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for the shoad stones or grewts washed down from Iser. It stands in a valley between two em!the hills, in order thence to trace out the running nences, and there is a bridge here across the of the shoad up to the mine.

Iser. The town is well built : population 3500. Fret-Work, work adorned with frets. It is The territory of Freysingen was given to Bavaria sometimes used to fill up and enrich flat empty in 1802, and then contained 27,000 inhabitants. spaces; but it is mostly practised in roofs which The bishopric, now become strictly a spiritual are fretted over with plasterwork.

dignitary, was transferred in 1817 to Munich. FREUDENSTADT, a fortified town of Seventeen miles N.N. E. of Munich, and eighteen Wirtemberg, founded in 1600, as an asylum for south-west of Landshut. the persecuted German Protestants. It is seated FREYSINGEN, or FRIESINGEN, an ecclesiastical in the Black Forest, twenty-four miles south-east principality of Germany in Bavaria, between of Strasburg, and thirty-six south-west of Stutt- Munich and Landshut. It comprehends the gard. A part of the French army, under general counties of Ismaning and Werdenfels, and the Jourdan, were posted here on the 7th April 1799, lordship of Burgkrain. when they attacked the Austrians under the FRI'ABILITY, N. S. ? Fr. friable ; Lat.friarchduke Charles, but were forced to retreat. Frr'able, adj. S abilis. Easily crumPopulation about 2400.

bled; easily reduced to powder. The noun FREUDENTHAL, a town of Silesia, in designates the capacity or tendency to such reTroppau, famous for fine linen and good horses. duction, It is eleven miles south-west of Jagendorf, and A spongy excrescence groweth upon the roots of the seventeen west of Troppau.

laser-tree, and sometimes on cedar, very white, light, FREYE-ÆMTER, a territory of Switzerland, and

friable, which we call agarick.

Bacon. surrounded by the cantons of Zurich, Bern,

Hardiness, friability, and power to draw iron, are Lucern, and Zug; anciently called Rori and qualities to be found in a loadstone. Waggenthal. "The Swiss took it from count

The liver, of all the viscera, is the most friable, and

easily crumbled or dissolved. Arbuthnot on Diet. Hapsburg in 1415. It is twenty-four miles long, and twelve broad, and was united in 1803 to the

FRI'AR, n. s.

A corruption of the canton of Argan. The soil is fertile, and the

FRI'AR-LIKE, adj. French frère, A relipopulation, chiefly Catholics, about 20,000 souls.

Fri’ARLY, adj.

gious; a brother of FREYBERG, a celebrated mining town of

Fri'ary, n. s. & adj.)

some regular order in Saxony, the capital of the Erzgebirg. "It is situ- the church of Rome. The derivatives have all ated 1200 feet above the level of the sea, on a

a direct or remote relation to this etymon: thus small river called the Freybergische-Mulda. It friar-like is monastic, after the manner of those is tolerably well built, and contains 9000 inhabi- who are secluded in religious houses, unskilled tants, and the officers here have the superinten- in the world. So also, friarly and friary, except dance of all similar establishments throughout that the latter is used as a noun, and signifies a Saxony. A mining academy was founded in monastery or convent of friars. 1765, and has been superintended or distin

A Frere there was, a wanton and a mory, guished by the researches of Werner, Charpen

A limitour, a full solempue man, tier, Lampe, &c. There are attached to it a

In all the ordres foure is non that can library, a cabinet, and a collection of models.

So moche of daliance and fayre langage. A part of the students are educated gratis. The

He hadde ymade ful many a mariage

Of yonge wimmen at his owen cost; mines in the neighbouring district, 250 in num

Until his ordre he wos a noble post. ber, employ about 5000 men. The establish

Chaucer. Prologue to the Cant. Tales. ment for amalgamation is said to be the most

Their friarlike general would the next day make perfect in Europe. About a mile from the town

one holyday in the Christian calendars, in rememare silver mines, of which the annual produce brance of thirty thousand Hungarian martyrs slain of is from 10,000 to 15,000 lbs. of lead; the Frey- the Turks.

