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He delivered with the frankness of a friend's tongue, made conformable to the purer doctrines of the word hy word, what Kalander had told him touching church of England. It was an old Saxon tenure, the strange story

Sidney. and continued under the Roman revolution, 'Tis the ordinary practice of the world to be frank through the great respect that was shown to of civilities that cost them nothing. L'Estrange. religion and religious men in ancient times.

They were left destitute, either by narrow provision, This is also the reason that tenants in frankalor by their frank hearts and their open hauds, and moigne were discharged of all other services their charity towards others. Sprat's Sermons. 'Tom made love to a woman of 'sense, and always highways, building castles, and repelling inva

except the trinoda necessitas of repairing the treated her as such during the whole time of courtship: kis natural temper and good breeding hindered

sions ; just as the druids among the ancient him from doing any thing disagreeable, as his sin

Britons had omnium rerum immunitatem. And cerity and frankness of behaviour made him converse

even at present this is a tenure of a very diffewith her before marriage in the same manner he rent nature from all others, being not in the least intended to do afterwards. Addison's Guardian. feudal but merely spiritual. For, if the service

I value my garden more for being full of blackbirds be neglected, the law gives no remedy by disthan cherries, and very frankly give them fruit for tress, or otherwise, to the lord of whom the lands their songs.

Spectator. are holden; but merely a complaint to the ordiConscience, what art thou ? thou tremendous power,

nary or visitor to correct it. Who dost inhabit us without our leave,

Frank Chase is a liberty of free chase, And art within ourselves, another self,

whereby persons, that have lands within the A master-self that loves to domineer, And tread the monarch frankly as the slave.

compass of the same, are prohibited to cut down Young.

any wood, &c., out of the view of the forester. FRANK, n. s. & v.a. Fr. franc, a stye.

Frank Fee signifies the same thing as hold

A hogstye; a place to feed hogs'in, so called from ing lands and tenements in fee simple ; that is, liberality of food; a letter which goes free and

to any person and his heirs, and not by such

service as is required by ancient demesne, but is pays no postage. It is also the name of a French coin. To frank is used in the various applica- pleaded at common law. See Fee. tions of the noun, and, in addition, it signifies to land, or the benefit a person has by it. He that

Frank Law, the free and common law of the feed high, to fatten; to cram. Where sups be ? Doth the old boar feed in the old inconveniences, viz. he may not be permitted to

for any offence loseth this frank law incurs these frank?

Shakspeare. Henry IV.

serve on juries, nor used as an evidence to the In the sty of this most bloody boar, My son George Stanly is franked up in hold.

truth; and, if he has any thing to do in the king's Shakspeare.

court, he must not approach it in person, but You'll have immediately, by several franks, my appoint his attorney ; his lands, goods, and chatepistle to lord Cobham.

Pope to Swift.

tels shall be seized into the king's hands; and Gazette sent gratis down, and franked, his lands be estreated, his trees rooted up, and For which thy patron's weekly thanked. Pope. his body committed to custody. My lord Orrery writes to you to-morrow; and you Frank MARRIAGE, ia law, is where tenements see I send this under his cover, or at least franked by are given by one man to another, together with a him.


wife, who is the daughter or cousin to the donor, Frank, or Franc, in the ancient English cus- to hold in frank marriage. By such gift, though toms, signifies literally free from charges and nothing but frank marriage is expressed, the doimpositions, or exempt from public taxes; is used nees shall have the tenements to them, and the in various senses, sometimes compounded, and heirs of their two bodies begotten; that is, they sometimes not; though the latter is doubtless are tenants in special tail. For this expression, more proper. Thus,

frank marriage, denotes ex vi termini, not only FRANKALMOIGNE, n.s. The same which an inheritance, but likewise limits that inheriwe in Latin call libera eleemosyna, or free arms tance; supplying, not only words of descent, but in English; whence that tenure is commonly of procreation also. Such donees in frank marknown among our English lawyers by the name riage are liable to no service but fealty; for a of a tenure in frank aumone, or frankalmoigne, rent reserved therein is void until the fourth dewhich, according to Briton, is a tenure by divine gree of consanguinity be past between the issues service. Ayliffe's Parergon.

