« НазадПродовжити »
Had you rather Cæsar were living, and die all ing in this manner in an hour, as an equal numslaves, than that Cæsar were dead, to live all free- ber of our people do in a day or two. Though this men?
Shakspeare. stone is as soft as dry clay when first taken up, it He made us freemen of the continent,
is found to harden so considerably in the air, that What nature did like captives treat before.
it becomes more than equal to our ordinary free
stone. The Portland stone of the finest kind, to want that restraint of examination and judgment which is white, and of a close grit, is very fit for which keeps us from chusing or doing the worst, be hewing and carving; but it will neither resist liberty, true liberty, madmen and fools are the only water nor fire; while the free-stone of Kent, freemen.
Locke. which is less beautiful to the eye, and is of a What this union was is expressed in the preceding grayish color, and considerably close, though of verse, by their both having been made freemen on a larger grain, resists the air and water very well. the same day.
Addison. The freestone of Derbyshire, on the other hand, FREEMI’NDED, adj. Free and mind. Un- is so brittle ás to be unfit for any fine working; perplexed ; without load of care.
and so coarse and open in its texture, that it lets To be freeminded, and cheerfully disposed at hours water through; yet it bears the fire extremely of meat, sleep, and exercise, is one of the best pre- well, and is fit for ovens, hearths, &c. cepts of long lasting.
Bacon. FREETHINKER, n. s. Free and think. A FREESCHOʻOL, n. s. Free and school. A libertine; a contemner of religion. school in which learning is given without pay.
Atheist is an old-fashioned word; I'm a freethinker, child.
Addison. To give a civil education to the youth of this land
Of what use is freedom of thought, if it will not in the time to come, provision was made by another law, that there should be one freeschool at least erected produce freedom of action, which is the sole end, how
Davies. in every diocese.
remote soever in appearance, of all objections against Two clergymen stood candidates for a small free it as an edifice, wherein all the parts have such a
Christianity ? And therefore the freethinkers consider school ; a gentleman who happened to have a better
mutual dependence on each other, that if you pull understanding than his neighbours, procured the
out one single nail, the whole fabrick must fall to the place for him who was the better scholar. Swift.
Swift. FREESPOʻKEN, adj. Free and spoken. FREETHINKER. See Deism and Deist. Accustomed to speak without reserve.
FREEWI'LL, n. s.
Free and will. The Nerva one night supped privately with some six
power of directing our own actions without or seven ; amongst whom there was one that was a dangerous man, and began to take the like courses
restraint by necessity or fate; voluntariness; as Marcellas and Regulus had done : the emperor spontaneity. fell into discourse of the injustice and tyranny of the
I make a decree, that all they of the people of former time, and, by name, of the two accusers ; and Israel in my realm, which are minded of their own said, What should we do with them, if we had them freewill to go up to Jerusalem, go with thee. now? One of them that was at supper, and was a
Esra vii. 13. freespoken senator, said, Marry, they should sup with
We have a power to suspend the prosecution of Bacon.
this or that desire; this seems to me the source of FREČESTONE, n. s. Free and stone, Stone
all liberty; in this seems to consist that which is im. properly called freewill.
Locke. commonly used in building. I saw her hand; she has a leathern hand; a free- islands in the east of the Indian Ocean, dis
FREEWILL ISLANDS, three small and low stone-coloured hand. Shakspeare. As You Like It. The streets are generally paved with brick or free them Pegan, Onata, and Onella. They are
covered by Carteret in 1767. The natives called stone, and always kept very neat. Addison on Italy. Freestone is so named from its being of such a con
almost entirely surrounded by a reef, except stitution as to be wrought and cut freely in any direc- towards the east, where there is a narrow passage tion.
