« НазадПродовжити »
an invitation you may believe I accepted with
Hence from my sight : emotion, and enjoyed with pleasure. Above the If after this command thou fraught the court range of the dormitories there is another little With thy unworthiness, thou dyest. apartment, which my guide allotted to the
Our fraughtage, sir,
I have conveyed abroad.
Id. Comedy of Errors. preserved, and perhaps only a copy from some
In the narrow seas, that part original painting. It was from this place that
The French and English, there iniscarried Copernicus enjoyed a fine scope of the heavens,
A vessel of our country, richly fraught. and a large horizon; here that he made the
Shakspeare. heavens his study, and rendered himself a lumi Whosoever bath his mind fraught with many nary of the first magnitude in the constellation of thoughts, his wits, and understanding do clarify and modern astronomers; and, when he found it break up in the cominunicating and discoursing with necessary to make his observations in the open another.
Bacon. air, there is a little gallery or terrace that com
Hell, their fit habitation, fraught with fire, municates with this apartment, and the adjoining
Unquenchable, the house of woe and pain.
Milton. steeple or belfry, which served to accommodate
With joy the great Copernicus in his researches. You,
And tidings fraught, to hell he now returned. my lord, are able to conceive the divine satisfac
Id. Paradise Lost. lion I enjoyed in this place-classic and sacred
Perhaps some cold bank is her bolster now, --where I inhaled as it were the spirit of depart- Or 'gainst the rugged bark of some broad elm ed greatness! and it was the shock of these Leans her uapillowed bead, fraught with sad fears. transcendant emotions that made me to forget
Id. Comus. the stone I have described in the former part of Of all our navy none should now survive, my letter, my time being elapsed, and my car But that the ships themselves were taught to dive, riage ready to depart. Near the cathedral my
And the kind river in its creek them hides, canon showed me a large reservoir of water, with Fraughting their pierced keels with ouzy sides.
Marvell. a high tower, which contains the remains of a hydraulic machine, said to have been invented with all the riches of the rising sun,
And now approached their feet from India, fraught by Copernicus, for carrying and distributing the And precious sand from southern climates brought. water by pipes to the different apartments of the
Dryden. canons, his brethren: a convenience now lost,
The bark that all our blessings brought, and which, from the ruin of the machine, they Charged with thyself and James, a doubly royal are obliged to fetch from a fountain in the lower fraught.
Id. part of Frauenbourg. I have read in an old Abdallah ard Belfora were so fraught with all German journal, that in the ancient town of kinds of knowledge, and possessed with so constant a Konigsberg there are, or were, preserved many passion for each other, that their solitude never lay of the books belonging to Copernicus at the time heavy on them.
Addison. of his death, with his portrait in oil colors, which FRAUSTADT, a town in the grand duchy were purchased at Thorn, probably in his house of Posen, Poland, in a sandy tract on the borin that town, possessed by the family so late as ders of Silesia. It is subject to Prussia, and is the year 1720; and in this house Copernicus a place of considerable traffic in Polish wool, was born.'—Frauenbourg was built in 1279, and woollen and linen cloth, stockings and leather. lies thirty-eight miles south-west of Konigsberg. Here are barracks in an old building, formerly Several monuments of the genius of Copernicus the Jesuits' college. The Swedes obtained a remain here, particularly the hydraulic machine, signal victory in this neighbourhood over the which supplied Frauenbourg with water, and Saxons and Russians, in February, 1706, and which is supposed to have served as a model for in 1802 a number of houses were destroyed by that of Marli. See our article Copernicus. fire. It is twenty miles north-east of Glogau,
FRAUGIIT, part. pass., n. s. & v.a. Part.of and seventy N. N. W. of Breslau. Population
fraight, 5600, chiefly Germans, but including about 500 now written freight. Laden; charged ; filled;
Jews. stored ; thronged : freight; a cargo : to load ;
FRAXINELLA, in botany, see DictamnUS. to crowd.
