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these mountains, and twenty-five miles north, it and speak good French. One character of the joins the Holstein eleven miles above Knoxville. French language is, that it is natural and easy.
French CREEK, a river of North America, The words are ranged in it much in the same the north head water of the Alleghany, into which order as the ideas in our minds; in which it difit falls on the north side of Fort Franklin, eighty fers exceedingly from the Greek and Latin, miles north-east of Pittsburg.
where the inversion of the natural order of French CHALK, 12. S.
words is reputed a beauty. The Hebrew surFrench chalk is unctuous to the touck, as steatities passes even the French in this point, but comes is, but harder, and nearer approaching the consis- short of it in copiousness and variety. But, as tence of stone.
Woodward. to the analogy of grammar, and the simplicity French chalk is an indurated clay, extremely dense, wherewith the moods of verbs are formed, the of a smooth glossy surface, and soft and unctuous to English has the advantage not only over the the touch; of a greyish white colour, variegated with French, but over all the known languages in the a dusky green.
world; though the peculiar expressions and French LANGUACE, the language now spoken idioms of the English are sometimes so quaint in France, which, like the English, is not an and extraordinary, that it loses a good deal of the original language, but a medley of several. advantage which its grammatical simplicity Those that prevail most, and are the basis of it, gives it over the rest. The French has few are, 1. The Celtic; whether that were a particular compound words, wherein it differs widely from language itself, or whether it were only a dialect the Greek, high Dutch, and English. This the of the Gothic, as spoken in the west and North: French authors acknowledge to be a great dis2. The Latin, which the Romans carried with advantage; the Greek and Dutch deriving a them into Gaul, when they conquered it: and 3, great part of their force and energy from the The Teutonic, or that dialect of the Teutonic composition of words, and frequently expressing spoken by the Franks, when they passed the that in one sounding word, which the French Rhine, and established themselves in Gaul. Of cannot express but by a periphrasis. The dimithese three languages, in the space of about nutives in the French are as few as the com1300 years, was the modern French gradually pounds, the greatest part of those in use having formed. Its progress was very slow. Both the lost their diminutive signification. The French Italian and Spanish were regular languages long is chiefly admired for its justness, purity, accubefore the French. Pasquier observes, it was racy, and flexibility. It is the most universal under Philip of Valois that the French tongue and extensive language in Europe. The policy first began to be polished; and that, in the re- of states and courts has rendered it necessary gister of the chamber of accounts of that time, for the ministers of princes, &c.; and the disthere is a purity almost equal to that of the pre- coveries and improvements made by the French sent age. However, the French was still very in arts and sciences have had the same effect imperfect till the reign of Francis I. The custom among the learned. In Germany, and elseof speaking Latin at the bar, and of writing the where, the princesses and persons of distinction public acts and instruments of the courts of value themselves on understanding French; and, justice in that language, had made the French in several courts of Europe, French is almost as overlook their own language. The preceding much used as the language of the country. ages had been remarkable for their ignorance, French REPUBLIC. See FRANCE, REPUBLIC, owing, in a great measure, to the long and cala- and Revolution. mitous wars in which France had been engaged : French River, a river of Upper Canada, whence the French nobility deemed ignorance a which runs from Lake Huron, to Lake Nipissing. kind of merit; and the generals did not regard
FREʻNCHIFY, v. a. From French. To inwhether they wrote or talked politely or not, fect with the manner of France; to make a corprovided they could fight well. But Francis I.