Knolles. berg mines yield only 1000 lbs.: they afford Holy Franciscan friar ! brother! ho! also copper, tin, silver, and vitriol. Here are

Shakspeare. also manufactures of hardware and cloth. Frey

All the priests and friars in my realm, berg was the scene of a victory gained by Prince

Shall in procession sing her endless praise. Id. Henry of Prussia in 1762. It is eighteen miles

Francis Cornfield did scratch his elbow when he S.S. W. of Meissen, and nineteen W.S. W. of with a friary cowl in a corn field. Camden’s Remains.

had sweetly invented to signify his name, St. Francis, Dresden.

Seek not proud riches, but such as thou mayest get Freyberg, or Przibor, a town of Moravia, justly, use soberly, distribute cheerfully, and leave twenty-eight' miles E. N. E. of Prerau, and

contentedly; yet have no abstract nor friarly contempt thirty-six east of Olmutz, with 3500 inhabitants. of them.

Bacon's Essays. FREYBURG, or FRIBURG, a well built town of He's but a friar, but he's big enough to be a pope. Baden, in the entrance of the Black Forest, at

Dryden. the foot of a mountain. It was till lately the Many jesuits and friars went about in the disguise capital of Brisgau, and now of the circle of the of Presbyterian and Independent ministers to preach Treisam. It has a population of about 10,000,

up rebellion.

Swift. and was formerly fortified, but was dismantled Friar, or Frier. Lat. frater ; Ital. fra; and by the French in 1744. It is the seat of a uni- Fr. frère, i. e. brother. A term common to versity founded in 1456, and still flourishing. monks of all orders, founded on the supposition

FREYSINGEN, a town and bishopric of that there is a kind of brotherhood presumed Bavaria, formerly an independent bishopric, now between the religious persons of the same monasthe chief place of a district in the circle of the tery. Friars are generally distinguished into these four principal branches, viz. 1. Francis- space of two miles, five obtuse angles, between CANS, minors, or gray friars; 2. AUGUSTINES ; which the intervening parts of the current are 3. DOMINICANS, or black friars; 4. CARME- parallel to each other. "On all sides the descen: LITES, or white friars. From these four the rest to the town is extremely steep : in one place the of the orders descend. See these articles. streets even pass over the roofs of the houses.

Friar, in a more peculiar sense, is restrained Many of the edifices are raised in regular gradato such monks as are not priests ; for those in or- tion, like the seats of an amphitheatre; and many ders are usually dignified with the appellation overhang the edge of a precipice in such a manof father.

ner that, on looking down, a weak head would FRIARS OBSERVANT (fratres observantes) were be apt to turn giddy. But the most extraordinary a branch of the Franciscans; thus called because point of view is from the Pont-neuf. On the not combined together in any cloister, convent, north-west a part of the town stands boldly on or corporation, as the conventuals are ; but only the sides and the piked back of an abrupt ridge; agreeing among themselves to observe the rules and from east to west a semicircle of high perof their order more strictly than the conventuals pendicular rocks is seen, whose base is washed did, from whom they separated themselves out of and undermined by the winding Sane, and a singularity of zeal, living in certain places of whose tops and sides are thinly scattered with their own choosing.

shrubs and underwood. On the highest point FRI'ARSCOWL, n. s. Friar and cowl. A of the rocks, and on the very edge of the preciplant. It agrees with arum, from which it dif- pice, appears, half hanging in the air, the gate fers only in having a flower resembling a cowl. called Bourguillon : a stranger standing on the

FRIB’BLE, v. n. & n. s. 7 Fr. frivole ; Lat. bridge would compare it to Laputa, or the Fly

FRIB'BLER, n. s. frivolus, trifling. ing Island in Gulliver's Travels; and would not To trifle : a trifler; a fop; an imbecile. conceive it to be accessible but by means of a Though cheats, yet more intelligible

cord and pulleys. The houses, constructed with Than those that with the stars do fribble. a gray sandstone, are neat and well built; and

Hudibras. the public edifices, particularly the cathedral, are A fribbler is one who professes rapture for the wo- extremely elegant.' Population 6500. Fribourg man, and dreads her consent.