It is remarkable of this odorous plant that,
when in full blossom, the air which surrounds it These marchants han don fraught her shippes newe; in a still night may be inflamed by the approach And whan they han this blisful maden seen,
of a lighted candle. Dr. Watson doubts whether Home to Surrie ben they went ful fayn. Chaucer. The Man of Lawes Tale.
this inflammability proceeds from an inflammaBy this sad Una, fraught with anguish sore,
ble air exhaled by the plant, or from some of the
finer parts of the essential oil of the plant being Arrived, where they in earth their blood had spilt.
dissolved in the common atmospherical air. The
latter, Carallo thinks, is most probable, for were The Scripture is fraught even with laws of nature.
it the pure inflammable air, it would, on account Hooker.
of its small specific gravity, leave the plant as
the property of becoming inflammable, by being
Id. Othello. order, and polygamia class of plants: n...ra.
order forty-fourth, sepiariæ. There is no her I'll speak between the change of man and boy
With a reed voice, and turn two mincing steps maphrodite calyx, or it is quadripartite; and there is either no corolla, or it is tetrapetalous;
Into a manly siride ; and speak of frays,
Shahepeare. there are two stamina; one pistil ; one lanceolated seed; and the pistil of the female is lance
Time tells, that on that ever blessed day, olated. There are fifteen species, of which the When Christian swords with Persian blood were dyed,
The furious prince Tancredie from that fray most useful is the F. excelsior, common ash.
His coward foes chased through forests wide. If a wood of these trees is rightly managed,
Fairfar. will turn out greatly to the advantage of the
Fishes are thought to be frayed with the motion owner; for, by the underwood, which will be fit
caused by noise vpon the water.
Bacon, to cut every eight or ten years, there will be a continual income, more than sufficient to pay the
Since, if we fall before the appointed day,
Nature and death continue long their fray. rent of the ground, and all other charges; and
Denham, still there will be a stock preserved for timber,
The boaster Paris oft desired the day which in a few years will be worth 40s. or 50s.
With Sparta's king to meet in single fray. per tree. This tree flourishes best in groves, but grows very well in a rich soil in open fields. It is found in the highest perfection on dry loamy
But why should I bis childish feats display?
Concourse and noise, and toil he ever fled, soils. In moist ground it grows fast, but soon
Nor cared to mingle in the clamorous fray sickens. It will in short grow freely on most
Of squabbling imps.
Beattie. kinds of soils, if the situation be tolerably good,
And so he says no more--but pays his court excepting on retentive clays or tills. In wet
To some distinguished strangers in that fray, soils it quickly shoots up, but soon languishes
The Prince de Ligne, and Largeron, and Damas, and dies. In rich lands its wood is short and
Names great as any that the roll of Fame has. brittle; in sandy soils it is tough and reedy:
Byron qualities which, for several purposes, very much enhance its value. Much has been said against den, was, next to him, the most revered divinity
FREA, or FRIGGA, the wife of Odin, or Woadınitting the common ash as an ornamental tree. Some discard it, because it has no leaf till late in northern nations. As Odin was believed to be
among the Heathen Saxons, Danes, and other the spring; for the same reason, the oak and the father, Frea was esteemed the mother of all the platanus might also be rejected. Others deny it
In the earliest times Frea was the admission, because it sheds its leaves early in
same with the goddess Herthus, or Earth, who autumu; the same objection would apply to the
was so devoutly worshipped by the Angli, and beech, the cherry, and the sycamore. Others other German nations. But when Odin, the again denounce it, because its foliage is thin, and
conqueror of the north, usurped the bonors due its branches bare and ugly. It forms however an agreeable variety, when judiciously intermingled those which had been formerly paid to mother
only to the true Odin, his wife Frea usurped with other trees; and, as it will bear almost any Earth. She was worshipped as the goddess of topping or cutting, it is easily accommodated to love and pleasure, who bestowed on her votaries its position. Cattle in general are fond of its leaves, and in Lancashire they lop the tops of riages, and easy births. To Frea the sixth day of
a variety of delights, particularly happy marthese trees to feed them in autumn, when the the week was consecrated, which still bears her grass is on the decline; the cattle peeling off the bark as food. The wood has the singular pro
name, Friday, or Frea's day.
FREAK, n. s. & v. a. Sax. fræc, fugitive; perty of being nearly as good when young as
FREAK'ish, adj. Ger. frech, saucy; petwhen old. It is hard and tough, and is much
Freak'ishly, adv. ulant. A sudden and used to make the tools employed in husbandry.