comb. restored learning, and changed the face of af
Has he familiarly disliked fairs; and after his time Henry Stevens printed
Your yellow starch, or said your doublet his book, De la Precellence du Language Was not exactly frenchified ? Shakspeare. François. The change was become very con
They misliked nothing more in king Edward the spicuous at the end of the sixteenth century; and Confessur than that he was frenchified; and accounted under Henry IV. Amyot, Coeffetau, and Mal- the desire of foreign language then to be a foretoken herbe, contributed towards bringing it to per- of bringing in foreign powers, which indeed happened. fection; which cardinal Richelieu completed, by
Camden's Remains the establishment of the French Academy; a FRENETIC, adj. Fr. frenetique ; doevntsociety of which the most distinguished persons nos; generally therefore written phrenetic. in church and state have been members. Nor Mad; distracted. did the long reign of Louis XIV. contribute
He bimself impotent, little to the impruvement of the language; his
Daniel. taste for the fine arts rendered his court the
By means of his frenetick malady. politest in Europe. Wit and magnificence FRENZY, n. s. peviric; Lat. phrenitis seemed to vie; and his generals might have dis- whence phrenetisy, phrenetsy, phrenzy, op puted with the Greeks, Romans, &c., the glory frenzy. Madness; distraction of mind; alienaof writing well, if they could not that of fighting. tion of understanding; any violent passion apFrom the court, the elegance and purity of the proaching to madness. language soon spread itself into the provinces ; Yet Troilus for all this no worde saide, where there are now very few who do not write But long he laie as still be ded were ;
And after this, with siking be abraide,
I cou:d nou, without much grief, observe how free And to Pandarus voice he lent bis ere,
quently both gentlemen and ladies are at a
oss for And up his eien cast he. And than in fere questions and answers. Was Pandarus, lest that in a frenseye
Persons under bad imputations are no great freHe should yfal, or elles sone deye. quenters of churches,
Id. Chaucer. Troilus and Creseide. That knave, Pord, hath the finest mad devil of Lat. frequentativus. A grammatical term applied
FREQUENTATIVE, ad). Fr. frequentatif , jealousy in him that ever governed frenzy.
to verbs, signifying the frequent repetition of an True fortitude is seen in great exploits,
action. That justice warrants, and that wisdom guides;
FRERET (Nicholas), a learned French author All else is tow'ring frensy and distraction.
born at Paris in 1688. At the age of twenty-five
Addison. his merits recommended him to the Academy of Why such a disposition of the body induceth sleep, Inscriptions, of which he became a member. Oni another disturbs all the operations of the soul, and that occasion he presented the society with a occasions a lethargy or frency: this knowledge ex- dissertation on the origin of the French, which ceeds our narrow faculties.
Bentley. though learned, was so bold, that he was reFREQUENCE, n. s. ) Fr. frequence ; Lat. warded for it with a place in the Bastile. His Fre'QUENCY, n. s. frequentia. Crowd;
subsequent writings were mostly against revela
tion. He died in 1749. FRE'QUENT, adj. & v. a. concourse; FREQUENT’ABLE, adj. bly; common occur
FRERON (Elias Catherine), an eminent FREQUENT'ER, n. S.
French author and reviewer, born at Quimper in
rence; the condition FRE'QUENTLY, adv. of being often seen
1719. He was educated among the Jesuits, but or done; often done ; often seen; often occur
quitted their society in 1739. His critical works ring; used often to practise any thing; full of were much esteemed, but containing some free
strictures upon concourse; to visit often : to be much in any satirist attacked him with his usual asperity. In
M. Voltaire's writings, that place; to resort often to.
1749 Freron commenced his Letters on certain They in latter day,
Writings of the Times, which extended to thirFinding in it fit ports for fishers' trade,
teen volumes. He then began his Années LiteGan more the same frequent, and further to invade.
raires, which he continued till his death in 1776.
Spenser. There were synagogues for men to resort unto : our
He was an able opponent of the new philosophy, Saviour himself and the apostles frequented them.
and an acute critic. Besides the above he wrote, Hooker.
1. Miscellanies ; 2. Les Vrais Plaisirs; and 3. The frequence of degree,
Part of a Translation of Lucretius.
FRESCATI, or Frascati, an episcopal town
the coolness of the air, and fresh verdure of the At that time this land was known and frequented.
fields around. It is built on the ruins of the
Bacon. ancient Tusculum; two miles from the Tusculan Thou camest ere while into this senate : who villa where Cicero wrote his famous questions, Of such a frequency, so many frieuds
now called Grotta Ferrata. There is a very fine And kindred thou hast here, saluted thee?
prospect from this town into the neighbouring Ben Jonson.
country. It is surrounded by some of the most While youth lasted in him, the exercises of that beautiful villas in Italy; the principal of which age and his humour not yet fully discovered, made him somewhat the more frequentable and less dan- Pamfili; villa Taberna, belonging to prince
are the villa of Aldobrandini, belonging to prince gerous.
