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front, and to whom these worthy Christians ascribed an infusion of the divine Spirit.37 Of these and of other bands of enthusiasts, the first and most easy warfare was against the Jews, the murderers of the Son of God. In the trading cities of the Moselle and the Rhine, their colonies were numerous and rich ; and they enjoyed, under the protection of the emperor and the bishops, the free exercise of their religion.38 At Verdun, Treves, Mentz, Spires, Worms, many thousands of that unhappy people were pillaged and massacred ; 39 nor had they felt à more bloody stroke since the persecution of Hadrian. A remnant was saved by the firmness of their bishops, who accepted a feigned and transient conversion; but the more obstinate Jews opposed their fanaticism to the fanaticism of the Christians, barricadoed their houses, and, precipitating themselves, their families, and their wealth, into the rivers or the flames, disappointed the malice, or at least the avarice, of their implacable foes.

Between the frontiers of Austria and the seat of the Byzan- Their detine monarchy, the crusaders were compelled to traverse an in Hun interval of six hundred miles; the wild and desolate countries Asia. of Hungary 40 and Bulgaria. The soil is fruitful, and intersected with rivers; but it was then covered with morasses and forests, which spread to a boundless extent, whenever man has ceased to exercise his dominion over the earth. Both nations had imbibed the rudiments of Christianity; the Hungarians were ruled by their native princes; the Bulgarians by a lieutenant of the

57 Fuit et aliud scelus detestabile in hâc congregatione pedestris populi stulti et Vesane levitatis, ... anserem quendam divino Spiritu asserebant afflatum, et capellam non minus eodem repletam, et has sibi duces (hujus) secundæ viæ fecerant, &c. (Albert. Aquensis, l. i. c. 31, p. 196). Had these peasants founded an empire, they might have introduced, as in Egypt, the worship of animals, which their philosophic descendants would have glossed over with some specious and subtle Allegory.

38 Benjamin of Tudela describes the state of his Jewish brethren from Cologne along the Rhine: they were rich, generous, learned, hospitable, and lived in the enger hope of the Messiah (Voyage, tom. I. p. 243-245, par Baratier). In seventy years (he wrote about a.d. 1170) they had recovered from these massacres.

» These massacres and depredations on the Jews, which were renewed at each crusade, are coolly related. It is true that St. Bernard (epist. 363, tom. i. p. 329) admonishes the Oriental Franks, non sunt persequendi Judæi, non sunt trucidandi. The contrary doctrine had been preached by a rival monk.

** See the contemporary description of Hungary in Otho of Frisingen (Gesta Friderici), l. ii. o. 31, in Muratori, Script. Rerum Italicarum, tom vi. p. 665, 666. [This work of Otto, along with the continuation by Rahewin, has been edited in Pertz, Mon. Germ. Hist. xx. p. 347 899.; and (by G. Waitz) in Sor. rer. Germ.,

gary and

A D. 1096

Greek emperor; but on the slightest provocation, their ferocious nature was rekindled, and ample provocation was afforded by the disorders of the first pilgrims. Agriculture must have been unskilful and languid among a people, whose cities were built of reeds and timber, which were deserted in the summerseason for the tents of hunters and shepherds. A scanty

supply of provisions was rudely demanded, forcibly seized, and [In Servia] greedily consumed; and, on the first quarrel, the crusaders gave

a loose to indignation and revenge. But their ignorance of the country, of war, and of discipline exposed them to every snare. The Greek præfect of Bulgaria commanded a regular force; at the trumpet of the Hungarian king, the eighth or the tenth of his martial subjects bent their bows and mounted on horseback ; their policy was insidious, and their retaliation on these pious robbers was unrelenting and bloody. 41 About a third of the naked fugitives, and the hermit Peter was of the number, escaped to the Thracian mountains; and the emperor, who

respected the pilgrimage and succour of the Latins, conducted [Arrival at them by secure and easy journeys to Constantinople, and advised

them to wait the arrival of their brethren. For a while they remembered their faults and losses; but no sooner were they revived by the hospitable entertainment than their venom was again inflamed; they stung their benefactor, and neither gardens nor palaces nor churches 47" were safe from their depredations. For his own safety, Alexius allured them to pass over to the Asiatic side of the Bosphorus; but their blind impetuosity soon urged them to desert the station which he had assigned, 426 and to rush headlong against the Turks, who occupied the road of Jerusalem. The hermit, conscious of his shame, had with

