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closely followed up by considerable forces, or and d e, the direction of which ought, in general whether they can retire quietly, and without to be as perpendicular as possible, toe f and df, being exposed to any attack which may endanger which they defend. Care must be taken, howthem: 6, and lastly, you ought to examine whatever, that they are not exposed to be enfiladed, is the strength of the army, or detachment, its which depends, of course, on the configuration number of cannon, the quantity of stores, and of the river, and the disposition of the surroundequipage, &c., and regulate accordingly the size ing ground. of the tête de pont, as well as the passages Sometines, also, a tête de pont may be comthrough it, in order that the whole may file off posed of a horn work, the inside and branches without stoppage and confusion; all these va- of which are defended by batteries a, erected on rious circumstances oblige us to make a differ- the opposite bank. When the ground does not ence in the siz', form, and strength of a tête de allow you to construct these batteries, the pont. If an army or considerable detachment, branches of the horn work may be broken. for instance, is closely pursued by a great force, Half a square fort, with bastions, makes a and can retreat but slowly, either on account of strong tête de pont, particularly when you can its composition, or because it is compelled construct on the opposite bank batteries and to take particular precautions, which require intrenchments. Half a star-fort, or redoubts so time, the tête de pont, which is intended to disposed as to flank each other, may also be favor its passage across the river, ought to be of used for a tête de pont. a certain extent, and capable of making a good Of intrenchments of armies. The whole of defence ; for then, not only the troops, artillery, the works and obstacles by which an army or a &c., must file off through it without any oh- considerable body of troops cover theinselves, struction or confusion, but it ought to check the for their own defence, may be called intrenchenemy, should he attempt to approach it: on the ments of arniies. In general the object is, to incontrary, if a tête de pont has to cover a com- terpose between themselves and the enemy a demunication of no great importance, or the passage fensive line, whose protection may compensate across a river, of an army or detachment which for their inferiority in number; this line may be is not closely pursued, and can retreat quietly composed of parts so connected together, that and speedily, it will not require as much extent no uncovered space is left between them, in and strength as the former.

which case it is called a continued line; or The bridge or bridges, which a tête de pont those parts may be isolated from each other, and covers, should be concealed as much as possible uncovered intervals left between them; and then from the enerny's sight, as he would baiter and it is named a line with intervals. ruin them with his cannon; and that, in general, Intrenchments of armies can seldom be comthe most advantageous points for construct- posed of regular and similar works, nor even of ing those works are where the river bends in- works different in their nature, but symmetrically wards,

disposed, and so constructed, that all those of When a tête de pont is to cover only a com- the same kind may have the same dimensions; munication of no great importance, and across a for, on account of the ground, or because of a small river, a simple redan will suffice: provided, necessity to direct more fire to certain points however, that the river is so shaped as to prevent than to others, some irregularities will be rethe enemy perceiving the bridge from some quisite; thus it is impossible to foresee all the point; but, if he can perceive it, a piece should variations that may occur in the tracing of inbe constructed, whose flank defends the ground trenchments of armies; wherefore no particular from which the bridge can be seen. These rules can be given for every case; there are, small têtes de pont will acquire a greater however, general principles which ought to strength, if the ground on the opposite bank guide an engineer. ailows us to construct small redans where fusi- The works most commonly used for intrenchleers are placed ; these redans ought to be dis- ments of armies, in a continued line, are redans, posed in such manner, that their fire, after tenailles, or queues d'hironde, cremaillères and grazing the faces of the tête de pont, may cross bastions; hence intrenchments take the name of in front of the saliant, and as near to it as pos- intrenchments with redans, intrenchments with sible; the redan is intended to graze the flank of tenailles, or queues d’hiroude, intrenchments the piece.

with cremaillères, and intrenchments with basWhen the river is so broad as to prevent the tions; sometimes also lunettes are placed in musketry tire of the redans doing any execution front and to a certain distance from a main infor the defence of the tête de pont, batteries may trenchment, which is then called intrenchment be constructed and disposed in the same manner with lunettes. as the redans.