Borghese; and villa Ludovisi, to the family of He, in full frequence bright
Colonna. Frescati, Tivoli, and Albano, are the Of angels, thus to Gabriel smiling spake.
favorite abodes of the landscape painters, who
travel into Italy for improvement. Nothing can With tears
surpass the admirable assemblage of hills, mea
dows, lakes, cascades, gardens, ruins, groves, and Watering the ground, and with our sighs the air Frequenting, sent from hearts contrite, in sign,
terraces, which charm the eye while wandering Of sorrow unfeigned, and humiliation meek. Ia. among the shades of these delightful villages. An ancient and imperial city falls;
It is ten miles south-east of Rome. Long. 11° The streets are filled with frequent funerals.
42' E., lat. 41° 48' N. Dryden.
FRESCLONE, a town of Naples, in the proShould a miracle be indulged to one, others would vince of Molise, two miles south-west of Molise. think themselves equally entitled to it; and, if in- FRESCO, n.s.
, n. s. Ital. Coolness; shade ; dusdulged to many, it would no longer bave the effect of kiness; like that of the evening or morning : to a miracle : its force and influence would be lost by paint in fresco is to throw the scene or the object the frequency of it.
into duskiness, as distinguished from glaring Frequent herses shall besiege your gates. light.
Hellish sprites Every man thinks he may pretend to any employ
Love more the fresco of the nights. Prior. ment, provided he has been loud and frequent in declaring himself hearty for the government.
Here thy well-studied marbles fix our e je; Swift. A fading fresco here demands a sigh.
Fresco, a method of painting in relievo on Those nobility, as freshwater soldiers which had walls, so as to endure the weather. It is per- never seen but some light skirmishes, in their vain formed with water colors on fresh plaster, or on bravery made light account of the Turks. Knolles.
Then shall our names, a wall laid with mortar not yet dry. This sort
Familiar in their mouth as bousehold words of painting has a great advantage by its incorporating with the mortar, and, drying along with
Be in their fowing cups freshly remembered.
Shakspeare. it, becomes very durable. The Italians, from
He shall drink nought but brine; for I'll not shew whom we borrow the term, call it fresco, because
bim it is frequently used for walls, alcoves, and other Where the quick freshes are. Id. Tempeet. buildings in the open air. Vitruvius (lib. vii. cap. 4) calls it udo tectorio.
In executing Hast thou beheld a fresher gentlewoman, paintings in fresco, the necessary preparations Such war of white and red within her cheeks? are the sketch, the cartoon, in full size, cut in
Shakspeare. suitable pieces, the colors, prepared only with Looks he as freshly as he did the day he wrestled ? water, and the two sorts of plaster, the render
Id. ing and finishing coats on which the picture is
They are now freshly in difference with them.
Bacon. to be painted. Every part must be determined
Most odourg smell best broken or crushed; but upon, as no alteration or amendment can take flowers pressed or beaten, do lose the freshness and place; and the painter must be well acquainted
sweetness of their odour.
Id. with the qualities of his colors, as they dry lighter
This pope is decrepid, and the bell goeth for him; than when laid on. There are two operators in take order that when he is dead there be chosen a pope constant attendance, the plasterer, and the of fresh years, between fifty and threescore. painter, who follows him, and dyes his colors
Id. Holy War. into the very body of the plaster while yet wet; The Scots had the advantage both for number and the plasterer first renders the wall with a coat of freshness of men.
Huyward. coarse stucco formed of lime and sand, and Think not, 'cause men flattering say, finishes with the finer to such a surface as the Ye are fresh as April, sweet as May,
Bright as is the morning star, artist requires; who then pricks his outline
That you are so.
Carer. through the cartoon, and draws it with a style,
They keep themselves unmixt with the salt water; to prevent the colors running beyond them.
so that, a very great way within the sea, men way take The colors must then be dashed on at once in a
up as fresh water as if they were near the land. broad, bold, and general manner, that, by an
Abbot's Desc. of the World able artist, must produce a grand style. Paint
All fish from sea or shore, ing in fresco is very ancient, having been prac- Freshet or purling brook, or shell or fin. tised in the earliest ages of Greece and Rome.