Woodward. through which a canoe can pass. Onata and FREESTONE is a whitish stone, dug up in Onella lie nearly in a direction east and west, many parts of Britain, that works like alabaster, and Pegan is about two miles to the north of but is more hard and durable ; being of great them. The inhabitants are friendly, and readily use in building, &c. It is a species of the grit exchanged with captain Carteret some cocoastone, but finer grained, and smoother. The nuts for small pieces of iron, which they much qualities of the several kinds of freestones used value. They set a high value on iron, so that in the different parts of Europe vary much. for some iron tools captain Carteret thought They all agree in this general property indeed, that they might have purchased every thing upon that they are softer while in the quarry, than the island. They are tall copper Indians, with when they have been some time exposed to the long black hair, and small beards, which they air : but even this general property differs greatly pluck by the roots from their chin and upperin degree. They have a sort of gray freestone lip. Their features are pleasing, and their teeth in use in Paris (of which we have not yet met good. They are remarkably agile and vigorous with any in this country), which has the above- in their movements. On their waist they wear a mentioned quality in so great a degree, that the fine matting covering. Their canoes are well expense of working it is in a great measure saved. constructed, and planked at the sides; with a This stone lies every where on the south side of sail of matting, an outrigger, and ropes and netthe river Seine, and is of a coarse and large grit. ting. One of the inhabitants insisting on remainIt is so soft, when newly taken out of the strata, ing with the ship's crew, was named Joseph that they fashion it very conveniently with a sort Freewill; from whom they learned that there of broad axe, and form as many stones for bu:ld- were other islands northward, whose inhabitants
had iron, and who always killed his countrymen. ice is specifically lighter than water, and floats The islands are in long. 137° 51' E., lat. 0° upon it. Water also loses of its weight by 50'S.
freezing, being found lighter after it is thawed FREEWOMAN, n. s. Free and woman. A than before it was frozen. And it even evaporatas woman not enslaved.
nearly as fast while frozen, as while it is fiuid. All her ornaments are taken away of a freewoman;
Water which has been boiled freezes more reashe is become a bond slave.
1 Mac, ii. 11. dily than that which has not been boiled ; and a FREEZE, v. n. & v.a. Belg. vriesen ; Teut. slight disturbance of the fluid disposes it to freisen; pret. froze; part. frozen or froze. To freeze more speedily; having sometimes been be congealed with cold ; to be of that degree of cooled several degrees below the freezing point, cold by which water is congealed; to congeal
without congealing when kept quite still, but with cold; to kill by cold; to chill by the loss suddenly freezing into ice on the least motion or
disturbance. Water, covered over with a surof power or motion
face of oil of olives, does not freeze so readily as And now, though on the sun I drive,
without it; and nut oil absolutely preserves it Whose fervent flame all things decays; His beams in brightness may not strive
under a strong frost, when olive oil would not. With light of your sweet golden rays;
Rectified spirit of wine, nut oil, and oil of turNor from my breast his heat remove,
pentine, seldom freeze. The surface of water, The frozen thoughts graven by love.
in freezing, appears all wrinkled; the wrinkles
Earl of Surrey. being sometimes in parallel lines, and sometimes When we both lay in the field, like rays, proceeding from a centre to the cirFrozen almost to death, how did he lap me, cumference. Fluids standing in a current of air Even in his garments!
Shakspeare. grow much colder than before. Fahrenheit had My master and mistress are almost frozen to death. long ago observed, that a pond, which stands
quite calm, often acquires a degree of cold much Orpheus with his lute made trees And mountain tops, that freeze,
beyond what is sufficient for freezing, and yet no Bow themselves when he did sing. Id.
congelation ensued: but if a slight breath of air Thou art all ice, thy kindness freeses.
happens in such a case to brush over the surface I have a faint cold fear thrills through my veins,
of the water, it freezes the whole in an instant. That almost freezes up the heat of life.
Id. It has also been discovered, that all substances What was that snaky-headed Gorgon shield grow colder by the evaporation of the fluids which That wise Minerva wore, unconquered virgin, they contain, or with which they are mixed. If Wherewith she freezed her foes to congealed stone, both these methods, therefore, be practised upon But rigid looks of chaste austerity
the same body at the same time, they will inAnd noble grace, that dashed brute violence
crease the cold to almost any degree of intenseWith sudden adoration and blank awe?
ness we please.
Although cold, in general, contracts most bo
dies, and heat expands them, yet there are some The pelican her wilderness; And 'tis the Indian's pride to be
instances to the contrary, especially in the exNaked on frozen Caucasus :
treme cases or states of these qualities of boilies. Contentment cannot smart; stoics, we see,
Thus, though iron, in common with other bodies, Make torments easie to their apathy.
expands with heat, yet, when melted, it is always L'Estrange. Old Song. found to expand in cooling again. Thus also, Heaven frose above severe, the clouds congeal though water expands gradually as it is heated, And through the crystal vault appeared the standing and contracts as it cools, yet in the act of freezing hail.
it suddenly expands again, and that with an enorDeath came on amain,
mous force, capable of rending rocks, or bursting And exercised below his iron reign;
the very thick shells of metal, &c. A computation Then upward to the seat of life he goes ;
of the force of freezing water was made by the Sense filed before him, what he touched he froze.