Spectator. lies sixteen miles south-west of Bern, and seventyFRIBOURG, a canton of Switzerland, be- five of Zurich. The best buildings are the Je tween that of Berne and the Pays de Vaud : its suits' church, and the cathedral of St. Nicholas ; extent is computed at 2836 square miles; and its the principal seminary for education is called the population at 68,000. The north division contains college of St. Michael. This town was taken by extensive and fertile plains : southward it is the French in 1798. mountainous and sterile. Its principal river is FRICASSEE', n. s. Fr. A dish made by the Sane, which flows northward through the cutting chickens or other small things in pieces, centre of the canton. Pasturage is the chief oc- and dressing them with strong sauce. cupation of the inhabitants, who export cattle, Oh, how would Homer praise their dancing dogs, butter, and cheese, particularly that known Their stinking cheese, and fricacy of frogs ; throughout the continent by the name of gruyere, He'd raise no fables, sing no flagrant lie, and import much of their corn from France. Of boys with custard choaked a Newberry. King. The inhabitants are chiefly Catholics, the Calvinists not exceeding 8000: in some parts they of rubbing one thing against another.

FRICATION, n. s. Lat. fricatio. The act speak German, in others a corrupt French. There are few manufactures; and the govern

Gentle frication draweth forth the nourishment, by ment is a mixture of aristocracy and democracy: making the parts a little hungry, and heating thera : in 1803 the canton was divided into the five dis- this frication I wish to be done in the morning.

Bacon's Natural History. tricts of Fribourg Proper, Marten, Bulle, Romont, and Estavayer.

Resinous or unctuous bodies, and such as will fame, FRIBOURG, a large town of Switzerland, the

attract vigorously, and most thereof without frication,

as good hard wax, which will convert the needle alcapital of the foregoing canton, situated on the

most as actively as the loadstone.

Brouent. . Sane, in a most singular and picturesque situation, thus elegantly described by Mr. archdeacor FRICKTHAL, a district in the canton of Coxe :

Aargau, Switzerland, on the south side of the • It stands partly in a small plain, partly on bold Rhine, extending from Augst to Botzberg. acclivities on a ridge of rugged rocks, half en- Population about 20,000; chiefly Catholics. circled by the Sane; and is so entirely concealed This district, important as a military position, by the circumjacent bills, that the traveller belonged to the Brisgau until 1801. scarcely catches the smallest glimpse, until he FRICTION, Fr. friction, frictio, from Latin bursts upon a view of the whole town from the frico; à Gr. ppuan, cold (because those who are overhanging eminence. The fortifications, which cold rub themselves).-Ainsworth. The act of consist of high stone walls and towers, enclose'a rubbing two bod es together; the resistance in circumference of about four miles; within which machines caused by the motion of one body space the eye comprehends a singular mixture upon another; medical rubbing with the fleshof houses, rocks, thickets, and meadows, vary- brush or cloths. ing instantly from wild to agreeable, from the

Frictions make the parts more fleshy and full, as bustle of a town to the solitude of the deepest we see both in men and in the carrying of borses ; $ retirement. The Sane winds in such a serpen- that they draw a greater quantity of spirits to the tine manner as to form in its course, within the parts.

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Do not all bodies which abound with terrestrial Right as the Friday, sothly for to tell,
parts, and especially with sulphureous ones, emit Now shineth it, and now it raineth fast;
light as often as those parts are sufficiently agitated, Right so can gery Venus overcast
whether the agitation be made by heat, friction, per- The hertes of hire folk; right as hire day
sussion, putrefaction, or by any vital motion ?

Is gerfull, right so changeth she aray:
Newton's Opticks. Selde is the Friday all the weke ylike.

