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M. Carnot here again asserts the efficacy of ver- M. Rabenhaupt was detached by the prince of tical fire, to answer this obvious inference—that Orange, with about 11,000 inen, to besiege if the counterguard is not occupied, the besiegers Grave, in which there was a garrison of 4000 may easily carry it by assault, and establish men commanded by M. Chamily, an officer themselves upon it. He says that this cannot be already distinguished by his conduct at Candia done, on account, chiefly, of vertical fire; but and in Portugal. we have shown that if he resorts to this mode of The investing force required to attack a place defence, he cannot occupy the escarpe-wall or such as Grave, containing a garrison of 4000 saliant of the bastion either; and if so, the be- men, should not be under 21,000 men, at the siegers may not only take the counterguard, but very least. This is the very lowest calculation proceed, without loss of time, to the attack of that can be made consistently with the number the bastion. We shall here say no more on the of troops required to furnish working parties, subject of sorties, but refer the reader to the plan. guard the trenches, and provide for camp and

All the works—all the exterior debouches and line duties. ditches from which sorties can proceed, are, at The force required for guarding the trenches this stage of the siege, under all sorts of fire. should not be less than three-fourths of the The passages between the ends of the demi-lunes strength of the garrison, and unless this be oband the faces of the counterguards are enfi- served the works of attack will be continually laded and flanked from the different lodgments exposed to interruption, and perhaps to destrucon the saliants of the glacis. The flanks of the tion, by sorties. "Now, what sufficient approattack are well secured against sorties from the priation of force to these several duties could adjoining fronts. The second parallel is ap- M. Rabenhaupt have made with 11,000 men ? puyed upon redoubts, and covered from being The proportion required for line, camp, and turned, by being outtlanked by the first place of other duties, is generally rated at, and cannot arins. The third parallel is connected with the well be under, one-tenth of the whole. This second hy trenches of defence, or places of arms, taken at three reliefs is

3300 flanked by the adjoining faces of the redoubts. Working parties, at least 1200 men, The couronnement of the glacis is also covered taken at three reliefs, is

3600 in flank by the places of arms connecting batteries 11 and 13 at one extremity, and 12

6900 and 14 at the other; and there is absolutely Which taken from

11,000 nothing in the proposed attack, bearing upon the question of making sorties, that should over- Leaves, for guarding the trenches, &c. . 4100 turn the general principles already established This, taken at three reliefs, only furnishes 1366 hy long experience as the governing considera- men to oppose sorties which, no doubt, were tions which should be consulted, and which it made with 3000 men; and in the above calculahas been shown are not at all connected with any tion no allowance is made for sickness or casualprinciples of construction.

ties, and all the duty taken at three reliefs, which When the couronnement of the glacis is com- no troops could stand but for a very short serpleted, and the counterbatteries established, the vice, in very fine weather. position of the besiegers would be found still It appears, therefore, that M. Rabenhaupt more capable of defeating and punishing the attacked the place with means so insufficient as sorties; for the counter-slope forms a good old- necessarily to expose himself to all that occurred, fashioned glacis to the besieger's trenches on its even had he been opposed to a less enterprising crest, and gives them all the advantages of a officer. This, indeed, is admitted as the cause covered-way and glacis opposed to the place ;-- of the protracted defence, by the very historian advantages surrendered to them for a very de- who celebrates the event. M. Quincy, in his fective, and, in some cases, dangerous substitu- Histoire Militaire de Louis XIV., vol. i. page tion, which saves the monstrous difficulties 387, says that “from the frequency of the sorties and labor attending the descent into the ditch, it was difficult to pronounce whether M. Rabenand enables the besiegers to cover the passage of haupt was the assailant or the defender; which it from batteries placed on the crest of (to them) showed the general the error he had committed a glacis proper.