For the detailed construction of these works, A tête de pont which is intended to cover a we must refer the reader to the professional pubcommunication of importance, and necessary lications on the subject. for the movements of large bodies of troops, The following general principles should be requires a greater extent and strength than the observed, as much as possible, in the formation preceding. That represented by fig. 6, plate VI. of intrenchments of armies. is capable of making a good defence, particularly 1. Their flanks must be supported, and not when it can be supported by batteries a, placed exposed to be turned; for, of what avail would on the opposite hank; its outline does not differ be the defence in front which intrenchments widely from that of a redan, except that the faces afford, could they be attacked in the rear! are broken, in order to procure the two flanks b c 2. Their extent should be proportionate to the:


strength of the army which they cover, since ployed; and, as it can scarcely execute any they are to be defended hy it.

movements outside of them, it is reduced to 3. In tracing those intrenchments, you ought defend passively, if I may use that expression, the to avail yourself of every natural accident of works which cover it, and are sometimes very imthe ground which they traverse; a low and perfect: 3dly, a line with intervals requires less marshy spot, a stream whose banks may be labor than a continued line; therefore, the works overflowed, a ravine, a wood where an abatis which compose it can be constructed with greatmay be formed, and other natural obstacles, fre- er care in the same time, and with the same quently afford great advantages, when properly number of workmen. Lastly, the former line is connected with the other defences; either by in- more easily adapted to the ground than the latcreasing the strength of some parts of the line, ter; as the engineer, who is not confined to a or, when they suffice to stop the assailants, by fixed tracing whose parts must all be connected, saving you the time and labor, which, without can place the works at the most essential parts of them, the construction of works would require. defence.

4. The line formed by intrenchments of In the late continental wars frontiers of counarmies should occupy, as much as possible, the tries have been the frequent objects of attack and elevated parts of the ground which it crosses, defence. They constitute important objects of and border the summits of the heights or hills in field fortification. M. Malorti furnishes some its direction; by which means the intrench- excellent directions for forming the principal ments will have a superiority over the assailants, works of this kind. who cannot approach them without passing i. Of lines of frontiers.—The works and obthrough uneven and difficult ground.

stacles disposed along some open parts of a fron5. Every point of the ground, in front of an tier, to shut up the country from one place, or intrenchment, must be seen and defended by post, to another, are called lines of frontiers. some of its parts.

These lines may answer very useful purposes ; 6. The habitations in front of the line should first, they protect the army which defends the be occupied and fortified, when they are suffici- country behind them, and also to secure its ently near to be supported by it; but should movements ; secondly, they prevent the incursions they be too distant, and so situated as to conceal of the enemy's parties, and the devastation which the inovements of the enemy, they must be de- they would occasion; thirdly, they remove the stroyed.

fears of the inhabitants, who then attend to agri7. For the same reason, a wood, which the culture. Lastly, they connect the defences of the line can support, must be occupied; but should frontier, and therefore increase the resistance its distance prevent it, and its situation be such which can be made. Indeed, a line of frontiers as to conceal the movements of the assailants, it will not afford those advantages, unless it be conrequires to be cut down.

sidered in its proper light and used accordingly; 8. The line ought to cover ali the habitations for should the army consider it, as forming its in its direction, so as to make them serve as own intrenchments, and actually defend it, as points of support, and to reap advantage from lines of frontiers have in general a greater extent their reverse fire.

than is proportionate to the strength of the army, 9. The number and strength of the respective it follows that the troops would be weak every works, depend on the greater or less danger to where; and that they would undoubtedly be which the part of the line where they stand may crushed by the columns which the enemy would be exposed ; if, for instance, the enemy could march to several points at once; thus the line scarcely approach it, and should he not be able would be disadvantageous rather than useful; to bring his cannon against it, the works thrown but on the contrary should the army support it up for its defence, would undoubtedly not re- only with a limited number of troops, and ocquire the same extent and strength as they cupy a position behind, from which it could rewould, in case the assailants could easily ap- pair rapidly to all points, and take in flank the proach and batter it.

