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sions, and pay their last respects to them. Upon these seven days, an altar was raised near his bedthe fourth day a coffin of cypress was sent from side, calledacerra; on which his friends every day every tribe, to convey the bones of their own offered incense; and the libitinarii provided relations; after which went a covered hearse in things for the funeral. On the seventh day, a memory of those whose bodies could not be crier was sent about the city, to invite the people found. All these, accompanied with the whole to the solemnisation of the funeral in these words: body of the people, were carried to the public.Exequias L.Tit. L. filii, quibus est commodum ire, burying-place, called Ceramicus, and there in- jam tempus est. Ollus (i.e. ille) ex ædibus effertur.' terred. One oration was spoken in commenda- The people being assembled, and the last conclation of them all, and their monuments adorned mation ended, the bed was covered with purple: with pillars, inscriptions, and all other ornaments a trumpeter marched forth, followed by old wousual about the tombs of the most honorable men called præficæ, singing songs in praise of persons. The oration was pronounced by the the deceased : lastly, the bed followed, borne by fathers of those deceased persons who behaved the next relations; and, if the person were of themselves most valiantly. Thus, after the fa- quality and office, the waxen images of all his mous battle at Marathon, the fathers of Callima- predecessors were carried before him on poles. chus and Cynægyrus were appointed to make The bed was followed by his children, kindred, the funeral oration. And, upon the return of the &c., atrati, i. e. in mourning: from which act day upon which the solemnity was first held, of following the corpse, these funeral rites the same oration was constantly repeated every were called exequiæ. The body thus brought year.' Interring, or laying the dead in the ground, to the rostra, the next of kin laudabat defuncseems to have been the most ancient practice tum pro rostris, made a funeral oration in his among the Greeks; though burning came after- praise and that of his ancestors. This done, wards to be generally used among them. It was the body was carried to the pyra, or funeral pile, customary to throw into the funeral pile those and there burnt; his friends first cutting off a garments the deceased usually wore. The pile finger, to be buried with a second solennity. was lighted by one of the deceased's nearest The body consumed, the ashes were gathered ; relations or friends, who made prayers and vows and the priest sprinkling the company thrice with to the winds to assist the flames, that the body clean water, the eldest of the preficæ crying aloud might quickly be reduced to ashes; and, during ilicet, dismissed the people, who took their leave the time the pile was burning, the dead person's of the deceased in this form :—Vale, vale, vale : friends stood by it, pouring libations of wine, nos te ordine quo natura permiserit sequemur:' and calling upon the deceased.

The ashes, enclosed in an ürn, were laid in the The funeral rites among the ancient Jews were sepulchre or tomb. solemn and magnificent. When any person was

The ancient Christians testified their abhordead, his relations and friends rent their clothes; rence of the Pagan custom of burning the dead, which custom is but faintly imitated by the mo- and always deposited the body entire in the dern Jews, who only cut off a bit of their gar- ground; and it was usual to bestow the honor ment in token of affliction. It was usual to of embalming upon the martyrs at least, if not bend the dead person's thumb into the hand, upon others. They prepared the body for burial by and fasten it in that posture with a string: be- washing it with water, and dressing it in a funeral cause the thumb then having the figure of the attire. The carrying forth of the body was pername of God, they thought the devil would not formed by near relations, or persons of such digdare to approach it. When they came to the nity as the circumstances of the deceased required. burying-place, they made a speech to the dead Singing of psalms was the great ceremony used in in the following terms : · Blessed be God, who all funeral processions among the ancient Chrishas formed thee, fed thee, maintained thee, and tians. taken away thy life. O dead ! he knows your The funeral rites of the Greek church are numbers, and shall one day restore your life, much the same with those of the Latin. It &c.' Then they spoke the eulogium, or funeral needs only to be added, that after the funeral seroration, of the deceased ; after which they said vice, they kiss the crucifix, and salute the mouth a prayer, called the righteousness of judgment; and forehead of the deceased : after which each then, turning the face of the deceased towards of the company eats a bit of bread and drinks a heaven, they called out, “Go in peace.' glass of wine in the church, wishing the soul a

