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A.D. 1051

the Ninth, a simple saint,41 of a temper most apt to deceive himself and the world, and whose venerable character would consecrate with the name of piety the measures least compatible with the practice of religion. His humanity was affected by the complaints, perhaps the calumnies, of an injured people; the impious Normans had interrupted the payment of tithes; and the temporal sword might be lawfully unsheathed against the sacrilegious robbers, who were deaf to the censures of the church. As a German of noble birth and royal kindred, Leo had free access to the court and confidence of the emperor Henry the Third; and in search of arms and allies his ardent zeal transported him from Apulia to Saxony, from the Elbe to the Tiber. During these hostile preparations, Argyrus indulged himself in the use of secret and guilty weapons ; a crowd of Normans became the victims of public or private revenge; and the valiant Drogo was murdered in a church. But his spirit survived in his brother Humphrey, the third count of Apulia. The assassins were chastised, and the son of Melo, overthrown and wounded, was driven from the field to hide his shame behind the walls of Bari, and to await the tardy succour of his allies.

But the power of Constantine was distracted by a Turkish Expedition war; the mind of Henry was feeble and irresolute; and the Leo IX

against the pope, instead of passing the Alps with a German army, was ac- Normans. companied only by a guard of seven hundred Swabians and some volunteers of Lorraine. In his long progress from Mantua to Beneventum, a vile and promiscuous multitude of Italians was enlisted under the holy standard ; 42 the priest and the robber slept in the same tent; the pikes and crosses were intermingled in the front; and the natural saint repeated the lessons of his youth in the order of march, of encampment, and of combat. The Normans of Apulia could muster in the field no more

*1 A life of St. Leo IX., deeply tinged with the passions and prejudices of the age, has been composed by Wibert, printed at Paris, 1615, in octavo, and since inserted in the Collections of the Bollandists, of Mabillon, and of Muratori. [J. May, Untersuchungen über die Abfassungszeit und Glaubwürdigheit von Wiberts Vita Leonis IX. (Offenburg, 1889).] The public and private history of that pope is diligently treated by M. de St. Marc (Abrégé, tom. ii. p. 140-210, and p. 25-95, second column).

** See the expedition of Leo IX. against the Normans. See William Appulus R. ii. p. 259-261) and Jeffrey Malaterra (1. i. c. 13, 14, 15, p. 253) (and Aimé, iii. c. 10]. They are impartial, as the national is counterbalanced by the clerical prejudice. (For details, op. Heinemann, op. cit., Appendix, p. 366 sqq.).

A.D. 1063



than three thousand horse, with an handful of infantry ; the defection of the natives intercepted their provisions and retreat; and their spirit, incapable of fear, was chilled for a moment by superstitious awe. On the hostile approach of Leo, they knelt without disgrace or reluctance before their spiritual father. But the pope was inexorable; his lofty Germans affected to deride the diminutive stature of their adversaries; and the Normans were informed that death or exile was their only alternative. Flight they disdained, and, as many of them had been three days without tasting food, they embraced the as

surance of a more easy and honourable death. They climbed [Battle of the hill of Civitella, descended into the plain, and charged in

three divisions the army of the pope. On the left and in the His defeat centre, Richard count of Aversa, and Robert the famous Guisity. Juno card, attacked, broke, routed, and pursued the Italian multi

tudes, who fought without discipline and filed without shame. A harder trial was reserved for the valour of count Humphrey, who led the cavalry of the right wing. The Germans 13 have been described as unskilful in the management of the horse and lance; but on foot they formed a strong and impenetrable phalanx ; and neither man nor steed nor armour could resist the reight of their long and two-handed swords.

After a severe conflict, they were encompassed by the squadrons returning from the pursuit; and died in their ranks with the esteem of their foes and the satisfaction of revenge. The gates of Civitella were shut against the flying pope, and he was overtaken by the pious conquerors, who kissed his feet, to implore his blessing and the absolution of their sinful victory. The soldiers beheld in their enemy and captive the vicar of Christ; and, though we may suppose the policy of the chiefs, it is probable that they were infected by the popular superstition. In the calm of retirement, the well-meaning pope deplored the effusion of Christian blood, which must be imputed to his account; he felt, that he had been the author of sin and


48 Teutonici, quia cæsaries et forma decoros

Fecerat egregia proceri corporis illos,
Corpora derident Normannica, que breviora