in having flattered himself that he could reM. Carnot mentions repeatealy, tne defence duce the place with the small force which had of Grave, in 1674, as a brilliant instance of pro- been given him.' tracted defence arising entirely from the effects M. Carnot is in error as to what he agvances of continual sorties; and supports his opinion respecting there having been no traverses in the of the advantages of a glacis en contrepente by covered-way, or other exterior obstacles at Grave. stating, that the chief cause which contributed The Histoire du Corps Impérial du Génie into the success of those enterprises of active de- forms us, page 114, that M. de Chamilly, cerfence which took place at Grave, was, precisely, tain of being attacked, had perfected all the that the place had nether counterscarp revetment, works—thickened and reveted the parapetstraverses, nor other obstacles in the covered-way; made bomb-proof magazines under the ramparts and consequently that sorties were made with -placed a double row of palisades, barriers, and facility. It is proper therefore that we should traverses, in the covered-way;' and that he oplook narrowly into the circumstances attending posed all sorts of exterior obstacles to the che this sieze, to see how far they confirm the theory minemens de l'ennemi.' This differs very malewhich M. Carnot has endeavoured to establish rially from M. Carnot's account. It shows that upon it.

the usual defensive obstacles of a regular covered

way do not prevent active defence by sorties, the trenches and epaulements are made across when circumstances of relative force and other the ditch. These trenches should be fitted as considerations, justify their being undertaken; places of arms to oppose sorties. The progress and so far are the real circumstances of this of the attack is not marked on the plan, further siege froin holding it up as a splendid example than the occupation of the counterguard and the to show, generally, the vast advantages, and en- passage of the ditch, not to deface the fortififorce the propriety, of making continual sorties, cations. it appears, that the attack was a very condemna- A mine will then be made in the saliant of the ble attempt with a force that could not hold out counterguard. If it be countermined, as M. any fair prospect of success. It is well known Carnot suggests, then 'a war of mines' will that, when the prince of Orange was obliged to ensue; but the result will be, that the saliant of raise the siege of Oudenarde, he marched to the work will be demolished by one, or other, Grave with the Dutch contingent, and that M. or both parties; and thus the main obstacle reChamilly's garrison had been so much reduced moved which M. Carnot admits, page 480, "is in the sorties it had made, that the place soon so indispensable to cover the escarpe-wall of the surrendered, although its defences were not much bastion. If a war of mines should not be reinjured. The terms granted to the garrison were sorted to, the besiegers should drive a gallery such as were due to brave men who had done perpendicularly through one of the faces of the their duty in chastising, with vigor and spirit, a counterguard, on a level with the ditch, as soon rash attempt made upon their fortress, but who a lodgment is made on the crest of the work. surrendered to a force which made any further The labor attending this operation is much less resistance vain and hopeless.

than in making the usual galleries of descent We now proceed with the attack. Batteries into a ditch. The length of a gallery through 17 and 18 are constructed to counterbatter the M. Carnot's counterguard is about ten toises : faces of the collateral bastions; 16 and 19, the galleries of descent into the ditch of an or. against the faces of the bastion attacked : bat dinary place are about eighteen toises each. teries 20 and 21 counterbatter the acting faces When the counterbatteries and epaulements of the cavaliers, which it must be recollected in the ditches are finished, the position of the have already been ricoched by batteries 13 and besiegers on the crest of the glacis en contre

pente would be so formidable, that we do not Without ascribing any superior degree of see how it is possible for the besieged to efficacy to the fire of the batteries by which the make sorties. The only debouches from which faces of the demi-lunes will have been ricoched, they can issue to attack, directly, the works of there can be no doubt that they may easily be the besiegers, are exposed to two double tiers of taken by assault. We have, indeed, the admis- enfilade and flank fire: for batteries 20 and sion of the author for asserting that troops oc- 21 look directly into the spaces between the cupying them would suffer so dreadfully as to be ends of the demi-lunes and the faces of the incapable of defending them. He admits, ex- counterguard; and the countersloped glacis pressly, page 492, that the demi-lunes are so enables these batteries to fire over the epaulemuch exposed to stones and ricochets, that troops ments in the ditch, and to combine their fire cannot remain in them.' The form given to the with that of the troops lodged in these works; cavaliers for the purpose of strengthening their for a shot fired from battery 20 to the bottom saliants, shows that they are designed to prevent of the exterior slope of the cavalier, passes eight lodgments from being established on the demi- feet over the crest of the epaulement. A sortie lunes; but the batteries 13 and 14 counter- issuing from either of these debouches would batter these saliants, whilst 20 and 21 take also be exposed to batteries 16 or 19, and them in flank and in reverse ; and, as the to the epaulements in front of them, as soon command of the cavalier prevents the salients as the enemy's troops appear; so that no sortie of the demi-lunes from being seen from the in- can come forth from these debouches without' tercepted parts of the retrenchment and fausse- being exposed to a quadruple line of fire, under braye, we may assert that the besiegers will a continuation of which they would then have a not experience much difficulty ip establishing very formidable line of connected places of arms, themselves on the saliants of the demi-lunes, as to attack. shown in plate VII.