The funeral rites among the ancient Romans, good repose, and the afflicted family all consowere very numerous. The deceased was kept lation. seven days; and every day washed with hot wa FUNERAL SERMONS. The custom of the Pa. ter, and sometimes with oil, that, in case he were gan Romans, in pronouncing funeral orations in only in a slumber, he might be thus waked; and praise of their deceased heroes, appears to have every now and then his friends meeting, made a been very early adopted by the ancient Christianş horrible outcry or shout, with the same view; Some of their funeral sermons or orations are stili which last action they called conclamatio. The extant, as that of Eusebius on Constantine ; those last conclamation was on the seventh day; when, of Nazianzen on Basil and Cæsarius; and of if no signs of life appeared, the defunct was Ambrose on Valentinian, Theodosius, and others. .dressed and embalmed by the pollinctores; Gregory, the brother of Basil, made eTundELOV placed in a bed near the door, with his face and doyov, a funeral oration, for Melitius bishop of heels towards the street; and the outside of the Antioch; in which orations, they not only praised gate, if the deceased were of condition, was gar- the dead, but addressed themselves to them, aished with cypress boughs. In the course of which seems to have introduced the custom of

praying to departed saints. Now these orations stalks grow in a moist, and tainted air, in were usually made before the bodies of the which float multitudes of eggs, so small that the deceased were committed to the ground; which very insects they produce are with difficulty seer custom has been more or less continued ever since, by the microscope. Can it be surprising, ther, to this day. The heathens honored those alone, that the corruption of the mushroom should with this part of the funeral solemnity, who were make the water capable of disclosing certain men of probity and justice, renowned for their beings that are really foreign to both? It is not wisdom and knowledge, or famous for warlike more easy to acquiesce in the opinions of those exploits; this, as Cicero inforins us, being part naturalists who place the fungi in the mineral of the law for burials, which directs, that the kingdom, because they are found growing on praises only of honorable persons shall be men- porous stones, thence called lapides fungarii: tioned in the oration. It would be much inore which, however, must be covered with a little proper, if our funeral discourses were not so earth, and be watered with tepid water, in order common, and if the characters given of the de- to favor the growth. Such mushrooms are do ceased were more just; devoid of that fulsome more the produce of the stone, than the lichen is flattery with which they too often abound. of the rock to which it adheres, or the moss of

FUNFKIRCHEN, or Pets, a town and bi- the tree on which it is found. We have only to shop's see of Hungary, in Baranga, situated on a observe the growth of mushrooms, to be conhill hetween the Drave and the Danube. The neigh- vinced, that this happens by development

, and houchcod is particularly fertile in wine; the epis- not by addition or combination of parts as in copa? library has several rare books and MSS. minerals. The opinion of Boccone, who attriand Roman antiquities abound in the neigh- buted them to an unctuous matter performing bourhood. This place was in possession of the the function of seed, and acquiring extension by Turks from 1543 to 1686; and in 1664 it was apposition of similar parts; and that of Morison, attacked by an Austrian army, and given up for who conceived that they grew spontaneously out three days to plunder. A university was founded of the earth by a certain mixture of salt and sulin 1364, but soon fell into decay. Inhabitants pbur, joined with oils from the dung of quad

11,500. 140 miles W.N. W. of Belgrade, and rupeds, have now no longer any adberents. 175 S. $. E. of Vienna.

Fungi are produced, they live, they grow, by FUNGI, from opoyyos, fungus, in botany, the development; they are exposed to those vicissifourth order of the twenty-fourth class of vege- tudes natural to the different peiods of life which tables, in the Linnæan system; comprehending characterise living substances; they perish and all those which are of the mushroom kind. The die. They extract, by the extremity of their ancients called fungi children of the earth, to in- vessels, the juices with which they are nourished; dicate the obscurity of their origin. The moderns they elaborate and assimilate them to their own have likewise been at a loss in what rank to substance. They are, therefore, organised and place them; some referring them to the animal, living beings, and consequently belong to the some to the vegetable, and others to the mineral vegetable kingdom. But whether they are real kingdom. Messrs. Wilck and Münchausen have plants, or only the production of plants