Constantinople. Aug. 1, A.D. 1096)

41 The old Hungarians, without excepting Turotzius, are ill informed of the first crusade, which they involve in a single passage. Katona, like ourselves, can only quote the writers of France; but he compares with local science the ancient and modern geography. Ante portam Cyperon, is Sopron, or Poson ; Mallevilla, Zemlin; Fluvius Maroe, Savus ; Lintax, Leith; Mesebroch, or Marseburg, Ouar, or Moson; Tollenburg, Pragg (De Regibus Hungariæ, tom. iii. p. 19-53). (The Hungarian king Caloman treated the pilgrims well. But a few stragglers belongs ing to the host of Walter were plundered at Semlin, and their arms were hung up on the wall. The army of Peter the Hermit, arriving later, saw the arms of their forerunners, and took vengeance by attacking and occupying the town. Both the host of Peter and that of Walter lost a great many men in conflicte in Bulgaria.]

41a (In the suburbs; they were not admitted into the city.)

41b (Their station was Nicomedia and its neighbourhood (Gesta Fr. ii. 4), including Civetot (Albert, i. 16; Gesta Fr. ii. 8) and Helenopolis (Anna, x. 6).)

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crusade. (In cases where the author oites by the pages of Bongarsius, the chapters are added within square brackets, so that the reader may

be able easily to refer to the Recueil des historiens do Croisades, or any other text. In the case of Baldric the pages of the edition in the Recueil (Hist. Occ. vol. iv.) are given.)

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[p. 20-26] 6. 28-29
140, 141

142
(c. 2, 3] LE

(c. 3, 4]
ii. c. j 1. . c. 20-43

ii. c. 5-32
9-19 71. ii. c. 1-4

1. iv. 9-12

(1. v. 15-22 386 387-389

p. 389, 390
(i. 9) [i. 9-18)

(i. 14]
485-490 p. 491-493, 498 496, 497
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1. ii. c. 5-23

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15-22
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(iv. 49-55] P. 45-55

P. 61, 62

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p. 111-122
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p. 142-149

149-155

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1. vi. c. 1.50 390-392 p. 392-395 392

p. 396-400 [i. 15-17] (i. 19-23]

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Sineha

The chiefs of the first crusade

drawn from the camp to Constantinople; and his lieutenant, (Gualterius Walter the Pennyless, who was worthy of a better command, bere] attempted, without success, to introduce some order and pru

dence among the herd of savages. They separated in quest of prey, and themselves fell an easy prey to the arts of the

Sultan. By a rumour that their foremost companions were [leg. Kilij rioting in the spoils of his capital, Soliman tempted the main Arslan)

body to descend into the plain of Nice; they were overwhelmed by the Turkish arrows; and a pyramid of bones 42 informed their companions of the place of their defeat. Of the first crusaders, three hundred thousand had already perished, before a single city was rescued from the infidels, before their graver and more noble brethren had completed the preparations of their enterprise.43