The debouches from the other sides of the These lodgments should not be much extended demi-lunes are under fire of the batteries 17 at present;-it will be sufficient to occupy the and 18, and the corresponding epaulements saliant of the rampart with a good, solid, lodg- respectively; and the position of the besiegers ment, commanding the interior of the work; opposite to these outlets is no less formidable and particularly observing the spaces between than the other. the ends of counterguards, and the faces of From the counterguard the besiegers proceed the cavaliers, by which only the troops for the into the ditch of the bastion, in which strong retours offensifs can come forth.

epaulements are constructed to cover the passage, It will now be necessary for the besieged to and to oppose sorties from the opposite debouche. show which mode of defence he means to adopt If the saliant of the counterguard has been for the counterguards and bastions ;-whether he destroyed, or even much lowered, the saliant of intends to defend them de pied ferme, or by the escarpe-wall may be wholly or partially vertical fire-both he cannot use. If he prefer breached by the battery 22. If the counthe latter, the besiegers should assault the coun- terguard be entire, the saliant of the escarpeterguard and form a lodgment on it, as soon as wall will be destroyed by mine. M. Carnot asserts, that should the besiegers even succeed in the circular portion of the retrenchment général

. opening the counterguard, and in breaching the According to M. Carnot's doctrine, the actual escarpe-wall, it would nevertheless be impossible assault of the breach will be opposed by vertical for them to assault the bastion, because the fire: so long therefore as the batterie de gorge columns of attack would be taken in both Hanks continues to throw vertical fire, the assailants are by sorties from the ditch of the bastion, and by safe from coups de main ;' for no part of the chemin-des-rondes ;-turned and cut off by the interior of the bastion can then be occupied great sorties issuing from the glacis en contre- by the besieged. When the fire ceases, they pente. But it is evident that, whenever the may be expected. This is what M. Carnot calls saliant of the escarpe-wall is breached, both reversing the character of the operations of a branches of the chemin-des-rondes may be enfi- siege: it does so; and brings the alternation to laded from the lodgments on the counterguard; this—that the besieged must now move forward, or, if only a few feet of the top of the wall were à découvert, from the gorge of the bastion, under knocked down, that the remote ends of the che- a great profusion of all sorts of vertical fire, to min-des-rondes would be so much exposed as to attack the besiegers lodged on its saliant; for it prevent the besieged from re-occupying them, is clear that the batteries which we have enumewhen, ceasing their vertical fire, they send forth rated inay play upon the interior of the bastion their corps d'élite,' as M. Carnot states, to chase during the assault, and also whilst the besiegers away the debris of the assailant's columns. It may are establishing and defending their ledgment on indeed reasonably be expected that, when the its saliant. This lodgment being formed, the lodgments on the counterguards are formed, mode of further proceeding will depend upon the escarpe-wall will be found to have received the condition in which the besiegers find the very material injury from the ricochet batteries ; circular portion of the escarpe-wall. If

, as may and the chemin-des-rondes be much encumbered, reasonably be expected, it is much ruined, there and perhaps rendered impassable in many places, will be little to apprehend from the batteries by fragments of masonry, and rubbish from the blindées. The most formidable battery is that slopes of the work, which the ricochet fire will on the circular portion of the retrenchment

, have beaten off, and rolled down into the hollow against which therefore every piece of ordnance space. With respect to the sorties to be made that can be brought to bear should be directed. in the main ditch, to take the columns of assault The mortar-howitzer-battery 15—all the guns in both flanks,' the attack has provided against of 13 and 14—the howitzer-batteries 7, 8, 9, such enterprises, by lodgments and epaulements and 10, may all combine in various degrees ; which oppose

them with double tiers of fire, and and under the influence of such a mass of fire against which the troops would have to advance there can be no doubt that a lodgment may in narrow columns, presenting their alinements be formed in the saliant of the bastion ; to these batteries. As to the large sorties issuing when the guns of battery 22 will be brought from the glacis en contrepente, to turn or cut off up to arm a battery established there. This the assailants, M. Carnot must have aimed this will soon complete the ruin of the scarp-wall