Chaucer. The Knightes Tale. Friction is called also attrition. The phe

An' she were not kin to me, she would be as fair nomena arising upon the friction of divers bo

on Friday as Helen is on Sunday. Shakspeare. dies, under different circumstances, are very nu- For Venus, like her day, will change her cheer, merous and considerable. Mr. Hawksbee gives And seldom shall we see a Friday clear. Dryden. a number of experiments of this kind; particu

Friday, by the Romans, was called dies Velarly of the attrition or friction of glass, under neris. See frea. various circumstances, the result of which was

FRIDSTOL, one of the ancient immunities that it yielded light and became electrical All

granted to churches. The word signifies a seat, bodies by friction are brought to conceive heat; chair, or place of peace and security, where crimany of them to emit light; particularly a cat's minals might find safety and protection. Of back, sugar, beaten sulphur, mercury, sea water,

these there were many in England; but the gold, copper, &c. but above all diamonds, which

most famous were those at Beverly, and in St. when briskly rubbed against glass, gold, or the Peter's church at York, granted by charter of king like, yield a light equal to that of a live coal Henry I. when blowed by the bellows. See ELECTRICITY. FRIEDLAND, a town of Mecklenburg, in

Friction, in mechanics, arises from the Stargard. It contains 3400 inhabitants; but the roughness or asperity of the surface of the body neighbourhood is marshy. It is fourteen miles moved on, and that of the body moving : or north-east of New Brandenburg, and twenty-five such surfaces consisting alternately of eminences south-east of Demmin. and cavities, either the eminences of the one

FRIEDLAND, a town in the circle of Konigsmust be raised over those of the other, or they berg, East Prussia, on the Alle, famous for a must be both broken and worn off; but neither battle gained by Buonaparte over the Russians can happen without motion, nor can motion be and Prussians on the 14th of June 1807, which produced without a force impressed. Hence the led to the peace of Tilsit. Inhabitants 2120. force applied to move the body is either wholly The loss of the allies, in killed and wounded, was or partly spent to this effect; and consequently nearly 20,000 men. there arises a resistance, or friction, which will

FRIEND, n. s. & v. a. Saxon freod; be greater, cæteris paribus, as the eminences are

FRIEND'ED, adj. the greater and the substance the harder: and

Belg. vriend vriend

FRIEND'LESS, adj. as the body, by continual friction, diminishes.

schap; Goth. frænd;

FRIEND'LINESS, n. s. Dan. frende ; Scot. Messrs. Amontons, De la Hire, Camus, Desaguliers, Muschenbroek, Ferguson, Euler, and

FRIEND'LY, adj. & adv. frend, all probably other mechanicians, have made a number of in

FRIENDSHIP, n. s. from Gothic fræ, genious experiments to settle a principle for the fræn, Swed. vred. This word, with its derivatives, exact calculation of the quantity of friction. But is pronounced frend, frendly: the i totally nethe most successful set of experiments made on

glected. One united to another in mutual benethis subject are those of the Rev. Samuel Vince, ther: distinguished from an enemy or one that

volence and intimacy; one reconciled to anoA. M. of Cambridge; published in the 75th volume of the Philosophical Transactions, p. 165. has hostile intentions; a favorer of our persons Mr. Emerson, in his Principles of Mechanics, or interests; a familiar compellation. The dehas also made several important remarks on

rivatives speak for themselves, or their illustrathe friction of wood and metals. See Mechanics. tions will explain them. Friction, in medicine and surgery, is per

Friend, how camest thou in hither? formed with oils, unguents, or other matters, to

Matt. xxii. 12. relieve or cure a diseased part. Frictions with

Some man is a friend for his own occasion, and mercurial ointment are much used in venereal will not abide in the day of thy trouble. Eccl. vi. 8. cases. The application of mercury externally

Forsoth nature driveth us to love our frendes ; and, by friction is preferred to giving it internally, parfay, our enemies have more nede of love than our to raise a salivation. Frictions with the frendes, and they that more nede have, certes to bem flesh-brush, a linen cloth, or even the hand shal men do goodnesse.