FREAK'ISIINESS, n. S. causeless change of The ashes of the wood afford very good potash: place. A sudden fancy; a humor; a whim; a The bark is used in tanning calf-skin. A slight capricious prank. Of the verb Dr. Johnson says, infusion of it appears of a pale yellowish color 'I suppose Scotch, brought into England by when viewed between the eye and the light; but Thomson ; but Milton uses it to variegate; to when placed betwixt the eye and an opaque chequer. Capricious; humorsome. object, it appears blue. This blueness is destroyed by the addition of an acid, but recovered by
0! but I fear the fickle freaks, quoth sbe, alkalies. The seeds are acrid and bitter. Horses,
Of fortune, and the odds of arms in field.
Faeric Quecs. cows, sheep, and goats, eat it: but it spoils the milk of cows.
The white pink and the pansy freaked with jet.
Milton. Lycidas. FRAY, n. s. & v. a. Fr. fracas, effrayer, to fright. A battle; a fight; a duel ; a combat; One grain of true science and sound wisdom in real a broil; a quarrel; a riot. To fright; to terrify: worth and use doch outweigh loads, if any loads can
be of freakish wit.
Barrer. Fr. frayer, to rub.
When that freak has taken possession of a fantasti. The panther, knowing that his spotted hide
cal head, the distemper is incurable. L'Estrange. Doth please all beasts, but that his looks them fray, Within a bush his dreadful head doth bide,
It may be a question, whether the wise or (be To let them gaze, while he on them may prey. woman was the more freakish of the to; for she was
Id So diversely themselves in vain they fray,
She is restless and peevish, and sometimes in a Whilst some more bold to measures him stand nigh. freak will instantly change her habitation.
To vex me more, he took a freak
for its mines, and for being the burying-place To slit my tongue, and make me speak. Swift. of the princes and of the house of Saxony. It There furry nations harbour :
is a delightful place, seated on the river Multa. Sables of glossy black, and dark embrowned,
Long. 13° 40' E., lat. 51° 2' N.
FREDERICIA, a town of Jutland, on the
Little Belt, with a custom-house, where all ves-
sels pay a toll on passing the Belt. The walls In these, ere triftes half their wish ubtain,
enclose a large extent of ground, but the popuThe toiling pleasure sickens into pain. Goldsmith.
lation is only 3500. It was founded in 1651, FREAM, v. n. Lat. fremere; Fr. fremir.
but the fortifications were not completed when it To growl or grunt as a boar.
was taken by storm and burnt by the Swedes. FRECK'LE, n. s. Goth. frak; Ger. flecn,
After this the town and walls were repaired; FaEcK'LED, adj.
a spot, whence fleckle, but, though the Danish government has made Freck’ly, adv. S freckle? A spot raised in various efforts to induce a resort of population, the skin by the sun. Any small spot or dis- the want of a good harbour has much countercoloration,
acted them. Tobacco is cultivated here; but
the chief manufactures are silk and woollen. A fewe fraknes in his face ysprent,
Five miles north of Middlefarth.
FREDERICK, the name of eleven European
monarchs, viz. four emperors of Germany, five In their gold coats spots you see :
kings of Denmark, and two kings of Prussia; and Those be rubies fairy favours ;
part of the names of two other kings of Prussia, In those freckles live their favours.
and two of Poland. See DENMARK, GERMANY, Shakspeare.
POLAND, and PRUSSIA. Amongse these we The even mead that erst brought sweetly forth shall here only take notice of the two followThe freckled cowslip,
ing:Wanting the scythe, all uncorrected, rank,
FREDERICK I., king of Prussia, the son of Conceives by idleness.
Id. Henry V. Frederick-William the Great, elector of BrandenThe farewell frosts and easterly winds now spot burg, was born in 1657; and succeeded his your tulips ; therefore cover such with mats, to pre- father in the electorate, A. D. 1688.