: observation at such assaults as might be iinpru- the interior of the casemates will then be dently made before a complete lodgment should be completely exposed; and the barricades in the cstablished on the crest of the covered-way; and postern, being seen through the central caseto have fancied, throughout, that bis system would mate, may then be broken open and desbe attacked in the saine spirit of rash bravery troyed. But it is evident that the place can and "brute force,' — disregard of science and oppose no further effectual resistance, after 2 human life, as that in which the defensive scheme lodgment in the bastion is established : for, as has been conceived.

soon as the escarpe-wall is ruined, the casemates A lodgment should now be made on the sa- become untenable, and may then prove extremely liant of the bastion, either by assault, or by sap- useful to the assailants in the assault of the reping up the exterior slope. Battery 15 will trenchment, by the cover they afford to preparacover this operation by throwing shells into the tory dispositions: and the chemins-des-rondes interior of the work; and the howitzer-batteries being gained from the back of the casemates, 9 and 10 will participate, first by a heavy columns of attack may circulate in them, to ture: fire on the saliant and faces of the bastion; and, the troops opposing the direct assault of the st during the assault, by throwing shells into the liant. interior of the bastion and upon the battery on

Fortified Island, an island in the Eastern the town of Inverness.' It is now but a small Sea, lying about a mile from the coast of Canara, town, and owes its consequence principally to an Dearly opposite to Onore. Its name is derived academy, under the direction of a rector and two from its fortifications, which were greatly masters. The salaries arise from the accumulastrengthened by Tippoo Saib, from whom it was tion of a beqnest of 1800 marks Scots in 1669, taken, in 1792, by three British frigates, when it by a Mr. Thomas Forbes, bailie of Fortrose. contained a garrison of 200 men, and mounted Here are still some small remains of the ancient thirty-four pieces of cannon. Cocoa-nut trees, cathedral; part of it being used as a court-house, palms and plantations, are produced here. It with the vaulted prisons below; and another is about a mile in circuit. Long. 74° 27' E., lat. part as the burying place of the family of Mac14° 16' N.

kenzie. There is a regular ferry between this FORTITUDE, n. s. Lat. fortitudo, à fortis, place and Fort George. Fortrose lies six miles strong. Courage ; bravery; magnanimity; great- south-west of Cromarty, and nine north-east of ness of mind; power of acting or suffering well. Inverness. Strength, force; not in use.

FORTU’ITOUS, adj. Fr. fortuit; Lat. He wrongs his fame,

Fortu'ITOUSLY, adv. fortuitus. AccidenDespairing of his own arm's fortitude,

FortuʻITOUSNESS, n. s. ) tal ; casual ; happenTo join with witches and the help of hell. ing by chance.

Shakspeare. A wonder it must be, that there should be any man The king becoming graces,

found so stupid as to persuade himself that this most Devotion, patience, courage, fortitude, beautiful world could be produced by the fortuitars I have no relish of them. Id. Macbeth. concourse of atoms.

Ray. The better fortitude

It is partly evaporated into air, and partly diluted Of patience and heroick martyrdom

into water, and fortuitously shared between all the Unsung. Milton. Paradise Lost. elements.

Rogers. Fortitude is the guard and support of the other If casual concourse did the world compose, virtues ; and without courage, a man will scarce keep And things and acts fortuitous arose, steady to his duty, and fill up the character of a truly Then any thing might come from any thing; worthy man.


For how from chance can constant order spring ? They thought it reasonable to do all possible ho

Blackmore. nour to the memories of martyrs; partly that others

FORTUNATE, adj. might be encouraged to the same patience and forti

Goth. fortu ; Lat. tude, and partly that virtue, even in this world,

For'TUNATELY, adv. fortunatus.

Lucky; might not lose its reward.