Florentine Academicians, from the bursting of a The freezing of water, or the blowing of a plant in it; when, from the known thickness and tena
very strong brass globe or shell by freezing water returning at equidistant periods in all parts of the earth, would as well serve men to reckon their city of the metal, it was found that the expansive years by as the motions of the sun.
Locke. power of a spherule of water, only one inch in The aquenus humour of the eye will not freeze, diameter, was sufficient to overcome a resistance which is very adusirable, seeing it hath the perspi- of more than 27,000 pounds, or thirteen tons cuity and fuidity of common water.
Ray. and a half. See the experiments on bursting A thousand and a thousand colours they thick bomb-shells, by freezing water in them, by Assume, then leave us on our freezing way. major Edward Williams of the royal artillery,
Byron. in the Edin. Philos. Trans. vol. 2. Such a proFreezing, in philosophy, the same with con- digious power of expansion, almost double that gelation. See Cold and Congelation, where of the most powerful steam-engines, and exerted the latest experiments and observations on that in so small a mass, seemingly by the force of subject are detailed. Freezing may be defined cold, was thought a very material argument in the fixing a fluid body into a solid mass, by the favor of those who supposed that cold, like heat, action of cold. Water and some other fluids is a positive substance. Dr. Black's discovery suddenly dilate and expand in the act of freez- of latent heat, however, has afforded an easy and ing, so as to occupy a greater space in the solid natural explication of this phenomenon." He than in the liquid state : in consequence of which has shown that, in the act of congelation, water
is not cooled more than it was before, but rather phenomenon may be perfectly well explained ; grows warmer : that as much heat is discharged and for, as soon as any part of the water freezes, heat passes from a latent !o a sensible state, as, had it will be generated thereby, in consequence of the been applied to water in its fluid state, would above-mentioned law, so that the newly formed have heated it to 135o. in this process, the ex- ice and remaining water will be warmed, and pansion is occasioned by a great number of mi- must continue to receive heat by the freezing of nute bubbles suddenly produced. Formerly fresh portions of water, till it is heated exactly these were supposed to be cold in the abstract; to the freezing point, unless the water could beand to be so subtile, that, insinuating themselves come quite solid before a sufficient quantity of into the substance of the fluid, they augmented heat was generated to raise it to that point, which its bulk, at the same time that, by impeding the is not the case; and it is evident, that it cannot notion of its particles upon each other, they be healed above the freezing point; for as soon cbanged it from a fluid to a solid. But Dr. as it comes thereto, no more water will freeze, Black shows, that these are only air extricated and consequently no more heat will be generated. during the congelation; and to the extrication The reason why the ice spreads all over the waof this air he ascribes the prodigious expansive ter, instead of forming a solid lump in one part, force exerted by freezing water. The only ques- is, that, as soon as any small portion of ice is tion, therefore, is, by what means this air comes formed, the water in contact with it will be so co be extricated, and to take up more room than much warmed as to be prevented from freezing, it naturally does in the fluid? To this it may but the water at a little distance from it will still be answered, that perhaps part of the heat, be below the freezing point, and will consequently which is discharged from the freezing water, com- begin to freeze. Were it not for this generation bines with the air in its unelastic state, and, by of heat, the whole of any quantity of water restoring its elasticity, gives it that extraordinary would freeze as soon as the process of congelation force; as is seen also in the case of air suddenly began; and in like manner the cold is generated extricated in the explosion of gun-powder. The by the melting of ice; which is the cause of the degree of expansion of water, in the state of long time required to thaw ice and snow. It was ice, is by some authors computed at about, formerly found that, by adding snow to warm one-tenth of its volume. Oil and quicksilver water, and stirring it about until all was melted, shrink and contract after freezing.