Chaucer. The Persones Tale. alone, contribute greatly to health, in all diseases where the circulation of the blood and humors

Than cometh discord that unbindeth all manner of

Id. is impeded, or the power of the nerves weakened. friendship. Persons therefore of weak nerves, and sedentary the father of virtue ; for many strongly Init minds

Be careful to make friendship the child, and not lives, should supply the want of other exercise

are rather good friends than good men; so although by spending half an hour, morning and night, in they do not like the evil their friend does, yet they rubbing their whole body, especially their limbs, like him who does the evil. Sir P. Sidney. with a flesh-brush. This is most advantageously

For Rbodoricke, whose surname shal be Great, performed when the primæ viæ are most Shall of himselfe a brave ensample shew, empty.

That Saxon kings bis friendship shall intreat; FRI'DAY, n. s. Sax. frige dæg. The sixth And Howell Dha shall goodly well endew day of the week, so named of Freya, a Saxon The salvage minds with skill of just and trew. deity.

Spenser's Faerie Queene.

Raw captains are usually sent, only preferred

Let the Naussau-star in rising majesty appear, friendship, and not chosen by sufficiency. Spenser. And guide the prosperous mariner,

God's benison go with you, and with those With everlasting beams of friendly light. Prior, That would make good of bad, and friends of foes. Yet there are watchmen, who with friendly light

Shakspeare. Will teach thy reeling steps to tread aright, Who comes so fast in silence of the night!

For sixpence will support thy helpless arm -A friend.

And home conduct thee safe from nightly harm. -What friend? Your name. Id.

Gay. Here between the armies,

Like friendly colours found our hearts unite,

And each from each contract new strength and light Let's drink together friendly, and embrace ;

Pope That all their eyes may bear those tokens home Of our restored love and amity. Id. Henry IV. To what new crime, what distant sky, Not friended by bis wish to your high person, Forsaken, friendless, will ye dy ?

2. His will is most malignant, and it stretches

His friendships, still to few confined, Beyond you to your friends. Shakspeare. Were always of the middling kind. Saifi. I know that we shall have him well to friend. Id.

What watchful care must fence that weary stałe, When vice makes mercy, mercy's so extended,

Which deadly foes begirt with cruel siege ; That, for the fault's love, is the offender friended.

And frailest wall of glass, and trait'rous gate

Id. Strive which should first yield up their woefal siege! Gracious, my lord, hard-by here is a hovel :

By enemies assailed, by friends betrayed Some friendship will it lend you 'gainst the tempest :

When others hurt, himself refuses aid : Repose you there.

Id. King Lear. By weakness 'self, his strength is foiled and over. There is little friendship in the world, and least of layed.

Fletcher's Purple Island, all between equals, which was wont to be magnified ; At the same time that you carefally decline the that that is, is between superior and inferior, whose friendship of knaves and fools, if it can be called fortunes may comprehend the one the other. Bacon. friendship, there is no occasion to make either of them

If she repent, and would make me amends, your enemies, wantonly and unprovoked ; for they are Bid her but send me hers, and we are friends. numerous bodies ; and I would rather choose a secure

Careu. neutrality, than an alliance or war, with either of False friendship, like the ivy, decays, and ruins the them.

Chesterfield. walls it embraces ; but true friendship gives new life How bright soe'er the prospect seems, and animation to the object it supports.

Burton. All thoughts of Friendship are but dreams Hope! thou sad lover's only friend !

If envy chance to creep in ; Thou way that may'st dispute it with the end !

An envious,

if you succeed, For love I fear 's a fruit that does delight

May prove a dangerous foe indeed, The taste itself less than the smell than sight.

But not a Friend worth keeping. Corper.