For’TUNATENESS, n. s. ) happy ; successful;

not subject to miscarriage. Used of persons or FOʻRTNIGHT, n. s. Contracted rom four

actions. teen nights, Sax. peopre tyne night. It was the custom of the ancient northern nations to count I am most fortunate thus accidentally to encounter time by nights: thus we say, this day seven- you : you have ended my business, and I will merrily

Shakspeare. Coriolanus. night. So Tacitus, Non dierum numerum, ut accompany you home. nos, sed noctium computant.-Johnson. The

O me, said she, whose greatest fortunateness is more space of two weeks.

unfortunate than my sister's greatest unfortunateness.

Sidney. And certes, Lord! to abiden your presence,

He sighed; and could no: but their fate deplore, Here in this temple of the goddesse Clemence We han ben waiting all this fourtenight ;

So wretched now, so firrtunate before. Dryden. Now helpe us Lord! sin it lieth 'in thy might.

No, there is a necessity in fate

Why still the brave bold man is fortunate :
Chaucer. The Knightes Tale.

He keeps his object ever full in sight.
Hanging on a deep well, somewhat above the water,
for some fortnight's space, is an excellent means of True, 'tis a narrow path that leads to bliss,

And that assurance holds him firm and right : making drink fresh and quick. She would give her a lesson for walking so late, Pear makes them look aside, and so their footing

But right before there is no precipice; that should tuake her keep within doors for one fort


Id. night.


Bright Eliza ruled Britannia's state, About a fortnight before I had finished it, his majesty's declaration for liberty of conscience came

And boldly wise, and fortunately great. Prior. abroad.

Dryden. FORTUNATE ISLANDS, in ancient geography, He often had it in his head, but never, with much certain islands, concerning the situation of which apprehension, 'till about a fortnight before. Swift. authors are not agreed, famous in mythology for

FORTROSE, a town of Scotland, in Ross- the golden apples of the Ilesperides. The shire, on the Frith of Moray, nearly opposite to common opinion is, that they are the Canary Fort George. It is composed of the ancient Islands. royal borongh of Rosemarkie, and Chanonry, FORTUNE, n. s. & v.n. Fr. fortune ; Lat. where the bishop of Ross resided; now the seat FOR'TUNED, adj. fortuna; from fors, of the presbytery. Though the latter of these is FOR'TUNE-BOOK, n. s.

chance. The power about a mile west from the former, they were For’TUNF-HUNTER, 1. s.

supposed to distriunited by a charter from king James II. in 1444,

FORTUNETELL, V. n. bute the lots of life under the common name of Fort Ross, now For'TUNETELLER, n. s. according to her softened into Fortrose; and this charter was ra- own humor; the good or ill that befalls man; tified by James VI. in 1592, who again confirmed success good or bad; estate; possessions. To it with greater immunities in 1612. These char- fortune, to befall; to fall out; to come to pass ters entitled the borough to the privileges, casually. Fortuned, lucky; suppl.ed by forliberties, and immunities, heretofore granted to tune. The word as used in composition cannot Vol. IX.

2 I


be misunderstood. Fortunetell, is to foretell He tipples palmestry, and dines events in the lives of individuals : a fortune- On all her fortunetelling lines. Cleaneland. teller is one who pretends to this power: a for

You who mens fortunes in their faces read, tune-book is the book which contains the art of

To find out mine, look not, alas, on me : fortunetelling, or that is consulted by the impos

But mark her face, and all the features heed: tor who undertakes the task of unveiling futurity.

For only there is writ my destiny. Corley's Mist. A fortune-hunter means, in common parlance,

The gypsies were to divide the money got by steal

Walton's Angler. a man whose employment is to enquire after ing linen, or by fortunetelling. women with great portions, to enrich himself by telling, I have known few on whom it had not a very

Of many who say they do not believe in fortunemarrying them.

sensible effect.

Mackenzie. Lo! who may trust on Fortune any throw ?

This terrestrial globe has been surrounded by the For him that folweth all this world of pres,

fortune and boldness of many navigators. Temple. Or he be ware, is oft ylaid ful lowe :

No, he shall eat, and die with me, or live; Ful wise is he that can himselven knowe

Our equal crimes shall equal fortune give. Beth ware ; for whan that Fortune list to glose,

Dryden. Than waiteth she bire man to overthrowe,

Rejoice, said he, to day;
By swiche a way as he wold lest suppose.