of the donor and donee. FRANK ALMOIGNE is a tenure, whereby a FRANKPLEDGE, Lat. franciplegium, of religious corporation, aggregate or sole, holdeth franc, i. e. liber and pleige, i. e. fidejussor. A lands of the donor to them and their successors pledge of surety for freemen. For the ancient for ever. The services which they were bound to custom of England for the preservation of the render for their lands were not defined: but only public peace was, that every freeborn man at in general to pray for the souls of the donor and fourteen years of age, religious persons, clerks, his heirs, dead or alive; therefore they did no knights and their eldest sons excepted, should fealty (which was incident to all other services), find security for his fidelity to the king, or else because this divine service was of a more exalted be kept in prison; whence it became customary nature. This is the tenure by which almost all for a certain number of neighbours to be bound the ancient monasteries and religious houses held for one another, to see each man of their pledge their lands; and by which the parochial clergy, forthcoming at all times, or to answer the transand very many ecclesiastical and eleemosynary gres of any one absenting himself. This foundations, still hold them; the nature of the was called frankpledge, and the circuit thereof service being upon the reformation altered, and was called decenna, because it commonly con


sisted of ten households; and every particular per- to such persons, specifying the ship, vessel, regison, thus mutually bound, was called decenner. ment, troop, corps, company, or detachment, to This custom was so strictly observed that the which they belong : and the postmaster must de sheriffs, in every county, did from time to time liver such letter either to the party to whom it take the oaths of young ones as they grew to the shall be directed, or to some person appointed to age of fourteen years, and see that they combined receive the same by the commanding officer, and in one decenna; this branch of the sheriff's to no other. Every cover containing patterns or authority was called visus franciplegii, view of samples of goods, not exceeding one ounce, frankpledge.

shall be charged 'only as a single letter, if sent FRANKED LETTERS. The privilege of letters open at the sides, and without any letter or passing free of postage to and from members of writing therewith, other than the name of the parliament was claimed by. the house of commons person sending the same, the place of his abode, in 1660, when the first legal settlement of the and the prices of the articles. present post-office was made; but afterwards FRANKEN (Francis), commonly called Old dropped, upon a private assurance from the Frank, a famous Flemish painter, supposed to crown that this privilege should be allowed the have been born about A. D. 1544. He painted members. Accordingly a warrant was constantly historical subjects from the Old and New Testaissued to the postmaster-general, directing the ments; and was remarkable for introducing a allowance thereof to the extent of two ounces in great number of figures into his compositions, weight: till at length it was expressly confirmed which he had the address to group very distinctly. by 4 Geo. III. c. 24, which added many new Vandyck greatly commended his works. regulations, rendered necessary by the great FRANKEN (Francis), or Young Frank, the son abuses in franking; whereby the annual amount of the former, born in 1580, was instructed by of franked letters had increased from £23,600 in his father, whose style he adopted so closely, the year 1715, to £170,700 in the year 1763. that their works are not easily distinguished. Other regulations afterwards took place; in par- He travelled into Italy for improvement in ticular, franks were required to be dated (the coloring. His chief performances are, a Scriptumonth written at length), and put into the office ral piece in the church of Notre Dame at Antwerp, the same day; notwithstanding which, the reve- and another of Solomon's idolatry. He died in nue still lost by its privilege above £80,000 per 1642.