the water was as much cooled as it would have • If a vessel of water,' says Mr. Cavendish,'with been by the addition of the same quantity of waa thermometer in it, be exposed to the cold, the ter rather more than 150° colder than the snow; thermometer will sink several degrees below the or, in other words, somewhat more than 150° of freezing point, especially if the water be covered cold are generated by the thawing of the snow; up so as to be defended from the wind, and care and there is great reason to believe that just as taken not to agitate it; and then on dropping in much heat is produced by the freezing of water. a bit of ice, or on mere agitation, spiculæ of ice The cold generated in the experiment just menshoot suddenly through the water, and the en- tioned was the same whether ice or snow was closed thermometer rises quickly to the freezing lised.' point, where it remains stationary. In a note, Freezing Point denotes the point or degree he adds, that though, in conformity to the com- of cold, by a mercurial thermometer, at which mon opinion, he has allowed that mere agitation certain fuids begin to freeze, or, when frozen, may set the water a freezing, yet some experi- at which they begin to thaw again. See Chements made by Dr. Blagden seem to show, that it has not much, if any, effect of that kind, Freezing Rain, or raining ice, a very unotherwise than by bringing the water in contact common kind of shower, which fell in the west with some substance colder than itself. Though of England, in December 1672, of which we have in general also the ice shoots rapidly, and the en- several accounts in the Philosophical Transacclosed thermometer is raised very quickly; yet ne tions. This rain, as soon as it touched any thing once observed it to rise very slowly, taking up above ground, as a bough or the like, immedinot less than half a minute, before it ascended to ately settled into ice; and, by multiplying and the freezing point; but in this experiment the enlarging the icicles, broke all down with its water was cooled not more than one or two de- weight. The rain that fell on the snow immegrees below freezing; and it should seem, that diately froze into ice, without sinking into the the more the water is cooled below the freezing snow at all. It made an incredible destruction point, the more rapidly the ice shoots and the en- of trees, beyond any thing in all history. Had closed thermometer rises.' Mr. Cavendish then it concluded with some gust of wind,' says a observes, “ that from the foregoing experiments gentleman who was on the spot, it might have we learn, that water is capable of being cooled been of terrible consequence. I weighed the considerably below the freezing point, without sprig of an ash tree, of just three quarters of a any congelation taking place; and that, as soon pound, the ice on which weighed sixteen pounds. as by any means a small part of it is made to Some were frighted with the noise in the air; till freeze, the ice spreads rapidly through the whole they discerned it was the clatter of icy boughs of the water. The cause of this rise of the ther- dashed against each other.' Dr. Beale observes, mometer is, that all or almost all bodies, by chang- that there was no considerable frost observed on ing from a fluid to a solid state, or from the state the ground during the whole; whence he conof an elastic to that of an unelastic fluid, gene- cludes, that a frost may be very intense rate heat; and that cold is produced by the con- and dangerous on the tops of some hills and trary process. Thus all the circumstances of the plains; while in other places it keeps at two,
three, or four feet distant above the ground, due for all that were put on board. When a whole rivers, lakes, &c., and may wander about very ship is freighted, if the master suffers any other furious in some places, and remiss in others not goods besides those of the freighter to be put on far off. The frost was followed by glowing heats, board, he is liable for damages. It is common and an unusual forwardness of flowers and to mention the number of days that the ship fruits.
shall continue at each port to load or unload. FREIGHT, v. d. & n. S. / Fr. fretter ; pret. The expression used is work weather days; to
FREIGHTER, n. s. freighted; particip. signify, that Sundays, holidays, and days when fraught; which being now used as an adjective, the weather stops the work, are not reckoned. freighted is adopted. To load a ship or vessel If the ship be detained longer, a daily allowof carriage with goods for transportation; to load ance is often agreed on, in name of demurrage. as the burden: to be the thing with which a If the voyage be completed in terms of the vessel is freighted ; any thing with which a ship agreement, without any misfortune, the master is loaded; the money due for transportation of has a right to demand payment of the freight goods; he who freights a vessel.
before he delivers the goods. But if the safe I would
delivery be prevented by any fault or accident, Have sunk the sea within the earth, or ere the parties are liable, according to the following It should the good ship so have swallowed, and rules. If the merchant do not load the ship The freighting souls within her. Shakspeare. within the time agreed on, the master may enThe princes
gage with another, and recover damages. If the Have to the port of Athens sent their ships, merchant load the ship, and recal it after it has Fraught with the ministers and instruments
set sail, he must pay the whole freight; but if Of cruel war.
he unļoad it before it sets sail, he is liable for Shakspeare. Troilus and Cressida. Prologue. Nor is, indeed, that man less mad than these,
damages only. If a merchant loads goods Who freights a ship to venture on the seas ;
which it is not lawful to export, and the ship be With one frail interposing plank to save
prevented from proceeding on that account
, he From certain death rolled on by every wave.
must pay the freight notwithstanding. If the
Dryden. shipmaster be not ready to proceed on the He clears the deck, receives the mighty freight ; voyage at the time agreed on, the merchant may The leaky vessel groans beneath the weight. load the whole, or part of the cargo, on board
Freighted with iron, from my native land another ship, and recover damages; but chance, I steer my voyage.