Milton FRESH, adj. & n. s. Saxon fresc; Fr.
Thou sun, said I, fair light! Fresi’en, v. a. & v. n. fraische. Cool; not And thou enlightened earth, so fresh and gay! FRESH'ET, n. s. vapid with heat ; not
Id. Fresh'LY, udv. salt; new; not had be
Fresh gales and gentle airs FPESH'NESS, n. S. fore; not impaired by
Whispered it to the woods, and from their wings FRESH-WA'TER, n. s. time; recent; recency;
Flung rose. Aung odours, from the spicy shrub
Id. re-invigorated; brisk; strong; cheerful; unfaded;
This second source of men, while yet but few, unimpaired; florid; ruddy; sweet, as opposed to. And while the dread of judgment past remain stale or stinking; pure, not salt-water. Freshet Fresh in their minds, fearing the Deity, signifies a pool of fresh-water ; and fresh-water with some regard to what is just and right, is a compound word of fresh and water, used as Shall lead their lives.
Id. Paradise Lost. an adjective. Raw; unskilled ; unacquainted.
With such a care A low term borrowed from the sailors, who stig- As roses from their stalks we tear, matise those who come first to sea as fresh-water
When we would still preserve them new, men, or novices.
And fresh as on the bush they grew.
Waller. Upon his hede he wered of laurer grene,
As a fresh gale of wind fills the sails of a ship.
Holder A gerlond freshe and lusty for to sene.
No borrowed bays his temples did adorn,
But to our crown he did fresk jewels bring.
Amidst the spirits Palinurus pressed ;
Yet fresh from life, a new admitted guest.
Fresh from the fact, as in the present case, And wise Cambina taking by her side
Che criminals are seized upon the place; Faire Canacee, as fresh as morning rose,
Stiff in denial, as the law appoints, Unto her coch remounting, home did ride,
On Engines they dist:nd their tortured joints. Id Admired of all the people, and much glorifide.
Nor lies she long ; but as her fates ordain, Spenser. Faerie Queene.
Springs up to life, and fresh to second pain ; And chalenging the virgin as his dew
Is saved to-day, to-morrow to be slain. Id. His foe was soone addrest : the trumpets freshly blew.
That love which first was set, will first decay ;
Id The weeds of heresy being grown unto such ripeness Mine of a fresher date will longer stay. as that was, do, even in the very cutting down, scatter
Say, if she please, she hither may repair, oftentimes those seeds which for a while lie unseen and
And breathe the freshness of the open air.
Id buried in the earth; but afterwards freshly spring up For the constant freshness of it, it is such a pleasu: again no less pernicious than at the first. Hooker. as can never cloy or overwork the mind; for sure
nu man was ever weary of thinking that he had donc ient poet and painter, born at Paris in 1611. He well or virtuously.
South. was instructed by Perrier and Simon Vonet in She laid her down to rest,
painting, but, as soon as he fixed himself at And to the winds exposed her glowing breast,
Rome, he made the works of Titian his models. To take the freshness of the morning air.
He was, however, more celebrated as a poet than
as a painter; and is better known by his incomtall, innocent, fresh coloured young gentlemen. Id.
parable poem De Arte Graphicâ, than by his perI'll cull the farthest mead for thy repast;
formances on the canvas. He bestowed so much The choicest herbs I to thy board will bring, pains on it, that he died in 1665, before it was And draw thy water from the freshest spring. published. It was printed afterwards with a
Prior. French prose translation and notes, by M. de
Piles ; and was translated into English by Mr.
FRET, n.s., v.a. &v.n. of this word, as
Dr. Johnson says, the
etymology is doubt
FRET'FULNESS, n. s. ful: 'some derive it
from fretan to eat; Thomson.
others from fretpan to adorn; some from poitro; But no one doubted on the whole, that she Skinner more probably from fremo, or the Fr. freWas what her dress bespoke, a damsel fair tiller: perhaps it comes immediately from the Lat. And fresh, and beautiful exceedingly,
fretum. Mr. Todd suggests a more probable Who with the brightest Georgias might compare. origin of it; i. e. from Sax. freoðan, or the Fr.