, is still not scrupled to rank these bodies among animal a matter in dispute with the ablest naturalists productions ; because, when fragments of them These productions were generally attributed to the or their seeds were macerated in water, these superfluous humidity of rotten wood, or other gentlemen perceived a quantity of animalcules putrid substances. The opinion took its rise discharged, which they supposed capable of from observing that they grew most copiously in being changed into the same substance. Hedwig rainy weather. Such was the opinion of Trazu, has lately shown how ill founded this opinion is of Bauhin, and eveu of Columna, who, talking with respect to the lichen; and M. Durande of the peziza, says, that its substance was mere has demonstrated its falsity with regard to the solid and harder, because it did not originate corallines. * Indeed,' says M. Bonnet, speak- from rotten wood, but from the pituita of the ing of the animality of fungi, ‘nothing but the earth. It is not surprising that, in times whea rage for paradox could induce any one to pub- the want of experiment and observation n.ade lish such a fable; and I regret that posterity people believe that insects could be generated by will be able to reproach our times with it. Ob putrefaction, we should find the opinion general, servation and experiment should enable us to that fungi owed their origin to the putrescence overcome the prejudices of modern philosophy; of bodies, or to a viscous humor analogous to now, that those of the ancient bave disappeared putridity: Malpighi could not satisfy himselt as and are forgotten.' It cannot be denied that the to the existence of seeds which other botanists mushroom is one of the most perishable of all had pretended to discover. He only says, that plants, and it is therefore the most favorable for these plants must have them, or that they perthe generation of insects. Considering the quick- petuate themselves and shoot by fragments

. ness of its growth, it must be furnished with the Micheli

, among the moderns, appears to have power of copious absorption : the extremity of employed himself most successfully on this subits vessels must be more dilated than in other ject. He imagined that he not only plants. Its root seems, in many cases, to be seeds, but even the stamina, as well as the little merely intended for its support; for some spe- transparent bodies destined to favor the dissemicies grow upon stones or moveable sand, from nation and the fecundation of these seeds. Be which it is impossible they can draw 'much fore this author, Lister thought he perceived nourishment. We must therefore suppose, that seeds in the fungus perosus crassus magnus of it is chiefly by the stalk that they absorb. These John Bauhin: the little round bodies that are

saw the

found in the pezizæ and helvellæ, at that time, tion by seed. This is not, he says, an imaginary passed for seeds; which did not appear at all supposition; for the seeds may be felt like meal probable to Marsigli, considering that the eye, upon mushrooms with gills, especially when when assisted with the very best microscopes, they begin to decay; they may be seen with a could perceive nothing similar in much larger magnifying glass, in those that have gills with fungi. Indeed these bodies may be the capsules black margins; and, lastly, says he, botanists or covers of the seeds, if they are not the seeds can have no doubt that fungi are a distinct class themselves. However this may be, Marsigli, of plants; because, by comparing the observaobserving that fungi were often without roots or tions made in different countries with the figures branches, and that they wanted flowers and and descriptions of such as have been engraven, seeds, the means which nature employs for the the same genera and the same species are every production of perfect plants, thought himself where found. Notwithstanding this refutation, warranted in doubting whether these beings by M. de Jussieu, another naturalist, M. de could be ranked in the number of vegetables. Necker, has lately maintained, in his MycitoloThe doubts of Marsigli prompted him to observe gia, that the fungi ought to be excluded from the the formation of fungi. Their matrix he called three kingdoms of nature, and be considered as situs : he imagined they grew in places where intermediate beings. He has observed, like they met with an unctuous matter, composed of Marsigli, the matrix of the fungi : and has suban oil mixed with nitrous salt, which, by fer- stituted the word carchte (initium faciens) inmentation, produced heat and moisture, and in- stead of situs ; imagining that the rudiment of sinuated itself between the fibres of wood; that the fungus cannot exist beyond that point in is, he imagined them the production of a viscous which the development of the filaments or and putrescent humor. 'Lancisi, in like man- fibrous roots is perceived. He allows, that fungi ner, considered fungi as owing their existence to are nourished and grow like vegetables; but he the putrefaction of vegetables, and supposed thinks that they differ very much from them in them a disease in the plant; but he imagined, respect of their origin, structure, nutrition, and that the fibres of the trees were necessary to rapidity of growth. He says, that the various their production,' as is the case in the formation vessels which compose the organisation of vegeof galls; he compared them to the warts and tables are not to be found in the fungi, and other excrescences of the human body. He that they seem entirely composed of cellular added, that such fungous vegetable tumors must substance and bark; so that this simple organisanecessarily assume various forms and figures, tion is nothing more than an aggregation of from the fluids which distend the tubes and vessels endowed with a common nature, that vessels relaxed by putrescence, from the ductility suck up the moisture in the manner of a sponge; of the fibres and their direction, and from the with this difference, that the moisture is assimiaction of the air. This opinion has been refuted lated into a part of the fungus. Lastly, that the by the celebrated naturalist M. de Jussieu, in fructification, the only essential part of a vegethe Memoirs of the Academy of Sciences for table, and which distinguishes it from all other 1728. He maintains, that the fungi have a organised bodies, being wanting, fungi cangreat analogy with the lichen, which is allowed not be considered as plants. This he thinks to be a vegetable; that, like the lichen, they are confirmed, by the constant observation of those divested of stalk, branches, and leaves; that, people who gather the morelle and the mushlike it, they grow and are nourished upon the room, and who never find them in the same spots trunks of trees; on pieces of rotten wood, and where they had formerly grown. As the generaon all sorts of putrid vegetables; that they re- tion of fungi, says M. Necker, is always persemble the lichen too in the rapidity of their formed when the parenchymatous or cellular growth, and the facility with which many of substance has changed its nature, form, and them may be dried and restored to their former function, we must conclude that it is the degenefigure, upon being immersed in water; and, ration of that part which produces these bodies. lastly, that there is a great similarity in the But, if fungi were owing merely to the degeneramanner in which their seeds are produced. tion of plants, they would be still better entitled He affirms, that only the warts and excrescences to constitute a new kingdom. They would then which grow on animal bodies, and the knots and be a decomposition, not a new formation or new other tumors that are to be found on trees, can bodies. Besides, we cannot deny that, in those be compared with one another; for they are bodies which form the limit between the animal composed equally of the solid and liquid sub- and vegetable kingdoms, the organisation bestance of the plant or animal on which they comes simple, as the organs destined for nutrition grow; whereas, the matter of the fungi is not are multiplied: but, as the last in the class of inonly quite distinct from that of the plants on sects belongs to the animal kingdom, fungi ought, which they are found, but often entirely similar notwithstanding the simplicity of their organisato the substance of those that spring immediately tion, still to belong to the vegetable kingdom. The from the earth. The organisation, says M. de parenchymatous or cellular substance, which, as Jussieu, which distinguishes plants and other M. Bonnet says, is universally extended, embraces productions of nature, is visible in the fungi ; the whole fibrous system, and becomes the prinand the particular organisation of each species cipal instrument of growth, must naturally be is constant at all times and in all places; a cir more abundant in these productions; and this cumstance which could not happen, if there accounts for the rapidity of their enlargement. were not an animal re-production of species, Besides growth, whether slow or rapid, never and consequently a multiplication and propaga was employed to determine the presence or al