In 1700 vent freckles.
he entered into a negociation with the emperor, Sometimes we'll angle at the brook,
Leopold 1., to get Prussia erected into a king-
dom; which he at last obtained by a singular Ruddy his lips, and fresh and fair his hue;
accident. While appearances were rather inSome sprinkled freckles on his face were seen,
promising he received a letter from his minister, Whose dusk set off the whiteness of the skin. written in cyphers, advising him to use the
Dryden. interest of a certain prince; but he, mistaking Now thy face charms every shepherd, the cyphers, applied to the emperor's confessor ; Spotted over like a leopard ;
who, being a Jesuit, was so much struck with And, thy freckled neck displayed,
the honor done him by a Protestant elector, that Envy breeds in every maid.
lie exerted his whole interest, and that of his Freckles, lentigines, are spots of a yellowish order, to procure him the desired object. Frecolor, of the bigness of a lentile seed, scattered derick was accordingly crowned king of Prussia over the face, neck, and hands. Freckles are January 18th, 1701. He was endued with many either natural, or proceed from the jaundice, or the virtues. Ile was magnificent, generous, constant action of the sun upon the part. Pleat, or a sud- to his marriage vows, and studied the true inden change of weather, will often make the skin terest of his subjects, by preserving his dominiappear of a darker color than is natural, and ons in peace. He was three times married : thereby produce what is called tan, sunburn, and his second queen was sister to king George I. morphew; which seem to differ only in degree, He founded the university of Halle, and the and usually disappear in winter Persons of a royal academy at Berlin. He died in 1713. fine complexion, and those whose hair is red, FREDERICK JI., surnamed the Great, king of are most subject to freckles, especially in parts Prussia, one of the greatest warriors the present exposed to the sun and air. To remove freckles age has produced, was the son of Frederickput juice of lemons in a glass phial, and, mixing William, then hereditary prince of Brandenburg, it with sugar and borax finely powdered, let it and princess Sophia Dorothea, daughter of king digest eight days, and then use it. Homberg George I. Ile was born in 1712, the year beproposes bullock's gall mixed with alum, and, fore his father mounted the throne, who was so after the alım has precipitated, exposed three far from being a patron of literature, that he reor four months to the sun in a close phial, garded nothing but what related to the military as one of the best menstrua for removing art ; and most of his generals scarcely knew how freckles.
to sign their names. His son was of a disposiFRED. The same with peace; upon which tion the very reverse. Being put from his birth our forefathers called their sanctuaries fredstole, under the care of Val de Recoule, a French lady i. c. the seats of peace. So Frederick is powerful of great merit and understanding, he early acor wealthy in peace; Winfred, victorious peace; quired a taste for literature, and a predilection Reinfred, sincere peace.
for the French language, which were never obliFREDBERG, or Fredeberg, a rich and terated. At seven years of age young Frederick strong town of Germany, in Misnia, remarkable was put under the militarv tuition of general
count de Finkestein, and colonel de Kalkstein, and finances, was ordered to make him assist at officers renowned for courage and experience. all their assemblies, to consider him as a simple He was taught mathematics and fortification by counsellor and to treat him as such. But, though major Senning; Han de Jendun, a Frenchman, Frederick assisted at their meetings, he did not instructed him in other branches of knowledge; trouble himself with reading acts or copying deand a cadet, of the name of Kenzel, taught him crees. Instead of this he amused himself somehis exercise. At eight he was furnished with a times with reading French pamphlets, and at small arsenal, stored with all sorts of arms pro- others with drawing caricatures of the president portioned to his age and strength, of which his or members of the assembly. Munchow was father left him absolute master. Soon after he also very favorable to the prince at this time, by was named captain and chief of the corps of ca- furnishing him with books and other articles of dets; and he performed every day, in miniature, amusement, notwithstanding the express prohiwith his little soldiers, all the evolutions with bition of his father : though in this he certainly which his father exercised his giants. At last ran a great risk of his life. Frederick, after this, he received the command of a company in his was recalled to Berlin, on pretence of being prefather's famous gigantic regiment, composed of sent at the celebration of his eldest sister's marmen of whom scarcely one was short of seven riage with the hereditary prince of Bareith; but French feet. Endued, however, with a taste for the true reason was, that the king had now prethe arts, he devoted to their cultivation every pared a match for the prince himself. This was moment he could escape the vigilance of his the princess Elizabeth Christina of Brunswick, guardians. He was particularly fond of poetry niece to the empress. Frederick, who was not and music, and, when he could find a moment's only totally indifferent to the fair sex in