Byron. frotter, to rub. A frith, or strait of the sea, where Fresh DissEisin, in law, such a disseisin, as the water by confinement is always rough. The a man may defeat of himself, as where it is within first idea is fermentation ; commotion; agitation; fifteen days.
applied to water; to liquors; to vibrations; attriFresh Suor, in sea language, the falling down tion; corrosion; however occasioned: also to of any large river into the sea, whereby the sea protuberances, excrescences, or ornaments, rehas fresh water a great way from its mouth. sembling the effects which are visible on an agi
To Freshen the hawse, in nautical language, tated surface. Whatever interrupts smoothness, or signifies to change the old canvas, &c., which diversifies appearances, giving such a variety as is usually wrapped round the cable, to prevent motion often does to liquids. It is also applied its being worn through by the friction against the the agitations of the mind; to the peevishness side of the vessel, &c., in heavy seas.
and discontent which wear away the patience FRESHES, a local term signifying annual inun- of others and destroy our own peace. Fretfuldations from the rivers being swollen by the ness is self-vexation, as distinguished from being melted snows and other fresh waters from the vexed: Chaucer also makes use of it in the uplands, as in the Nile, &c., from periodical sense of eating or devouring. or tropical rains. As a sailor's term, it is opposed
His heart fretteth against the Lord. Prov. xix. 3. to marine or salt-water floodings, tides, &c.
Men mighten asken, why she was not slain? The word is of common use in America, where Ike, at the feste, who might hire body save? the inundations so called are of great service. And I answer to that demand again, They bring down the soil to the intervales below, Who saved Daniel in that horrible cave and form a fine mould, producing corn, grain, Ther every wight but he master or knave, and herbage in the most luxuriant plenty. They Was with the leon frette or he asterte ? also afford another benefit, in regard to many
No wight but God, that he bare in his herte. rivers in America, viz. in equalising the surface
Chaucer. The Man of Lawes Tale.
Ther I saw I Atteon an hart ymaked, of the stream, where rapid falls, or cascades,
For vengeance that he saw Diane all naked : obstruct the navigation; so that rafts of timber
I saw how that his houndes have him caught, and other gross produce are floated down to the
And freten him; for that they knew bim naught. sea-ports in great quantities.
Id. The Knightes Tale. FRESNE (Charles de), Sieur du Cange, one Yet, saw I brent the shippes hoppesteres ; of the most learned writers of his time, was born The hunte ystrangled with the wild beres ; at Amiens in 1610, and studied at the Jesuits' The sow freting the child right in the cradel. Id. College in that city. He afterwards studied the There Saintes have bir cominge and resorte, law at Orleans, and gained great reputation by To seen the kinge so riolly besene his works; among which are, 1. The History of
In purple clad and eke the queene in sorte ;
And on hir heddes sawe I crownes tweine
With stones fret: so that it was no peine
Withouten mete and drinke to stand and see and Manuel Comnenus, in Greek and Latin,
The kinges honor and the rialte. with historical and philological notes. 3. Glos
Id. The Court of Lore. sarium ad Scriptores Mediæ et Infimze Latini
Helpless, what may it boot tatis; 6 vols, folio. 4. A Greek Glossary, con
To fret for anger, or for grief to moan! sisting of curious passages from rare MSS. 2
Fuerie Queene. vols. folio. He died in 1683, aged seventy-eight. They trouble themselves with fretting at the igno. Louis XIV. settled pensions on his four children. rance of such as withstand them in their opinion. FRESNOY (Charles Alphonso du), an excel
We are in a fretting mind at the church of Rome, Euripus generally signifieth any strait, fret, or and with angry disposition enter into cogitation. Id. channel of the sea, running between two shores. Their wounded steeds
Brouone. Fret fetlock deep in gore, and with wild rage
He swells with wrath, he makes outrageous moan, Yerk out their armed heels at their dead masters. He frets, he fumes, he stares, he stamps the ground. Shakspeare. Henry V.
Dryden. Be lion-mettled, proud, and take no care
These do but indeed scrape off the exuberances, or Who chafes, who frets, or where conspirers are.
fret into the wood, and therefore they are very sel. Id. Macbeth. dom used to soft wood.
Moron. Are you positive and fretful ?