The following are the regulations of FRANKENBERG, a town of Hesse-Cassel, franking required by 35 Geo. III., and now in Germany, on the Eder. It contains 2700 inhabiforce. No letter directed by or to any M. P. tants, and is the chief place of a district, which shall be exempted from postage if it exceeds one once had some gold and silver mines, and still oz. in weight. No letter directed by any member contains lead ore. Thirty-five miles south-west shall be exempted, unless he shall actually be in of Cassel. the post town, or within the limits of its delivery FRANKENBERG, a town of Upper Saxony, in of letters, or within twenty miles of it on the Erzgeburg, nine miles west of Freyberg, and day, or the day before it, on which the letter seven N.N. E. of Chemnitz. It is a place of shall be put into the office. No member shall be great antiquity, and contains at the present time entitled to send free from postage more than ten some flourishing woollen, cotton, and leather letters in one day, nor to receive more than fif- manufactories. Charlemagne fortified it against teen. Whenever the number of letters sent or the Saxans. received by such member in one day shall exceed FRANKENDAL, a strong town of France, in the number exempted, and the postage upon any the department of Mont Tonnerre, late of Gerof them shall differ, the letters chargeable with a many, in the dominions of the elector palatine. 'higher postage shall be included in the number. It was taken by the Spaniards in 1623, by the exempted, in preference to any chargeable with Swedes in 1632, and burnt by the French in a lower postage, and the remainder shall be 1688. It has a good trade in porcelain, cloth, chargeable with the postage to which common silks, &c.; and a navigable canal to the Rhine. letters are now chargeable. Persons who may It lies eight miles north-west of Manheim, and now in right of their offices send and receive eight south of Worms. Long. 8° 29' E., lel letters free may continue so to do. Printed votes 49° 25' N. or proceedings in parliament, and printed news- FRANKENHAUSEN, a town of Germany, papers, may also be sent as usual. No single in the principality of Schwartzburg-Rudolstadt, letter sent by the post from any non-commis. having extensive salt works, and 3000 inhabisioned officer, seaman, or private, in the navy, tants. It stands on the Wipper, ten miles east army, militia, fencible regiments, artillery, or of Sonderhausen, and twenty-six north of Erfart. marines, shall be charged with more postage than FRANKENIA, in botany, a genus of the one penny, but must be paid at the time of put- monogynia order, and hexandria class of plants; ting it into the post office; and such letter must natural order seventeenth, calycanthemæ: CAL have written thereon, in the hand writing of, and quinquefid, funnel-shaped; petals five; stigma signed by, the commanding officer, the name of sexpartite : CAPs. unilocular and trivalvular. such commanding officer, and of the ship, vessel, Species four; two natives of our own country, corps, regiment, or detachment. Also no single one of the Cape, and one of Siberia. letter directed to any such non-commissioned FRANKENSTEIN, a town of Silesia, on the . officer, seaman, or private, shall be charged with Bautze, containing a fourishing linen manufac

more postage than one penny, to be paid on the tory. It is twelve mile; S. S. W. of Glatz, and delivery thereof; but such letter must be directed has 4150 inhabitants.

PRANKENTHAL, a town in the province of on the Maine. The population of this duchy the Rhine, Bavaria, which was destroyed in was in 1811 as follows: 1688, with several other towns of the palatinate,

Square miles. Population. but rebuilt. It suffered also greatly in the wars Aschaffenburg 880

86,000 of 1794 and 1795. Its present population is Wetzlar


4,983 about 3500, engaged in the linen and woollen Frankfort


52,000 manufactory. Here is a canal which communi- Fulda


90,000 cates with the Rhine. Twelve miles from Hei. Hanau


60,000 delberg. FRANKFORT, a town of the United States,


292,983 on the river and in the state of Kentucky. Long. 83° 12' W., lat. 38° 3' N.

At the congress of Vienna, the primate was FRANKFORT ON THE Maine, a considerable deprived of his states, and treated as the secucity of Germany, the seat of the Germanic diet, larised bishops of 1803, receiving an annual penis situated on the Maine, about twenty miles sion of 100,000 florins from those powers who above its influx into the Rhine, over which is a

obtained his possessions. good stone bridge. It is divided by the Maine

FRANKFORT ON THE ODER is a considerable into two parts: the one on the north bank, by town of Prussia, and the capital of the middle much the larger

, called Frankfort Proper; the mark of Brandenburg. It is defended by a fort, other Sachsenhausen. Frankfort was formerly standing on the bridge of the Oder. The town fortified, but most of its works are now converted is well built, and has a university, founded in into promenades or gardens. The houses are

1506; but the number of students is seldom partly of wood, but the principal streets, the

more than 200. It has three annual fairs, and Zeile in particular, are wide; there are also is a place of considerable trade, communicating three noble squares. This town, the residence of with the North Sea by the Muhlrose canal; ancient electors, princes, and counts, is now divi- 2000 boats and barges are said to be employed

on that canal and on the Oder. Here are manuded, in religion, between the Catholics, who have nine churches, the Lutherans seven, the factures of silks, woollens, leather, and earthenCalvinists two. The Jews are said to amount to

ware. The neighbourhood was the scene of a between 7000 and 9000. They formerly lived in sanguinary battle between the Prussians and a quarter of the city blocked up at one end, and Russians in 1759. It is twelve miles S.S.W.of regularly shut in at night; but since 1796 they Custrin, and forty-eight east of Berlin. Popula

tion 12,000. are at liberty to live in any part of the town, though they are still not exempt from vexatious

FRANKFORT, the metropolis of Kentucky, treatment. Population 41,000.