sence of the vegetable or animal character. The therefore, are organised and living substances, or draba verna, which in a few weeks shoots, puts true plants. forth its leaves, its flowers, and fruit, is not less FUNGIC ACID. The expressed juice of the a plant than the palm. The insect that exists boletus juglandis, boletus pseudoigniarius, the but for a day, is as much an animal as the ele- phallus impudicus, merulius cantharellus, or phant that lives for centuries. As to the seeds the peziza nigra, being boiled to coagulate the of the fungi, it is probable that nature meant to albumen, then filtered, evaporated to the conwithdraw from our eyes the dissemination of sistence of an extract, and acted on by pure althese plants, by making the seeds almost imper- cohol, leaves a substance which has been called ceptible; and it is likewise probable, that natu- by Braconnot fungic acid. He dissolved that ralists have seen nothing but their capsules. residue in water, added solution of acetate of Since, however, from the imperfection of our lead, whence resulted fungate of lead, which he senses, we are unable to perceive these seeds, decomposed at a gentle heat by dilute sulphuric ought we to infer that they do not exist ? Are acid. The evolved fungic acid, being saturated we authorised to conclude this, because we do with ammonia, yielded a crystallised fungate of not find mushrooms where we have found them ammonia, which he purified by repeated solua year before? Undoubtedly not; for the greater tion and crystallisation. From this salt by acepart of plants require a particular soil, and the tate of lead, and thereafter sulphuric acid, as same mould that this year will foster a rare plant, above detailed, he procured the pure fungic acid. will next year allow it to perish. Neither are It is a colorless, uncrystallisable, and deliquescent we at liberty to deny the existence of these seeds, mass, of a very sour taste. The fungates of potbecause those bodies which have been called ash and soda are uncrystallisable; that of amtheir seeds, and the fragments or cuttings of the monia forms regular six-sided prisms; that of plants themselves, have not produced others of lime is moderately soluble, and is not affected by the same species. Nature seems to have reserved the air; that of barytes is soluble in fifteen times for herself the care of disseminating certain its weight of water, and crystallises with diffplants. It is in vain, for instance, that the bo- culty; that of magnesia appears in soluble gratanist sows the dust found in the capsules of the nular crystals. This acid precipitates from the orchis, which every one allows to be the seed. acetate of lead a white flocculent fungate, which But, after all, what are those parts in the fungi is soluble in distilled vinegar. When insulated, casually observed by naturalists, and which they it does not affect solution of nitre of silver; but have taken for the parts of fructification? These the fungates decompose this salt. are quite distinct from the other parts; and, FUNGUS, n. s.; Lat. fungus. Strictly a whatever may be their use, they cannot have FUNGOS'ITY, N.S. mushroom. A word used to been formed by prolongation of the cellular sub Fun'Gous, adj. express such excrescences of stance, or of the fibres of the tree on which the flesh as grow out upon the lips of wounds, or fungus grows: they are, therefore, owing, like any other excrescence from trees or plants not flower and fruit, to the proper organisation of the naturally belonging to them; as the agaric from plant. These plants, therefore, have a particular the larch-tree, and auriculæ Judæ from elder. existence, independent of their putrefying nidus. Excrescent; spongy; wanting firmness. The gills of certain fungi, which differ essentially Many men, knowing that merry company is the only from the rest of the plant in their conformation, medicine against melancholy, spend all their dars would be sufficient to authorise this latter opi- among good fellows in a tavern or ale-house, drinking nion. But can putrefaction create an organic fishes, water-snakes, or frogs in a puddle, and become substance? Nature undoubtedly disseminates