general, leisure, read French authors or played on the but particularly prejudiced against this princess, flute; but his father, as often as he surprised him made some ohjections; his father, however, playing or reading, broke his flute and threw his overcame all obstacles with his usual arguments books into the fire. The prince, chagrined at (says the author of the Life of Frederick), viz. this treatment, and having a great desire to visit his cane and a few kicks.' But the coldness Germany, England, France, and Italy, desired which Frederick at this time showed for the fair permission to travel. This, however, his father sex was not natural; for as early as 1723, though refused, but permitted him to accompany himself then only in his eleventh year, he became enamoccasionally into Germany; and, in 1728, took oured of the princess Anne, daughter of king him to Dresden to see the king of Poland. By George II. Even at this early period he vowed to these little expeditions the prince's desire to refuse every other but her for his consort, nor was travel was only the more inflamed; so that at his vow ever broken, as far as depended on himlast he resolved to set out without his father's self. This marriage might have taken place had knowledge. The design was entrusted to two of it not been for some differences which arose, behis young friends, named Kat and Keit; money tween the courts of Prussia and Hanover, about was borrowed, and the day of departure fixed, a few acres of meadow land, and two or three when unluckily the whole project was discover- Hanoverians enlisted by the Prussian recruiters. ed. The old king, implacable in his resentment, The princess whom he espoused had a large and considering his son as a deserter, determined share of beauty, and, what was still better, an to put him to death. He was shut up in the excellent heart; but Frederick is said to have fortress of Custrin; and it was with difficulty suffered so much in his former amours, that certhat the count de Seckendorf, sent purposely bý tain insurmountable impediments remained to the emperor Charles VI., was able to alter the the completing of his marriage with any woman, king's resolution. Certain vengeance, however, On this occasion Frederick received from his was determined on both his intended associates. father the county of Rupin. He resided in RuKeit escaped the danger by flying into Holland; pin, the capital, for some time; but afterwards put Kat had not that good fortune. The king preferred Rheinsberg, which then contained only first directed that he should be tried by a court- 1000 inhabitants. Having inscribed over the martial ; but, as they only sentenced Kat to per- great gate of the castle FREDIRICO TRANQUILLIpetual imprisonment, the revengeful monarch, by TATEM COLENTI, his father was displeased with an unheard of exercise of his prerogative, caused it, and therefore hurried bim into the noise and him to be beheaded. The execution was per- tumult of war. The succession to the crown of formed under the windows of the prince, whose Poland had kindled a general war throughout face being held towards the scaffold, hy four Europe, and the king of Prussia was to send 10,000 grenadiers, he fainted away at the shocking auxiliaries to the imperial army, then commanded sight: and, during the remainder of his life, he by prince Eugene. The king conducted his considered capital punishments with so great a troops in person, and took this opportunity of degree of horror that they were rare throughout giving his son an idea of war. At this time, howbis dominions while he reigned. When the em ever he learnt but little, and only saw, as he experor had succeeded in preventing the execution pressed it, the shadow of the great Eugene. That of Frederick, the old king remarked, that` Aus- consummate general, however, predicted that he tria would one day see what a serpent she had would one day be a great captain. Frederick nourished.' The prince remained prisoner a having gone to reconnoitre the lines at Philips year at Custrin; during which time his father burg, in his return through a very open wood, wished that he should learn the maxims of go was exposed to the cannon of the lines, which vernment and finance. For this purpose M. de thundered incessantly. The balls broke a numMunchow, president of the chamber of domains ber of branches on every side of him; notwitt
standing which he never caused his horse to his principles, he patronised the Apology of Wolf, move quicker, nor altered the motion of his (a philosopher whom his father had banished, hand which held the bridle ; but continued to for writing a work on pre-established harmony), converse calmly with the generals who attended and had his principal treatises translated into him. During this campaign, the health of the French. He even prevailed upon his father to old king was so much impaired, that Frederick relax a little in favor of that philosopher. In was for some time intrusted with signing all the 1736 a letter was sent to Wolf at Marpourg, inorders in his name. On his recovery the prince viting him to return; but he did not venture to was sent to Stetten, under the prince of Dessau, make his appearance till 1740, when his protector to see the fortifications. He was afterwards sent was seated on the throne. During his residence to Konigsberg to see king Stanislaus, who was no at Rheinsberg, Frederick composed his refutation less remarkable for his