United States of North America, is situated in Frankfort is much frequented by travellers, Franklin county, on the north-east bank of Kenand carries on a great trade in books and print- tucky River, about twenty-four miles from its ing. It is the birth-place of Goethe. It con- junction with the Ohio. It is a flourishing and tains, among its public establishments, a Lutheran regularly built town, with a handsome stateacademy, and Catholic gymnasium. The library house. Population, in 1816, 1099. Twenty-five of St. Bartholomew has some valuable Mss., miles north by west of Danville. and there are also several great private collec

FRANK'INCENSE, n. s. Frank and intions. Two great fairs are held here annually in cense;' so called perhaps from its liberal dis

Mr. spring and autumn; and its commercial activity tribution of odor; says Dr. Johnson. is always great. Merchandise of all kinds ar- Thomson more probably from Goth. ve, holy, rives by the Rhine from all parts of Europe, and and rauck ; Teut. ruuch, smoke or odor. the exchange transactions are very considerable.

Take unto thee sweet spices, with pure frankincense. The local manufactures, however, are on a smal.

Erodus. scale; the principal are in silk, velvet, and cotton

I find in Dioscorides record of frankincense gotten in India.

Brerewood on Languuge. stuffs.

See how it weeps ! the tears do come, Frankfort, long a free city, was under the iron

Sad, slowly dropping like a gum. yoke of Buonaparte from 1806 to 1813: its

So weeps the wounded balsam ; 80 stitution at present is a mixture of democracy

The holy frankincense cloth flow. and aristocracy, affording a perfect equality to The brotherless Heliades the different denominations of Christians, and a Melt in such amber tears as these. Marvell. final appeal to the Diet. The town possesses an

Black ebon only will in India grow, adjacent territory of 110 square miles, with a And od’rous frankincense on the Sabæan bough. population of 48,000; its yearly revenue is about

Dryden's Virgil. £80,000 sterling, but it is burdened with a debt Cedar and frankincense, an od’rous pile, of more than £300,000, chiefly the result of the Flamed on the hearth, and wide perfumed the isle. forced contributions of the French. It is twenty

Pope. miles E. N. E. of Mente, and fifty south-east of drops, of a pale yellowish white color ; a strong smell


Frankincense is a dry resinous substance in pieces o. Cologne.

but not disagreeable, and a bitter, acrid, and resinous FRANKFORT, Grand Duchy CF, is the name

It is very inflammable. The earliest histories of a temporary sovereignty formed in Germany inform us, that frankincense was used among the sacred in 1806 by Buonaparte, in favor of the arch- rites and sacrifices, as it continues to be in nang chancellor or elector of Mentz, who was named parts. We are still uncertain as to the place whence prince primate of the confederation of the Rhine. frankincense is brought, and as to the tree which proHe added to this territory the city of Frankfort duces it.

Hill, Vol. IX.




FRANKLAND'S Islands, a cluster of islands brother he was accordingly bound apprentice, in the South Pacific, on the north-east coast of and by his rapid proficiency in the business soon New Holland, about six miles from the land. became of great use to him, though he was often Long, 146° E., lat. 17° 12' S.

treated rather tyrannically. Meantime he im. FRANK'LIN, n. s. From frank, a freeholder; proved himself in arithmetic and other branches an ancient name for a freeholder of considerable of science, as well as in composition, by writing property. Fortescue (de L L. Ang. c. 29) de- anonymous essays for his brother's paper, Tie scribes a Franklin to be a pater familias, magnis New England Courant, and which, being much ditatus possessionibus. He is classed with, but admired, were for some time of advantage to it. after, the miles and armiger, and is distinguished But one of them, upon a political subject, hayfrom the liberé tenentes and valecti; though as it pening to give offence to the Assembly, his broshould seem the only real distinction between him ther was taken up, imprisoned for a month, ani and other freeholders consisted in the largeness prohibited from printing his newspaper. The of his estate. Spelman, in v. Franklein, quotes paper was then continued under the name of the following passage from Trivet's Fr. Chronicle Benjamin Franklin, whose indentures were dis(M S. Bibl. R. S. n. 56). Thomas de Brother- charged, and a new secret contract agreed upon: ton, filius, Edwardi I. (Mareschallus Angliæ), but fresh differences afterwards arising between apres la mort resposa la fille de un Francheslyn the brothers, our author, at the age of seventeen, apelée 'Alice. There appears no foundation for emigrated to Philadelphia, where he arrived, Dr. Johnson's definition of a franklin as 'a without knowing a single individual in it, after gentleman servant, steward, or bailiff.' A modern escaping the danger of being taken up as a runlife of Dr. Franklin, whose memorable name with away servant, and various other adventures, that of various other English families has been which he humorously describes in his Meinoirs

