the point of their intersection, was placed a globe or cross, and two strings or lappets of pearl depended on either cheek. In.' stead of red, the buskins of the Sebastocrator and Cæsar were green; and on their open coronets or crowns the precious gems were more sparingly distributed. Beside and below the Cæsar, the fancy of Alexius created the Panhypersebastos and the Protosebastos, whose sound and signification will satisfy a Grecian

They imply a superiority and a priority above the simple name of Augustus; and this sacred and primitive title of the Roman prince was degraded to the kinsmen and servants of the Byzantine court. The daughter of Alexius applauds, with fond complacency, this artful gradation of hopes and honours ; but the science of words is accessible to the meanest capacity; and this vain dictionary was easily enriched by the pride of his successors. To their favourite sons or brothers, they imparted the more lofty appellation of Lord or Despot, which was illustrated with new ornaments and prerogatives, and placed immediately after the person of the emperor himself. The five titles of 1. Despot; 2. Sebastocrator; 3. Cæsar; 4. Panhypersebastos; and, 5. Protosebastos, were usually confined to the princes of his blood; they were the emanations of his majesty; but, as they exercised no regular functions, their existence was useless, and their authority precarious.

But in every monarchy the substantial powers of governthe state. ' ment must be divided and exercised by the ministers of the palace and treasury, the fleet and army.

The titles alone can differ; and in the revolution of ages, the counts and præfects, the prætor and quæstor, insensibly descended, while their servants rose above their heads to the first honours of the state. 1. In a monarchy, which refers every object to the person of the prince, the care and ceremonies of the palace form the most respectable department. The Curopalata,“ so illustrious

Offices of the palace,

and the army

43 Pars exstans curis, solo diademate dispar,

Ordine pro rerum vocitatus Cura-Palati; says the African Corippus (de Laudibus Justini, 1. i. 136), and in the same century (the sixth) Cassiodorius represents him, who, virgâ aurea decoratus, inter numerosa obsequia primus ante pedes regios incederet (Variar. vii. 5). But this great officer (unknown) ανεπίγνωστος, exercising no function, νύν δε ουδεμίαν, was cast down by

in the age of Justinian, was supplanted by the Protovestiare, whose primitive functions were limited to the custody of the wardrobe. From thence his jurisdiction was extended over the numerous menials of pomp and luxury; and he presided with his silver wand at the public and private audience. 2. In the ancient system of Constantine, the name of Logothete, or accountant, was applied to the receivers of the finances: the principal officers were distinguished as the Logothetes of the donnain, of the posts, the army, the private and public treasure ; and the great Logothete, the supreme guardian of the laws and revenues, is compared with the chancellor of the Latin monarchies. His discerning eye pervaded the civil administration;

13 and he was assisted, in due subordination, by the eparch or præfect of the city, the first secretary, and the keepers of the privy seal, the archives, and the red or purple ink which was reserved for the sacred signature of the emperor alone. 44 The introductor and interpreter of foreign ambassadors were the great Chiauss 46 and the Dragoman, 46 two names of Turkish origin, and which are still familiar to the Sublime Porte. 3. From the humble style and service of guards, the Domestics insensibly rose to the station of generals; the military themes of the East and West, the legions of Europe and Asia, were often divided, till the great Domestic was finally invested with the universal and absolute command of the land forces.47 The Protostrator, in his original functions, was the assistant of the emperor when he mounted on horseback; he gradually became the lieutenant of the great Domestic in the field; and his jurisdiction extended over the stables, the cavalry, and the royal train of hunting and hawking. The Stratopedarch was the great judge of the camp; the Protospathaire 48 commanded the guards; the Constable,49 the great Æteriarch,50 and the Acolyth 51 were the separate chiefs of the Franks, the barbarians, and the Varangi, or English, the mercenary strangers, who, in the decay of the national spirit, formed the nerve of the Byzantine armies. 4. The naval powers were under the command of the great Duke ; in his absence they obeyed the great Drungaire of the fleet; and, in his place, the Emir, or admiral, a name of Saracen extraction, 52 but which has been naturalised in all the modern languages of Europe. Of these officers, and of many more whom it would be useless to enumerate, the civil and military hierarchy was framed. Their honours and emoluments, their dress and titles, their mutual salutations and respective pre-eminence, were balanced with more exquisite labour than would have fixed the constitution of a free people;