Burton through the air, and over the surface of the

mere funguses and casks. earth, innumerable seeds of fungi, as well as lengthen too much, are too fuid, and produce funguses,

The surgeon ought to vary the diet as the fibres eggs of insects. The plant and the animal are

or as they harden and produce callosities. excluded, when the nidus or the temperature is

Arbuthnot on Diet. favorable for their development. No fortuitous This eminence is composed of little points, or gtaconcourse, either of atoms or fluids, could pro- nula, called fungus, or proud fesh.

Share. duce bodies so exquisitely and so regularly or It is often employed to keep down the fungos lips ganised. It is sufficient to throw one's eyes that spread upon the bone ; but it is much more paison the beautiful plates which Schæffer has pub- ful than the escharotick medicines. Ia. Stargety. lished of them, and compare them by the glass, FUNGUS. See SURGERY. with the warts and other excrescences of ani FUŠNICLE, n. s. 2

Fr. funiculaire ; Lat. fimals, to be convinced that they have not the

FUNIC'ULAR, adj. S niculus. A ligature; a fibre; same origin. The function of the cellular sub

a small cord. stance in vegetables must be greatly superior to FUNK, n. s. & v. n. Sax. rýnız; Goth. fuin, that in animals, if it could produce any thing finik, a stink : Lye says from Flem. fonck, per: but deformities. The greater part of fungi ex- plexity. Dr. Johnson calls it a low word; but hibit a configuration much too regular, constant, it seems to be of academical origin; being comand uniform, to be the effect of chance or putre- monly used at Oxford for “a scrape,' or perfaction. As this form is preserved the same in all plexity. Every school toy knows its meaning. places, where fungi have been found, it follows that

The best part of the veal and the Greek for baac, they contain in themselves the principles of their is the name of a man that makes us funk. reproduction. They resemble the mişletoe, and

Oxford Epigram. other parasitic plants, which are perfectly distinct FUNNEL, n. s. Lat. infundibulum, whence from the trees on which they grow. The fungi, fundible, fundle, funnel. An inverted hollow

cone with a pipe descending from it, through How mad a sight it was to see Dametas, like rich which liquors are poured into vessels with nar tissue furred with lambskins !

Sidney. row mouths; a tun dish; a pipe or passage of

Methinks I am not right in every part ; communication.

I feel a kind of trembling at my heart :

My pulse uneqnal, and my breath is strong; If you pour a glut of water upon a bottle, it receives

Besides a filthy fur upon my tongue. Dryden. little of it; but with a funnel, and by degrees, you

Stretch out thy lazy limbs, awake, awake, shall fill many of them.

Ben Jonson.

And Winter from thy furry mantle shake. Id. The outward ear or auricula is made hollow, and

Not armed with horns of arbitrary might, contracted by degrees, to draw the sound inward, to

Or claws to seize their furry spoils in fight. U. take in as much as may be of it, as we use a funnel

Three sisters, mourning for their brother's loss, to pour liquor into any vessel.

Ray Their bodies hid in bark, and furred with moss. Id. Towards the middle are two large funnels, bored

'Tis hut dressing up a bird of prey in his cap and through the roof of the grotto, to let in light or fresh furs to make a judge of him. L'Estrange, air.