None of the great sovereigns of Europe embarked their persons in the first crusade. The emperor Henry the Fourth was not disposed to obey the summons of the pope; Philip the First of France was occupied by his pleasures; William Rufus of England by a recent conquest; the kings of Spain were engaged in a domestic war against the Moors; and the northern monarchs of Scotland, Denmark,44 Sweden, and Poland, were yet strangers to the passions and interests of the South. The religious ardour was more strongly felt by the princes of the second order, who held an important place in the feudal system. Their situation will naturally cast, under four distinct heads, the review of their names and characters; but I may escape some needless repetition by observing at once that courage and the

exercise of arms are the common attribute of these Christian ad1. Godfrey venturers. I. The first rank both in war and council is justly

due to Godfrey of Bouillon; and happy would it have been for the crusaders, if they had trusted themselves to the sole conduct of that accomplished hero, a worthy representative of Charle

of Bouillon

43 Anna Comnena (Alexias, l. x. p. 287 (c. 6]) describes this doTWY Kodwós as & mountain, υψηλόν και βάθος και πλάτος αξιολογώτατον [απολαμβάνον]. In the siege of Nice, such were used by the Franks themselves as the materials of a wall. [It was near the river Dracon, which had been fixed as the boundary between the Empire and Rūm.]

43 [See table on previous page.]

44 The author of the Esprit des Croisades has doubted, and might have disbe. lieved, the crusade and death of Prince Sueno, with 1500 or 15,000 Danes, who was cut off by Sultan Soliman in Cappadocia, but who still lives in the poem of Tasso (tom. iv. p. 111-115).

magne, from whom he was descended in the female line. His father was of the noble race of the counts of Boulogne: Brabant, the lower province of Lorraine,45 was the inheritance of his mother; and, by the emperor's bounty, he was himself invested with that ducal title, which has been improperly transferred to his lordship of Bouillon in the Ardennes. 46 In the service of Henry the Fourth he bore the great standard of the empire, and pierced with his lance the breast of Rodolph, the rebel king: Godfrey was the first who ascended the walls of Rome; and his sickness, his vow, perhaps his remorse for bearing arms against the pope, confirmed an early resolution of visiting the holy sepulchre, not as a pilgrim, but a deliverer. His valour was

. matured by prudence and moderation; his piety, though blind, was sincere; and, in the tumult of a camp, he practised the real and fictitious virtues of a convent. Superior to the private factions of the chiefs, he reserved his enmity for the enemies of Christ; and, though he gained a kingdom by the attempt, his pure and disinterested zeal was acknowledged by his rivals. Godfrey of Bouillon 47 was accompanied by his two brothers, by Eustace the elder, who had succeeded to the county of Boulogne, and by the younger, Baldwin, a character of more ambiguous virtue. The Duke of Lorraine was alike celebrated on either side of the Rhine ; from birth and education, he was equally conversant with the French and Teutonic languages: the barons of France, Germany, and Lorraine assembled their vassals; and the confederate force that marched under his banner was composed of fourscore thousand foot and about ten thousand horse. II. In the parliament that was held II. Hugh of at Paris, in the king's presence, about two months after the dois.

Robert of council of Clermont, Hugh, count of Vermandois, was the most Normandy.

Flanders,

Stephen of 45 The fragments of the kingdoms of Lotharingia, or Lorraine, were broken into Chartres, the two duchies, of the Moselle, and of the Meuse; the first has preserved its name, &c. which in the latter has been changed into that of Brabant (Vales. Notit. Gall. p. 283-288). (Lothringen had been divided into Upper and Lower in the latter part of the reign of Otto I. The two duchies were again united, under Conrad II., in the hands of Duke Gozelo ; but on his death in 1044 were separated, going to his two sons, by permission of Henry III.)

46 See, in the description of France, by the Abbé de Longuerue, the articles of Boulogne, part i. p. 54 ; Brabant, part ii. p. 47, 48; Bouillon, p. 134. On bis departure, Godfrey sold or pawned Bouillon to the church for 1300 marks.

** See the family character of Godfrey in William of Tyre, 1. ix. c. 5-8 ; his previous design in Guibert (p. 485); his sickness and vow in Bernard. Thesaur. (c. 78).

VOL. VI.-19

Verman

Robert of

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