. derived from this word, alludes to the following Here he soon obtained employment froin Bradpassage from Chaucer as contradicting our lexi- ford and Keimer, the only two printers then in cographer :

the city. After this he was introduced by his A frankvlein was in this compagnie

brother-in-law, Captain Holmes, to Sir William White was his berd as is the dayesie

Keith, governor of the province, who promised An householder and that a grete was he

to do much for him, but, except entertaining him Seint Julian he was in his contree

occasionally, in his own house or a tavern, perAt sessions ther was he lord and sire,

formed nothing. By his advice, however, he Full often time he was knight of the shire paid a visit to his parents, and in the end of An anelace and a gipciere all of silk

17:24, sailed for London, where by his own merit, Heng at his gerdel white as morwe milk. without Sir William's promised letters of recolit

Clautocer. mendation and credit, he obtained the best emA spacious court they see,

ployment, first in Palmer's printing office, and Both plain and pleasant to be walked in

afterwards in Watt's. At this time our author Where them does meet a franklin fair and frec.

Faerie Queene.

falling in with some Deistical companions, re

nounced the religious principles in which he had Franklin (Benjamin), LL.D. and F.R.S., been educated, commenced sceptic, and pubone of the most celebrated philosophers and lished a Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, politicians of the eighteenth century, was born Pleasure and Pain, wherein he endeavoured io at Boston, January 6th, 1706. He was the son prove that there is no difference between virtue of Josias Franklin, a tallow-chandler, descended and vice; which he afterwards considered as one from an ancient English family, who had re- of the grand errors of his life. This work, howsided upwards of three centuries at Ecton in ever, introduced him to the acquaintance of Northamptonshire, possessing a small freehold Drs. Mandeville, and Pemberton, Sir Hans estate of thirty acres, and the eldest son whereof Sloane, and other celebrated authors. But he had been uniformly bred up to the profession of had been only eighteen months in London, a blacksmith. This family had early embraced during which time, living very temperately, or the opinions of the reformation, and were in rather abstemiously, he had begun to lay up danger of suffering for them, under the bloody money, when a proposal was made to him by his reign of queen Mary I. Josias was the youngest friend, Mr. Denham, of returning to Philadelphia. branch of this family. He had joined the non- This gentleman had been formerly a merchant in conformists, and upon the prohibition of con- Bristol, and, having failed, emigrated to Aine. venticles, under Charles II., emigrated with his rica, where he made a fortune ; then returned, wife and family to New England in 1682; invited his creditors to a feast, and paid their bawhere, on the death of his first wife, he married lances with interest. He engaged Frauklin as his Abiah Folger, daughter of Peter Folger, author clerk and book-keeper, and to superintend the of several tracts on liberty of conscience, who goods he was carrying back to America. They bore him nine children besides the subject of accordingly sailed on the 3d of July, 1726, and the present memoir. Benjamin early acquired arrived at Philadelphia, October 11; but Denreading and writing, but made no progress ham dying in February, 1727, our author enin arithmetic, as he states in his Life written gayed once more as a printer with keimer; by himself. From ten to twelve years of whom he also served as a letter-founder, inkage he worked at his father's business; but his maker, engraver, and copper-plate printer: inclination for books determined the latter to as well as constructor of a press for that make him a printer, though his elder brother purpose. This press, which was the first James was already of that profession. To this that had been seen in the country, was erected