the modern Greeks to the xvth rank (Codin. c. 5, p. 65 (p. 35, ed. Bonn]). [It is por correct to say that the place of the Curopalates was taken by the protovestiarios. Campalates was a title of rank, not of office. The care of the Palace devolved upon the Great Papias (o méyas tanías), who was always & eunuch and held the rank of protospathar. He was a very important official, and had an assistant (also a canaca) called “the Second " (8 DEUTEDOs). The protovestiarios was a eunuch who presided over the Imperial wardrobe (sacra vestis). As for the Curopalates he was in the 9th century the highest person at court next to the nobilissimus, who came immediately after the Cæsar. (Philotheus, ap. Const. Porph. de Cer. ii. 52, p. 711.) Only six persons were deemed worthy of sitting at the same table as the Emperor und Empress, namely, the Patriarch of Constantinople, the Cæsar, the Nobilissimus, the Caropalates, the Basileopator (cp. above, vol. v. p. 219), and the Zostê patricia or bigbesi maid of honour. See Philotheus, ib. p. 726. On the ranks and offices in the 9th century see Bury, The Imperial Administrative System in the Ninth Centary (Sopp. Papers, I. of British Academy), 1911.]

* Nicetas (in Manuel. I. vii. c. i. (p. 262, ed. Bonn]) defines him ás ń native "βούλεται φωνή Καγκελλάριον, ώς δ' “Ελληνες είπoιεν Λογοθέτης. Yet the epithet of unas 73s edded by the elder Andronicus (Ducange, tom. i. p. 822, 823). [This is the Logotbete toû Yevlkoû who corresponded to the old Count of the Sacred Largesses To why = the Exchequer). For the history of the financial bureaux, compare Burz, op. cit., 78 sqq. There were other Logothetes: the Logothete of the military Cst 70 stpat WTIKOU); the Logothete of the Dromos or Imperial post—8 name

first occurs in the 8th century; the Logothete of the pastures (Tv åyedôv,“ of ibe Borks").)

** From Leo I. (A.D. 470) the Imperial ink, which is still visible on some original VT, was a mixture of vermillion and cinnabar or purple. The Emperor's guardians, to shared in this prerogative, always marked in green ink the indiction and the boath. See the Dictionnaire Diplomatique (tom. i. p. 511, 513), a valuable abridgspent. The keeper of the Imperial ink was entitled 8 xaprovadpios Toll kavindelov.]

4s The Sultan sent a Liaoús to Alexius (Anna Comnena, 1. vi. p. 170; (c. 9] Ducange ad loc.), and Pachymer often speaks of the péyas r[aoús (l. vii. c. 1, 1. xii. 61 [åkodovóós, and if anglicized should be acoluth. Kolovoia meant a ceremony. ]

47

0. 30, 1. xiii. c. 22). The Chiaoush basha is now at the head of 700 officers (Rycaut's Ottoman Empire, p. 349, octavo edition).

46 Tagerman is the Arabic name of an interpreter (d'Herbelot, p. 854, 855); πρώτος των ερμηνέων ούς κοινώς ονομάζουσι δραγομάνους, says Codinus (c. v. No. 70, p. 67). See Villehardouin (No. 96), Busbequius (Epist. iv. p. 338), and Ducange (Observations sur Villebardouin and Gloss. Græc. et Latin).

[There were various military commands (7 in the 9th century) with the title Domestic The three chief were the Domestic of the Schools, the Domestic of the Excubiti, and the Domestic of the Hikanatoi. Cp. Bury, op. cit., 47 sqq.]

48 [The Npwtoo madápios Badi Alkw. But the term protospatharios by itself designated a rank, not an office; it was the rank below that of patrician and above that of spatharocandidatus (which in turn was superior to that of spatharios).)

49 Kovboravios, or kortóotavios, & corruption from the Latin Comes sta buli, or the French Connétable. In a military sense, it was used by the Greeks in the with century, at least as early as in France.

[& étaiperápxns, cp. above, vol. v. p. 222, note 45.]

52 It was directly borrowed from the Normans. In the xiith century, Giannone reckons the admiral of Sicily among the great officers,

50

35

and the code was almost perfect when this baseless fabric, the monument of pride and servitude, was for ever buried in the ruins of the empire.53