Esse videbantur.
The verses of the Apulian are commonly in this strain, though he heats himself a
little in the battle. Two of his similes from hawking and sorcery are descriptive
of manners.


the pa pal

scandal; and, as his undertaking had failed, the indecency of his military character was universally condemned.44 With these dispositions, he listened to the offers of a beneficial treaty; deserted an alliance which he had preached as the cause of God; and ratified the past and future conquests of the Normans. By whatever hands they had been usurped, the provinces of Apulia and Calabria were a part of the donation of Constantine origin of and the patrimony of St. Peter; the grant and the acceptance investiture confirmed the mutual claims of the pontiff and the adventurers. mans They promised to support each other with spiritual and temporal arms; a tribute or quit-rent of twelvepence was afterwards stipulated for every plough-land ; and since this memorable transaction the kingdom of Naples has remained above seven hundred years a fief of the Holy See. 46

The pedigree of Robert Guiscard 47 is variously deduced from Birth and the peasants and the dukes of Normandy: from the peasants, of Robert by the pride and ignorance of a Grecian princess ; 48 from the A.D. 1020




** Several respectable censures or complaints produced by M. de St. Maro (tom. ii. p. 200-204). As Peter Damianus, the oracle of the times, had denied the popes the right of making war, the hermit (lugens eremi incola) is arraigned by the cardinal, and Baronius (Annal. Eccles. A.D. 1053, No. 10-17) most strenuously asserts the two swords of St. Peter.

" [We have no contemporary evidence for the conditions which the Normans imposed on Leo, whom they detained in Beneventum. Heinemann thinks it probable (p. 143) that they required him to renounce the papal pretentions to sovereignty over territory in Apulia and Calabria, and to abandon his alliance with the Eastern Emperor. Leo, unable to bring himself to consent, remained at Beneventum till March, 1064; a severe illness (which proved fatal) filled him with a desire to return to Rome and induced him to consent to some at least of the Norman demands. Cp. Chalandon, op. cit., i. 142. He died on April 19. During his sojourn at Beneventum, be was engaged on a correspondence in connexion with the ecclesiastical quarrelthe final breach—with the Greek Church (see below, cap. lx.).]

** The origin and nature of the papal investitures are ably discussed by Giannone (Istoria Civile di Napoli, tom. ii. p. 37-49, 57-66) as a lawyer and antiquarian. Yet he rainly strives to reconcile the duties of patriot and Catholic, adopts an empty distinction of “Ecclesia Romana non dedit sed accepit," and shrinks from an honest but dangerous confession of the truth.

** The birth, character, and first actions of Robert Guiscard may be found in Jeffrey Malaterra (1. i. c. 3, 4, 11, 16, 17, 18, 38, 39, 40), William Appulus (1. ii. p. 260-262), William Gemeticensis or of Jumiegės (1. xi. c. 30, p. 663,664, edit. Camden), and Anda Comnena (Alexiad. 1. i. p. 23-27 [c. 10, 11], 1. vi. p. 165, 166), with the annotations of Ducange (Not. in Alexiad. p. 230-232, 320), who has swept all the French and Latin Chronicles for supplemental intelligence.

*8 'O 8è Pourrépros (& Greek corruption [ur is the regular symbol for the b Bound in medieval and modern Greek; β would represent υ]) ούτος ήν Νορμάννος το γένος, την τύχην άσημος [i. ο. 10). ... Again, εξ αφανούς πάνυ τύχης περιφανές. And elsewhere (1. iv. p. 84 [c. 1]), από εσχάτης πενίας και τύχης αφανούς. Anna Comnens was born in the purple ; yet her father was no more than a private though illustrious subject, who raieed himself to the empire.


dukes by the ignorance and flattery of the Italian subjects. 19 His genuine descent may be ascribed to the second or middle order of private nobility. 50 He sprang from a race of valvassors or bannerets of the diocese of the Coutances, in the lower Normandy; the castle of Hauteville was their honourable seat; his father Tancred was conspicuous in the court and army of the duke; and his military service was furnished by ten soldiers or knights. Two marriages, of a rank not unworthy of his own, made him the father of twelve sons, who were educated at home by the impartial tenderness of his second wife,