Cowley. Hail to the welcome sbout !-the friendly speech! Let all the intervals be employed in prayers, cha- When hand grasps hand uniting on the beacb; rity, friendliness and neighbourhood, and means of The smile, the question, and the quick reply, spiritual and corporal health.

Taylor. And the heart's promise of festivity! Not that Nephente, which the wife of Thone

Byron. Corsair. In Egypt gave to Jove-born Helena,

Friendly Islands, a group, or archipelago of Is of such power to stir up joy as this,

islands in the Southern Pacific Ocean, of very To life so friendly, or so cool to thirst. Milton.

considerable extent, and consisting of more than What supports me, dost thou ask? The conscience, friend, e' have lost mine eyes o'erplyed 100 islands, the greater part of which are either In liberty's defence.

1 Id.

bare rocks or shoals, or barren and desert. The Thou to mankind

following are the most important that have been Be good and friendly still, and oft return. Id. enumérated :-Amsterdam, as it was called by

The friendly loadstone has not more combined Tasman, who discovered it in 1642, now more Than bishops cramped the commerce of mankind. generally known by the native names Tonga, or

Marvell. Tongataboo; Annamooka, or Rotterdam, accordSuch a liking and friendliness as hath brought forth ing to Tasman; Eooa, called by Tasman, Midthe effects.

Sidney. We know those colours which have a friendship Foa, Lefooga, and Hoolawa; Mayorga, a group

dleburgh; the Hapaee Islands, namely, Haanno, with each other, and those which are incompatible, of islands about 100 miles north of Hapaee, disin mixing together those colours of which we would make trial.

Dryden's Dufresnoy.

covered in 1781 by Maurelle, the Spanish naviMy sons, let your unseemly discord cease,

gator, and visited by Edwards in 1791, by whom If not in friendship, live at least in peace.

the group was named Howe's Islands; NeootaDryden.

bootaboo, and Kootahe, discovered by Schouten The king ordains their entrance, and ascends

and Lemaire in 1616, and visited by captain His regal seat, surrounded by his friends.

Id. Wallis in 1767, who called them Keppel's and To some new clime, or to thy native sky, Boscawen's Islands; Toofoa, or Amattafoa; Oh friendless and forsaken Virtue fly. Id.

Hamoa and Vavaoo. The Fedjee Islands have Every man is ready to give in a long catalogue of also been sometimes included. Captain Cook those virtues and good qualities he expects to find in the person of a friend; but very few of us are careful gave them this name from what he observed of

their friendly disposition; and to his Voyages we to cultivate them in ourselves.

Spectator. Woe to him that is alone, is verified upon none so

owe the principal knowledge of them: but more much as upon the friendless person.


modern navigators have, as we shall see, conLearn to dissemble wrongs, to smile at injuries,

siderably qualified his eulogium on their chaAnd suffer crimes thou want'st the power to punish : racter. The general appearance of these islands Be easy, affable, familiar, friendly. Rowe's Ulysses. is throughout very similar.

Tongataboo, i. e. Sacred Island, is the largest estimated at 2,000. The water on the island is and best known of the group, being twenty better than that at Tongatahuo, but yet is indifleagues in circumference E. S. E. and W.N.W. ferent: the best is procured by digging holes The south, east, and west, shores are formed of near the side of the lake. Fruit is more abunsteep coral rocks, ten to twelve feet high, with dant on this island than on the former, and the intervals of sandy beach, on which, at low water, undulating surface gives it a more pleasingly a line of black rocks is observed. The north varied appearance. shore is level with the water, bordered hy a sandy Eooa, the Middleburg of Tasman, may be conbeach, and lined with shoals and islets. The sidered as an elevated island, in comparison with whole island is low and level, and its appearance the generality of those of these seas, being visible conveys an idea of the most exuberant fertility; twelve leagues. The highest part is on the souththe entire surface being covered with verdure, east, and is almost flat, whence it declines and amongst the trees the cocoa palm raises its very gently towards the sea, and presents an exhead pre-eminent; unhappily, however, the tensive prospect, where groves of trees are only island is deficient in fresh water, and what there interspersed at irregular distances, in beautiful is, in general, is very indifferent.