The most lofty titles and the most humble postures, which Adoration devotion has applied to the Supreme Being, have been prosti- emperor tuted by flattery and fear to creatures of the same nature with ourselves. The mode of adoration,54 of falling prostrate on the ground and kissing the feet of the emperor, was borrowed by Diocletian from Persian servitude; but it was continued and aggravated till the last age of the Greek monarchy. Excepting only on Sundays, when it was waived, from a motive of religious pride, this humiliating reverence was exacted from all who entered the royal presence, from the princes invested with the diadem and purple, and from the ambassadors who represented their independent sovereigns, the caliphs of Asia, Egypt, or Spain, the kings of France and Italy, and the Latin emperors of ancient Rome. In his transactions of business, Liutprand, bishop of Cremona,55 asserted the free spirit of a Frank and the dignity of his master Otho. Yet his sincerity cannot disguise the abasement of his first audience. When he approached the throne, Reception the birds of the golden tree began to warble their notes, which sadors were accompanied by the roarings of the two lions of gold. With his two companions, Liutprand was compelled to bow and to fall prostrate; and thrice he touched the ground with his forehead. He arose; but, in the short interval, the throne had been hoisted by an engine from the floor to the ceiling, the

53 This sketch of honours and offices is drawn from George Codinus Curopalata, who survived the taking of Constantinople by the Turks ; his elaborate though trifing work (de Officiis Ecclesiæ et Aulæ C. P.) has been illustrated by the notes of Goar, and the three books of Gretser, a learned Jesuit. (For Codinus see Appendix 1.- Following “Codinus,” Ducange and Gibbon, in the account in the text, have given a description of the ministers and officials of the Byzantine court which con. founds different periods in a single picture. The functions and the importance of these dignitaries were constantly changing; but the history of each office throughout the whole period has still to be written.)

** The respectful salutation of carrying the hand to the mouth, ad os, is the root of the Latin word, adoro adorare. This is to go too far back. Adoro comes directly from oro.] See our learned Selden (vol. iii. p. 143-145, 942), in his Titles of Honour. It seems, from the first books of Herodotus, to be of Persian origin. (The adoration of the Basileus is vividly represented in a fine miniature in a Venetian realter, which shows the Emperor Basil II. in grand costume and men grovelling at bis feet. There is a coloured reproduction in Schlumberger's Nicéphore Phocas, p. 304.)

$$ The two embassies of Liutprand to Constantinople, all that he saw or suffered in the Greek capital, are pleasantly described by himself (Hist. I. vi, c, 1-4, p. 469, 471 Legatio ad Nicephorum Phocam, p. 479-489).

of ambas.

Imperial figure appeared in new and more gorgeous apparel, and the interview was concluded in haughty and majestic silence. In this honest and curious narrative, the bishop of Cremona represents the ceremonies of the Byzantine court, which are still practised in the Sublime Porte, and which were preserved in the last age by the dukes of Moscovy or Russia. After a long journey by the sea and land, from Venice to Constantinople, the ambassador halted at the golden gate, till he was conducted by the formal officers to the hospitable palace prepared for his reception; but this palace was a prison, and his jealous keepers prohibited all social intercourse, either with strangers or natives. At his first audience, he offered the gifts of his master, slaves, and golden vases, and costly armour. The ostentatious payment of the officers and troops displayed before his eyes the riches of the empire: he was entertained at a royal banquet, 56 in which the ambassadors of the nations were marshalled by the esteem or contempt of the Greeks: from his own table, the emperor, as the most signal favour, sent the plates which he had tasted; and his favourites were dismissed with a robe of honour.57 In the morning and evening of each day, his civil and military servants attended their duty in the palace; their labour was repaid by the sight, perhaps by the smile, of their lord ; his commands were signified by a nod or a sign; but all earthly greatness stood silent and submissive in his

presence. In his regular or extraordinary processions through and accla- the capital, he unveiled his person to the public view; the rites

of policy were connected with those of religion, and his visits to the principal churches were regulated by the festivals of the Greek calendar. On the eve of these processions, the gracious or devout intention of the monarch was proclaimed by the heralds. The streets were cleared and purified; the pavement

. was strewed with flowers ; the most precious furniture, the

Proces sions

mations

56 Among the amusements of the feast, a boy balanced, on his forehead, a pike, or pole, twenty-four feet long, with a cross bar of two cubits a little below the top. Two boys, naked, though cinctured (campestrati), together and singly, climbed, stood, played, descended, &c., ita me stupidum reddidit; utrum mirabilius nescio (p. 470 [vi. c. 9]). At another repast, an homily of Chrysostom on the Acts of the Apostles was read elata voce non Latine (p. 483 (c. 29. The words non Latine do not occur in the text; but there is a variant Latina for elata]).

57 Gala is not improbably derived from Cala, or Calopt, in Arabic, a robe of honour (Reiske, Not. in Ceremon. p. 84). [Gala seems to be connected with gallant, 0. Fr. galant ; and it is supposed that both words may be akin to N.H.G. geil, Gothic gailjan (to rejoice), xaipw.]

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