They are fitted to answer the most variable harmoHeedless, ignorant, forgetful ?
ny: two or three pipes to all those of a church-organ, Shakspeare. or to all the strings and frets of a lute.
Grew's Cosmol. Sac. You may as well forbid the mountain pines
The incredulous Pheac, having yet To wag their high tops, and to make a noise
Drank but one round, replied in sober fret. When they are fretted with the gusts of heaven.
No benefits whatsoever, shall ever alter or allay Yon grey lines,
that diabolical rancour, that frets and ferments in That fret the clouds, are messengers of day. Id.
some hellish breasts, but that it will foam out in slanThy knotty and combined locks to part,
der and invective.
South. And each particular hair to stand on end,
Of this river the surface is covered with froth and Like quills upon the fretful porcupine.
for it runs along upon the fret, and is still
passage. -Contending with the fretful elements;
Addison on Italy. Bids the wind blow the earth into the sea. Id,
We take delight in a prospect well laid out, and Antony
diversified with fields and meadows, woods and rivers, Is valiant and dejected; and, by starts,
in the curious fret-works of rocks and grottos. His fretted fortunes give him hope and fear
Id. Spectater. Of what he has and has not.
Such an expectation, cries one, will never come to Id. Antony and Cleopatra.
pass : therefore I'll even give it up, and go and fret It requireth good winding of a kering before it will myself,
Collier. make any note; and, in the tops of lutes. the higher Before I ground the object-metal on the pitch, I they go, the less distance is between the frets. always ground the putty on with the concave cop
Bacon. per, 'till it had done making a noise; because, if the The frets of houses, and all equal figures, please ; particles of the putty were not made to stick fast in whereas unequal figures are but deformities. Id. the pitch, they would, by rolling up and down, grate
Take a piece of glover's leather that is very thin, and fret the object-metal, and fill it full of little holes. and put your gold therein, with sal armoniac, bind
Newton's Opticks. ing it close, and then hang it up; the sal armoniac It infamed and swelled very much; many wheals will fret away, and the gold remain behind.
arose, and fretted one into another with great excoria. Peacham. tion.
Wiseman. In the banks of rivers, with the washings of the Injuries from friends fret and gall more, and the water, there were divers times fretted out big pieces memory of them is not so gasily obliterated. of gold. Abbot.
Arhuhnot. Calmness is great advantage : he that lets
The blood, in a fever, if well governed, like wine Another chafe, may warm him at his fire,
upon the fret, dischargeth itself of heterogeneous Mark all his wand'rings, and enjoy his frets,
Derham. As cunning fencers suffer heat to tire. Herbert. How should I fret to mangle every line, The painful husband, plowing up his ground,
In reverence to the sins of thirty-nine. Shall find all fret with rust, both pikes and shields,
Yet then did Dennis rave in furious fret; And empty helms under his barrow sound.
I never answered, I was not in debt.
The' adjoining brook that purls along You, too weak the slightest loss to bear,
The vocal grove, now fretting o'er a rock, Are on the fret of passion, boil and rage.
Now scarcely moving through a reedy pool. Creech.
Thomson. The harp
A bad old woman making a worse will, Had work, and rested not : the solemn pipe
Which leaves you minus of the cash you counted And dulcimer, all organs of sweet stop,
As certain ;—these are paltry things, and yet All sounds on fret by string or golden wire,
I've rarely seen the man they did not fret.
Вутоп. " Tempered soft tunings, intermixed with voice Choral or unison.
Fret, in heraldry, one of the sub-ordinaries Milton's Paradise Lost.
composed of a saltier and mascle; Nor did there want
it has been called by some a Cornice or freeze, with bossy sculptures graven :
true lover's knot. Guillim asThe roof was fretted gold.
serts that its origin may be found The better part with Mary and with Ruth
in the net-work used to fasten the Chosen thou hast; and they that overween,
raw hides on the ancient turrets And at thy growing virtues fret their spleen,
as a defence against the arrows of No anger find in thee but pity and truth.
the enemy. See diagram. Hudibras fretting
FRETTS, in mineralogy, a term used by Conquest should be so long a getting, miners to express the worn side of the banks of Drew up his force.
Hudibras. the rivers in mine countries, where they search