Such animals as feed upon flesh qualify it, the one Some the long funnel's curious mouth extend,

by swallowing the hair or fur of the beasts they prey Through which ingested meats with ease descend.

upon, the other by devouring some part of the feathers Blackmore.

of the birds they gorge themselves with. He put some live coals into an insulated funnel of

Ray on the Creation, metal, and, throwing on them a little water, observed

Their frying blood compels to irrigate that the ascending stream was electrised plus, and

Their dry furred tongues.

Philips. the water which descended through the funnel was

A dungeon wide and horrible ; the walls electrised minus.


On all sides furred with mouldy damps, and hung FUNNEL OF A CHIMNEY, the shaft, or smallest With clots of ropy gore.

Addison, part of the waste, where it is gathered into its Silent along the mazy margin stray, least dimensions. Palladio directs that the funnels And with the fur-wrought fly delude the prey. of chimneys be carried throughout the roof four

Gay's Pastorals. or five feet at least, that they may carry the

From Volga's banks the' imperious Czar
Leads forth his furry troops to war.

Felton. smoke clear from the house into the air. See

And lordly gout wrapt up in fur, CHIMNEY, FIRE-Place, &c. He also advises

And wheezing asthma, loth to stir. Swife, that chamber chimneys be not made narrower than ten or eleven inches, nor broader than fif

He had a bed of furs, and a pelisse, teen; for if too narrow, the smoke will not be

For Haidee stripped her sables off to make
His couch.

Byron. Don Juan able to make its way; and if too wide the wind will drive it back into the room.

Fur, or FURR, in commerce, signifies the FUNSTERMUNSTER, or FINSTERMINSTER,

skins of wild beasts, dressed in alum with the hair a town of Switzerland, in Engandina, which on, and used as a part of dress by princes, mathe French, under Massena and Lecourbe, took gistrates, and others. The kinds most in use possession of on the 26th of March, 1799, but are those of the ermine, sable, castor, hare, were soon afterwards dislodged by the Austrians. coney, &c. It was not till the later ages that FUR, adv. Now written far. At a distance. the furs of beasts became an article of luxury.

The refined nations of antiquity never made use The white lovely dove Doth on her wings her utmost swiftness prove,

of them; those alone who were stigmatised as Finding the gripe of faulcon fierce not fur.

barbarians were clothed in the skins of animals. Sidney.

Strabo describes the Indians covered with the FUR, n. s. & v.a. Fr. fourrure ; Barb. Lat. skins of lions, panthers, and bears; and Seneca FUR'RIER, 1.s. furra, a hairy skin. Skin the Scythians clothed with the skins of foxes Fur'ry, adj. with soft hair, with which and the smaller quadrupeds. Virgil exhibits a

Fur'WROUGHT. garments lined for picture of the savage Hyperboreans, similar to warmth, or covered for ornament: soft hair of that which might be witnessed in the clothing of beasts found in cold countries; hair in general; the wild Americans. Most part of Europe was any moisture exhaled to such a degree as that then in similar circumstances. Cæsar was, perthe remainder sticks on the part: fur-wrought haps, as much amazed with the skin-dressed heis made of fur: to line or cover with skins that

roes of Britain, as our celebrated Cook was at have soft hair; to cover with soft matter.

those of his new discovered regions. What time

has done to us, it may also effect for them; and, The third had a mantell of lusty fresh colour

it is to be hoped, with much less bloodshed. The utter part of purpill, yfurred with pelur.

Civilisation may take place; and those spoils of Chaucer. The Merchantes Second Tale.

animals, which are at present essential for their Through tattered cloaths small vices do appear;

clothing, become merely objects of ornament Robes and furred gowns hide all. Shakspeare.

and luxury. It does not appear that the Greeks You are for dreams and slumbers, brother priest ;

or ancient Romans ever made use of furs. It You fur your gloves with reasons.

Id. This night , wherein the cubdrawn bear would couch, abounded, and where the severity of the climate

originated in those regions where they most The lion and the belly-pinched wolf Keep their fur dry, unbonnetted he runs,

required that species of clothing. At first, it Apd bids what will take all. Id. King Leur. consisted of the skins only, almost in the O foolishness of men! that lend their ears

state in which they were torn from the body To those budge Doctors of the stoic fur,

of the beast; but, as soon as civilisation took Aud fetch their precepts from the Cynic tub, place, and manufactures were introduced, furs Praising the lean and sallow abstinence.

became the lining of the dress, and often the Milton's Comis. elegant facing of the robes. It is probable that


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