Pope's Odyssey. or notorious accident, by the marine law, A small vessel should not be stuffed with lumber. releases the master from damages. If an emBut if its freight be precious, and judiciously stowed, bargo be laid on the ship before it sails, the it may be more valuable than a ship of twice its bur- charter-party is dissolved, and the merchant pays den.
the expense of loading and unloading; but if the Freight, in commerce, is the money paid for embargo be only for a short limited time, the carriage of goods by sea; or the price paid for voyage shall be performed when it expires, and the use of a ship to transport goods. Ships are neither party is liable for damages. If the ship, freighted either by the ton, or by the great: and, master sails to any other port than that agreed in respect of time, the freight is agreed for, at so on, without necessity, he is liable for damages ; much per month, or at a certain sum for the if, through necessity, he must sail to the port whole voyage. If a ship freighted by the great, agreed on at his own expense. If a ship be happens to be cast away, the freight is lost; but taken by the enemy, and retaken, or ransomed, if a merchant agrees by the ton, or at so much the charter-party continues in force. If the for every piece of commodities, and by any ac- master transfer the goods from his own ship to cident the ship is cast away, if part of the goods another, without necessity, and they perish, he is saved, she ought to be answered her freight is liable for the value; but if his own ship be in pro rata. The freight is most frequently deter- imminent danger, the goods may be put on mined for the whole voyage, without respect to board another ship at the risk of the owner. If time. Sometimes it depends on the time. In a ship be freighted out and home, and a sum the former case, it is either fixed at a certain agreed on for the whole voyage, nothing is due sum for the whole cargo; or at so much per ton, till it return : and the whole is lost if the ship barrel-bulk, or other weight or measure; or so be lost on the return. If a certain sum be much per cent. on the value of the cargo. This specified for the homeward voyage, it is due, last is common on goods sent to America ; and although the factor abroad should have no goods the invoices are produced to ascertain the value. to send home. In the case of a ship freighted The burden of the ship is generally mentioned to Madeira, Carolina, and home, a particular in the contract, in this manner, one hundred tons, freight fixed for the homeward voyage, and an or thereby;' and the number mentioned ought option reserved for the factor at Carolina to not to differ above five tons, at most, from the decline it, unless the ship arrived before 1st of exact measure. If a certain sum be agreed March; the ship-master, foreseeing he could on for the freight of the ship, it must all be paid, not arrive there within that time, and might be although the ship, when measured, should prove disappointed of a freight, did not go there at all
. less, unless the burden be warranted. If the He was'found liable in damages, as the obligaship be freighted for transporting cattle, or tion was absolute on his part, and conditiona slaves , at so much a head, and some of them die only on the other
. If the goods be damaged on tríe passage, freight is only due for such as without fault of the ship or master, the owner 15 are delivered alive; but, if for lading them, it is not obliged to receive them and pay freight, but
he must either receive the whole, or abandon the In 1709 he published his Chemical Lectures. whole; he cannot choose those that are in best In 1712 he attended the duke of Ormond in order, and reject the others. If the goods be Flanders, as his physician. In 1716 he was damaged through the insufficiency of the ship, admitted a fellow of the college of physicians in the master is liable; but, if it be owing to stress London. The same year he published the first of weather, he is not accountable. It is cus- and third books of Hippocrates De Morbis tomary for shipmasters, when they suspect da- Popularibus, with a Commentary on Fevers, mage, to take a protest against wind and weather written by himself. He sat M. P. for Launceston at their arrival. But as this is the declaration in Cornwall in 1722, where he distinguished of a party, it does not bear credit, unless sup- himself by his opposition to the ministry. In ported by collateral circumstances. If part of March, 1722, he was committed to the tower ihe goods be thrown over-board, or taken by the on suspicion of being concerned in Atterenemy, the part delivered pays freight. The bury's Plot, but was soon released on bail. ship-master is accountable for all the goods re- While he was under confinement he wrote a ceived on board, by himself or mariners, unless Latin epistle to Dr. Mead, De Quibusdam Vathey perish by the act of God, or of the king's riorum Generibus; and began his History of enemies. Ship-masters are not liable for leakage Physic, the first part of which was published in on liquors; nor accountable for the contents of 1725, and the second in 1726. Upon the accespackages, unless packed and delivered in their sion of George II. he was appointed physician presence.