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by Mr. Franklin, at Burlington, to print some proposed a voluntary association for its defence; New Jersey money-bills; and proved the means which was approved of, and immediately signed of his acquaintance with judge Allen, and several by 1200 citizens, who chose Franklin their coloother members of the assembly, who were after- nel. But he was then too deeply engaged in wards of great service to him. After this, he philosophical and political pursuits, to accept of commissioned types from London, set up a that honor. In 1745 he published an account of printing-office, in company with Hugh Mere- his new invented fire-place (see FIRE-PLACE); dith, a fellow-workman, whose father advanced and in 1725, was elected a member of the some money for them; and, at the same time, General Assembly, where he supported the Franklin established a weekly club, for mutual rights of the citizens in opposition to the proimprovement, which proved an excellent school prietaries. In 1749 he completed the plan of of philosophy. This society, which was called the Philadelphia Academy, upon the most lilerini the Junto, lasted nearly forty years. Mean time principles, which was incorporated in 1753. his industry, which was habitual, receiving addi- Franklin had now conducted himself so well in tional energy from the idea of working for him- his office of post-master to the province, that in self, rapidly advanced his credit, and Keimer, 1765 he was appointed deputy post-master gebeing unable to continue his newspaper, sold Deral for the British colonies; and, in his hands, the copyright to Franklin for a mere trifle; who, this branch of the revenue soon yielded thrice as by his improvements in the conduct and execu- much, annually, as that of Ireland. Yet none tion of it, soon raised it to a high degree of cele- of these public avocations prevenied his making brity. After this, his accurate and elegant manner important discoveries in science. The Leyden of printing recommended him to the employment experiment in electricity having rendered that of the assembly: and his partner Meredith, giv- science an object of general curiosity, Mr. Franking up the printing, turned farmer, and thus left lin applied himself to it, and soon distinguished Franklin sole proprietor of the business in 1729. himself so eminently in that science, as to attract Whereupon his friends, Messrs. Coleman and the attention and applause of not only the count Grace, offered him money to carry it on exten- de Buffon, and other French philosophers, but sively, and he accepted of half the offered sum even of Louis XV. himself. He was the first from each. Soon after, a new emission of paper who thought of securing buildings from lightcurrency being wished for by the public, but ning; and he was also the first inventor of the opposed by the opulent part of the assembly, electrical kite; having completed his experiment Franklin published a pamphlet on the subject, in June 1752, a full year before M. de Romas's which, being unanswerable, occasioned the mea- discovery. His theory of positive and negative sure to be carried through, and himself to be re- electricity has likewise received the sanction of warded by being employed to print the bills. public approbation; though many think it is Public and private employment now flowing not fully capable of supporting itself. See upon him more and more, he, in 1730, married ELECTRICITY, index. His theories were at first a lady, whose maiden name was Read, for whom opposed by the members of the Royal Society he had entertained an affection before he went in London; but in 1755, when he returned to to London, and whose attachment was mutual: that city, they voted him the gold medal, which although, during his absence, she had been pre- is annually given to the author of a memoir on vailed on by her mother, to marry one Rogers, the most curious and interesting subject. lie a poiter, who had used her so ill, that she did was likewise admitted a member of the society, not so much as bear his name. (See Franklin's and had the degree of LL.D. conferred upon Life, written by himself, and published by Dr. him by the universities of St. Andrews, EdinPrice). To our author she proved an excellent burgh, and Oxford. When the war broke out wife, and contributed much to the success of his between Britain and France, he returned to shop. In 1731 Franklin's love of literature led America, to take a share in the public affairs of him to set on foot, first a private, and afterwards his native country. About 1753 he set on foot, a public library, which, in 1742, was incorpo- and prevailed on the assembly to establish, the porated by the name of the Library Company of Pennsylvania hospital. In 1754, the American Philadelphia; which now consists of many thou- colonies having suffered much by the depredasand volumes, besides a philosophical apparatus, tions of the Indians on their frontiers, he drew &c. In 1732 he began to publish Poor Richard's up, and presented to the commissioners from Almanack, a work which he rendered remarkable several colonies, a pian of union (called the by its numerous valuable and concise moral max- Albany Plan, from the place where they met), ims, recommending industry and economy, and which, though unanimously approved of by the which he at last collected into one humorous commissioners, was at last rejected by the asaddress to the reader, entitled The Way to semblies, as giving too much influence to the Wealth, which has since been translated into va- president, who was to be appointed by the kins; rious languages. In 1736 he entered on his po- and disapproved of by the British ministry, as litical career, by being appointed clerk to the giving too much power to the representatives of general assembly of Pennsylvania. In 1737 he the people. This rejection on both sides affords was appointed post-master. In 1738 he formed the strongest proof of the excellency and imparthe first company for preventing damages by fires, tiality of his plan, as suited to the situation of and soon after got an insurance office erected. Britain and America at that period. It appears In 1744, during the war between France and to have steered exactly between the opposite Britain, the French and Indians having made interests of both countries. In 1757 be restored inroads upon the frontiers of the province, he tranquillity to the province, by an amicable and

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