In you the fortune of Great Britain lies :
Chaucer. The Monkes Tale.

Among so brave a people you are they
It fortuned, as fair it then befel

Whom heaven has chose to fight for such a prize. Behind bis back, unweeting, where he stood,

Id. Of ancient time there was a springing well,

But tell me, Tityrus, what heavenly power From which fast trickled forth a silver flvod.

Preserved your fortunes in that fatal hour? Id.
Spenser. Faerie Queene. The fate which governs poets thought it fit
Fortune, that arrani whore,

He should not raise his fortunes by his wit. 14
Ne'er turns the key to the poor.
Shakspeare. King Lear.

We must, however, distinguish between fortune
If thou do'st,
hunters and fortunestealers.

Spectator. And this instructs thcc, thou do'st make thy way

The adequate meaning of chance, as distinguished To noble fortunes.


from fortune, is that the latter is understood to befal Not the’ imperious shew

only rational agents, but chance to be among inaniOf the full fortuned Cæsar ever shall

mate bodies.

Bentley. Be brooked with me.

He was younger son to a gentleman of a good birth, Id. Antony and Cleopatra. but small fortune.

I'll conjure you, I'll fortunetell you.

When Miss delights in her spinnet,


A fiddler may a fortune get.
I'll tell you as we pass along,

His father dying, he was driven to London to seek

Id. That you will wonder what hath fortuned. Id.

his fortune.

Long ago a fortuneteller They brought one Pinch, a hungry lean-faced

Exactly said what now befell her. Id. viilain

My lord, I am no boaster of my love, A thread-bare juggler, and a fortuneteller.

Nor of iny attributes; I have shared your splendour, A Welchman being at a sessions-house, and seeing And will partake your fortunes. the prisoners hold up their hands at the bar, related

Byron. Sardanapalus. to some of his acquaintance that the judges were good fortunetellers ; for if they did but look upon their hand,

FORTUNE, Tvxn, a name which among the they could certainly tell whether they shonld live or

ancients seems to have denoted a principle of die.

Bacon's Apophthegins.

fortuity, whereby things came to pass without Fortune is like the market, where many times, if being necessitated thereto: but what and whence you can stay a little, the price will fall; and, again, that principle is, they do not seem to have ever it is sometimes like a Sibylla's offer, which at first precisely defined. Hence their philosophers offereth the commodity at full, then consumeth part often intimate that men only framed the phantom and part, and still holdeth up the price.

sortune to hide their ignorance, and that they

Lord Bacon. call Fortune whatever befals a man without his An alchemist spends his fortunes to find out the knowing for what purpose. llence Juvenal, philosopher's stone forsooth, cure all diseases, make

Sat. X., affirms, they were men who made a deitv men long-lived, victorious, fortunate, invisible, and

of Fortune : beggars himself, misled by those seducing impostos

Nullum numen abest si sit prudentia. Nos te (which he shall never attain) to make gold.

Burton. Anat. Mel.

Nos facimus, Fortuna, Deam, cæloque locamus, Thrice, oh, thrice happy shepherd's life and state, And Mr. Spence says, that he has seen an anWhen courts are happiness, unhappy pawns :

cient gem in which Cybele, the mother of the His cottage low, and safely humble gate

gods, is represented as turning away her bead Shuts out proud Fortune, with her scorns and fawns : from Fortune, in attitude of disowning and reNo feared treason breaks his quiet sleep :

jecting her. In the opinion of the heathen, thereSinging all day, his flocks he learns to keep; fore, fortune was only the arrival of things in a Himself as innocent as are his simple sheep.

sudden and unexpected manner, without any Fletcher's Purple Island, Thou knowest a face, in whose each look

apparent cause or reason : so that the philoso

phical sense of the word coincides with what is Beauty lays ope love's fortunebook ; On whose fair revolutions wait

vulgarly called chance. But in religion it had The obsequious motions of love's fate.

a farther force; altars and temples in great Crashaw.

numbers were consecrated to Fortune, as a deHere, while his canting drone-pipe scanned ity. Hence that beautiful ode of Horace beginThe mystick figures of her hand,



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