disorder, and the rest of the land covered with The coral rock, which forms the base of the grass. Near the shore it is shaded with trees, island, is in many places naked; but the soil in among which the natives dwell. On the northother parts is of considerable depth, and is in the west side is English Road, where boats may cultivated grounds a black vegetable mould over always land; and captain Cook found some good a sub-stratum of clay. In the lowest ground the water in this direction. soil is a mere coral sand, but still covered with Happee, though considered by the natives as vegetation. The only stones, except coral, ob- one island, is in reality composed of four very served on the island, are small blue pebbles, and low islands, about half a mile distant from each a smooth black stone, lapis lydius, of which the other, lying north-east and south-west, but all natives make their hatchets; but it is not certain joined by coral reefs, which are dry at low water. that both these are not brought from other islands. The whole occupies a space of nineteen miles in

The following description of a village, from length, and each island is about six or seven captain Cook, will give a general idea of the miles long, and two to four miles broad. Ledwellings of the natives :

fooga is well cultivated and inhabited. Hoola• It is delightfully situated on the bank of the iva, on the contrary, is entirely desert and inlet, where all or most of the principal persons abandoned. On each of these islands is an artiof the island reside, each having his house in the ficial mount, said by the natives to be erected in midst of a small plantation, with lesser houses memory of some of their chiefs. The only water and offices for servants. These plantations are

either of these islands possesses is from very neatly fenced round, and, for the most part, have brackish wells. only one entrance. This is by a door fastened Between Happee and Annamooka the sea is on the inside by a prop of wood, so that a per- sprinkled with islets and reefs, two of which only son has to knock before he can get admittance. deserve notice, Toofooa and Kao. The former Public roads and narrow lanes lie between each is a volcano, which, according to the natives, plantation, so that no one trespasseth upon sometimes throws out large stones; and while another. Great part of some of these enclosures captain Cook was here smoke and flames issued is laid out in grass-plats, and planted with such from it. It is inhabited. things as seem more for ornament than use; but Kao is north-west two miles and a half from hardly any were without the kava-plant, from Toofooa, and is a vast rock of a conical figure. which they make their favorite liquor. Every The other islands in the vicinity are mere coral article of the vegetable produce of the island reefs, from a mile to half a mile in circumference, abounded in others of these plantations; but but all covered with verdure, and particularly these, I observed, are not the residence of people cocoa palms. of the first rank. There are some large houses Komango has a pretty large pond of tolerable near the public roads, with spacious smooth water, but no appearance of a running stream. grass-plats before them, and unenclosed. These, Kootoo is two miles long, and nearly the same I was told, belonged to the king; and, probably, breadth. Its north-west end is low, but it rises they are the places where their public assemblies suddenly towards the middle; and on the southare held. This island has the best harbour of east it terminates in reddish clayey cliffs. It is the group, within several islands and reefs on the cultivated and inhabited. Its only water is from north side.

dirty and brackish ponds. Annamooka, the Rotterdam of Tasman, is more From the situation of the Friendly Islands elevated than the small islands which surround towards the tropic, the climate is more variable it, but still can be considered only as a low than nearer the equator. The winds are usually island. In the centre is a salt lake, one mile and from some point between south and east, and a half broad, round which the land rises with a when moderate the weather is fair, but when gradual ascent, and its surface is covered with fresh there is often rain. They sometimes veer wild ducks. The north shore is composed of to the north, and even north-west, with hot sultry steep coral cliffs, nine or ten feet high, with some weather, and heavy rain; but these winds never intervals of sandy beach. There is no stone but last long, nor blow fresh. All the vegetable zoral on the island, except a single rock twenty productions are evergreens : of cultivated fruits to thirty feet high, of a yellow calcareous and the principal are plantains, of which there are very hard stone. The population captain Cook thirteen varieties; the bread-fruit, the jambu, and Vor. IX.

2 S

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