But & narrow patrimony was insufficient for this numerous and daring progeny; they saw around the neighbourhood the mischiefs of poverty and discord, and resolved to seek in foreign wars a more glorious inheritance. Two only remained to perpetuate the race and cherish their father's age; their ten brothers, as they successively attained the vigour of manhood, departed from the castle, passed the Alps, and joined the Apulian camp of the Normans. The elder were prompted by native spirit; their success encouraged their younger brethren; and the three first in seniority, William, Drogo, and Humphrey, deserved to be the chiefs of their nation, and the founders of the new republic. Robert was the eldest of the seven sons of the second marriage; and even the reluctant praise of his foes has endowed him with the heroic qualities of a soldier and a statesman. His lofty stature surpassed the tallest of his army; his limbs were cast in the true proportion of strength and gracefulness; and to the decline of life he maintained the patient vigour of health and the commanding dignity of his form. His complexion was ruddy, his shoulders were broad, his hair and beard were long and of a flaxen colour, his eyes sparkled with fire, and his voice, like that of Achilles, could impress obedience and terror amidst the tumult of battle. In the ruder ages of chivalry, such qualifications are not below the

49 Giannone (tom. ii. p. 2) forgets all his original authors, and rests this princely descent on the credit of Inveges, an Augustine monk of Palermo, in the last century. They continue the succession of dukes from Rollo to William II. the Bastard or Conqueror, whom they hold (communemente si tiene) to be the father of Tancred of Hauteville; a most strange and stupendous blunder i The sons of Tancred fought in Apulia, before William II. was three years old (A.D. 1037).

50 The judgment of Ducange is just and moderate : Certe humilis fuit ao tenais Roberti familia, si ducalem et regium spectemus apicem, ad quem postes pervenit; quæ honesta tamen et præter nobilium vulgarium statum et conditionem illustris habita est, "quæ nec humi reperet nec altum quid tumeret" (Wilhelm Malmsbur, de Gestis Anglorum, 1. iii. p. 107; Not. ad Alexiad. p. 230).

notice of the poet or historian; they may observe that Robert, at once, and with equal dexterity, could wield in the right hand his sword, his lance in the left; that in the battle of Civitella, he was thrice un horsed; and that in the close of that memorable day he was adjudged to have borne away the prize of valour from the warriors of the two armies. 51 His boundless ambition was founded on the consciousness of superior worth; in the pursuit of greatness, he was never arrested by the scruples of justice and seldom moved by the feelings of humanity; though not insensible of fame, the choice of open or clandestine means was determined only by his present advantage. The surname of Guiscard 62 was applied to this master of political wisdom, which is too often confounded with the practice of dissimulation and deceit; and Robert is praised by the Apulian poet for excelling the cunning of Ulysses and the eloquence of Cicero. Yet these arts were disguised by an appearance of military frankness : in his highest fortune, he was accessible and courteous to his fellow-soldiers; and, while he indulged the prejudices of his new subjects, he affected in his dress and manners to maintain the ancient fashion of his country. He grasped with a rapacious, that he might distribute with a liberal, hand; his primitive indigence had taught the habits of frugality; the gain of a merchant was not below his attention; and his prisoners were tortured with slow and unfeeling cruelty to force a discovery of their secret treasure. According to the Greeks, he departed (c. A.D. 1046] from Normandy with only five followers on horseback and thirty on foot; yet even this allowance appears too bountiful; the sixth son of Tancred of Hauteville passed the Alps as a pilgrim; and his first military band was levied among the adventurers of

51 I shall quote with pleasure some of the best lines of the Apulian (1. ii. p. 270).

Pugnat utrâque manû, nec lancea cassa nec ensis
Cassus erat, quocunque manu deducere vellet.
Ter dejectus equo, ter viribus ipse resumptis,
Major in arma redit; stimulos furor ipse ministrat.
Ut Leo cum frendens, &c.
Nullus in hoo bello sicuti post bella probatum est

Victor vel victus, tam magnos edidit ictus.
52 The Norman writers and editors most conversant with their own idiom inter.
pret Guiscard, or Wiscard, by Callidus, a cunning man. The root (wise) is familiar
to our ear; and in the old word Wiseacre I can discern something of a similar
sense and termination. Thy yoxdu payouprótatos is no bad translation of the
surname and character of Robert.

VOL. VI.-13

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