to the queen, who showed the utmost esteem for FREGOSO (Baptist), doge of Venice, A. D. him. He died in London in 1728. His works 1478, was author of several works: as, 1. The were published together in Latin, folio, 1733, Life of Pope Martin V.; 2. A Treatise on and dedicated to the queen. Learned Ladies, in Latin: 3. On Memorable FREINSHEMIUS (John), a learned and eleActions; and 4. Against Love, both in Italian, gant author, born at Ulm in 1608. He published He was deposed for arbitrary conduct, and supplements to Livy, Tacitus, and Quintus Curbanished.
tius, in sixty books, printed at Strasburg in FREHER (Marquard), a learned German 1664. He wrote likewise Notes upon Quintus author, born at Augsburg in 1705. He studied Curtius, Florus, Tacitus, and some other Latin under Cujacius in France, and in his twenty- .classics; and died in 1660. He was professor third year was made professor-at-law, at Heidel- at Upsal and Heidelburg. burg. He was afterwards made vice-president of FREISCHBACH, a town of France, in the court, by Frederic IV. elector palatine, who department of Mont Tonnerre, late of Germany, sent him to other courts as bis ambassador. He in tne palatinate of the Rhine, taken by the wrote many works on antiquities, law, and his- French in 1794. It is six miles E. N. E. of tory, though he died in 1614, aged only forty- Landau. nine.
FREJUS, the Forum Julii of ancient history, FREIGIUS (John Thomas), a learned Ger- is a small town on the coast of Provence, France, man, born at Fribourg, in the sixteenth century. situated amidst marshes on the river Argens. Its He studied under Zasius and Remus, and was harbour has long been dry, the sea having remade rector of the College at Altorf in 1575. tired nearly sixteen miles, but anchorage is He died at Basil in 1583. He wrote, 1. Ques- found in the roadstead; and here are vestiges of tiones Geometricæ et Stereometricæ ; 2. Logica an amphitheatre and of a large aqueduct. FreConsultorum; 3. A Latin Translation of Fro- jus was the birth place of Agricola, but is more bisher's Voyages ; 4. Notes, Historical and Poli- noted for being, in modern times, the place tical, &c., on Cicero's Orations.
where Buonaparte landed on his return from FREIMERSHEIM, a town of France, in the Egypt in 1799, and on his more celebrated return department of Mont Tonnerre, late of Germany, from Elba in 1815. Population 2200. Thirty in the palatinate of ine Rhine, taken by the miles south-west of Nice, and forty north-east French in 1794. It is four miles N.N. E. of of Toulon. Landau
FREN, n. s. A stranger; an old word wholly FREIND (John), a learned English physician forgotten here, but retained in Scotland. and author, born at Croton, in Northampton- But now from me bis madding mind is start, shire, in 1675. In 1696 ne published, in con- And wooes the widow's daughter of the glen; junction with Mr. P. Foulkes, an edition of two And now fair Rosalind hath bred his smart, Greek orations, viz. of Æschines against Ctesi- So now his friend is changed for a fren. phon, and Demosthenes de Coronâ, with a new
Spenser Latin version. In 1699 he wrote a letter to FRENCH, in geography, a river of the United Dr. Sloane concerning a case of hydrocephalus, States, in Massachusetts, which rises from a published in the Philosophical Transactions, pond in Worcester county, and runs into the and another letter in Latin to the same gentle- Quinebauge in Connecticut; so named from the man, De Spasmi Rarioris Historia, printed in the French Protestants, who settled on its banks, same Transactions. In 1703 his Émmenologia after the revocation of the Edict of Nantz, in appeared; which gained him great reputation. 1685. In 1704 he was chosen professor of chemistry French Broad, a navigable river of Tennesse, in the university of Oxford. In 1705 he attended from 400 to 500 yards broad, formed by several the earl of Peterborough to Spain, as physician bead waters that rise in North Carolina, on the to the army there; and upon return, in 1707, south-east of the Great Iron and Bald Mountains. published an account of the earl's expedition. After running fifty-six miles north-west between