philosophy and constancy of the principles of Machiavel, under the title of than for his misfortunes. With him Frederick Anti-Machiavel; of which he sent the MS. to remained for some weeks, and contracted a Voltaire to correct, and to get printed. The old friendship which was not dissolved but by death. king, now worn out with infirmity, saw with reAt last he was allowed to return to his peaceful gret the predilection his son entertained for men mansion at Rheinsberg, where he remained till of letters; and, in his peevish fits, often threatthe death of his father. In this place his time ened the whole society with confinement in the was occupied alternately by the study of the arts fortress of Spandau. These threats frequently and sciences, and the pleasures of friendship. occasioned a violent alarm among the joyous Philosophy, history, politics, the military art, company at Rheinsberg, which it required all poetry, and music, agreeably succeeded each the eloquence of Frederick to quiet. Their apother, and had each its stated period. The prince prehensions, however, were removed, in 1740, passed the greatest part of the day in his li- when the old monarch died on 31st May, and brary; and the remainder in the society of a left the throne to his son. The possession of a select company of learned men. In these meet- kingdom did not abate Frederick's passion for liinas, gaiety generally presided; there were terature, though to this he was now obliged to generals to speak of war, musicians to charm the superadd the qualities and labors of a great king. ear, and excellent painters to decorate the apart- His transactions in this character will be found ments. The morning was usually dedicated to under the article PRUSSIA ; and therefore little study ; agreeable conversation prevailed at each more remains to be said here, than to relate some repast; and every evening there was a con- anecdotes by which we may be able to trace the cert. In this retreat Frederick conceived that character of this great and singular monarch. ardent passion for military glory, for which he Having, soon after his accession, gone into Prusbecame at last so remarkable; and here he formed sia and Westphalia to receive the homage of the the most sublime and daring projects. He was inhabitants, he formed a resolution of proceeding fired with a desire of imitating the celebrated incognito as far as Paris. Being discovered at heroes of antiquity, of whom he read in an- Strasbourg, however, he laid aside his design, and cient authors. "He never spoke but with enthu- went to see his states in Lower Germany. Here siasm of the great warriors of Greece and Rome; he wrote the celebrated Voltaire, that he should and, when seated on the throne, thought-he could come incognito to visit him at Brussels; but not distinguish an able soldier in a more honor- being seized with an indisposition in the little able manner, than by conferring on him a Roman palace of Meuse, two leagues from Cleves, he surname. Hence he distinguished by the name wrote again to that philosopher, requesting him of Quintus Icilius M. Guichard, who had written to make the first advances. The following curious some treatises on the military art of the ancients; account is given by him of his reception, &c. giving him at the same time a free battalion. In 'The only guard I found at the gate was one his pursuit of glory Frederick cultivated the soldier. The privy counsellor, Bambonet, was friendship of the celebrated poets, and philoso- cooling his heels in the court; he had large rufpbers of his day, and commended, compli- fles of dirty linen; a hat full of holes; and an old mented, and even flattered, all the inost celebrated magisterial peruke, one end of which descended literati of Europe. "The philosopners (says as low as his pockets, and the other scarcely the author of his Life) answered him as a mad reached his shoulder. I was conducted into his lover writes to his mistress. They wrote to him majesty's apartment, where there was nothing that he was a great poet, a great philosopher, the but bare walls. I perceived in a
inet, by the Solomon of the north. All these hyperboles were glimmering of a taper, a truckle bed, two feet printed: and Solomon was not sorry for it, and a half wide, on which lay a little man, mufthough he had too much understanding to believe Aled up in a night gown of coarse blue cloth. in them. Wolff, Rollin, Gravesande, Mauper- This was the king, in a strong perspiration, and tuis, Algarotti, Voltaire, were honored with his even trembling under a wretched blanket, in a correspondence. The last especially, accustomed violent fit of the ague. I bowed to him, and to offer up incense to the idol of the day, were it began by feeling his pulse, as if I had been his transported from the dunghill to the altar, did first physician. The fit over, he dressed himselt not fail to exalt as the first man of the universe a and sat down to table. Algarotti, Kayserling, prince who was in expectancy of the throne, and Maupertuis, the king's minister to the states who assured him that he was the greatest philo- general, and myself were of the party; where sopher of the age, and the first poet in the world.' we conversed profoundly on the immortality of That Frederick might keep up his character with the soul, on liberty, and the Androgyncs of Plato.' the literati, or perhaps from a real predilection for This rigid economy, and contempt of every