enemy's columns when they begin to advance, 10. All obstacles which may obstruct the no doubt can be entertained, in this case, of the communications of the line, with such parts in utility of the line, and particularly when its its front as must be protected by it, or which extent is pot so great as to preclude the army may impede the retreat of the army, should the from the possibility of supporting all its parts; intrenchinents be carried, must be removed. for the enemy will be compelled to form partial

Intrenchments with intervals are now pre- attacks, and therefore to weaken himself by diferred to those which form a continued line. viding his forces. The following are the general The following are the reasons which are assigned rules to be attended to, in the construction of for it; 1st, the former require less troops for lines of frontiers. their defence than the latter ; so that, with an 1. They require, like intrenchments of armies, equal number of men, a greater force can be that the extremities should be supported, and placed at the most exposed points, or stronger not exposed to be turned. Should a line of fronreserves kept; 2dly, the intrenched army can tiers be very extensive, it must be directed from form in such order as will not impede its move- one fortress to another, when there are any on ments; wherefore it will be able to pass succes- the frontier. sively from the defensive to the offensive, and 2. Their front ought not to present any unvice versa, according as circumstances may re- protected openings, by means of which the enequire : whereas, on the contrary, an army placed my may penetrate into the country which they behind continued intrenchments must be de- are intended to cover. The reason is evident,


since a line of frontiers is chiefly intended to shut buildings should be fortified. Morasses too, up the country which it covers.

and even marshes, are a very good barrier, as 3. When you are to construct a line of fron- the enemy cannot attempt to pass them without tiers, you should avail yourself of all the obsta- danger, and particularly with his cannon; therecles which the ground that it traverses may offer. fore, when the disposition and direction of the

4. That the line may have points of support, line allow some parts of it to be protected by the open towns and villages enclosed by it should such obstacles, you ought to avail yourself of be fortified ; this is particularly requisite when they them. occupy important points, and when, by their situ- 10. A few redoubts placed near the most acation, they can see in reverse some other parts of cessible points of a ravine, and on those whence the line.

a reverse fire can be most easily obtained, will 5. As all the points of a line of frontiers are suffice to defend such passages. not equally accessible to the enemy, the obstacles 11. The woods which are in the direction of which form it do not all require the same degree the line, may also procure advantages by means of resistance; for instance, should some parts of of abatis made within them, and supported by a the line traverse an open country, through which few detached works. The ground in front of the the enemy might easily penetrate, whilst others abatis should be cleared to a certain distance, in pass over a marshy or woody ground, &c., which order that the enemy may not conceal his move scarcely allows him to approach, the former would ments and approach unperceived. undoubtedly require stronger defences than the 12. Should a mountain be in the direction of latter.

the line, its passages must be guarded by posts 6. Since a line of frontiers is chiefly intended sufficiently strong to secure them. to secure the country behind it from the enemy's 13. Wherever the country is open, and unparties, the works which it contains do not re- protected by natural obstacles, works ought to be quire a greater relief than that which field-works thrown up, whose requisite strength depends on commonly have; not even in its most accessible the importance of the points which they cover, points; and, according to circumstances, from the facility which the enemy may have of apthree to eight feet at most will suffice for the proaching them, and on the advantages which the thickness of their parapets. It is scarcely ne- ground affords for his manœuvres. cessary to observe, that the former dimension is ii. Of Posts of Frontiers and other Posts.applicable to such works as are only to be secured Posts of frontiers are intended to secure, with a from the fire of musketry; and the latter to limited number of troops, the principal points of those which may be attacked with cannon. frontier which is not defended by an army, nor

7. Great advantages may be derived from by fortresses, the number, situation, and extent streams, and particularly when they are broad of which, are properly adapted to localities : for, and deep and have steep banks, or when the should it be protected by such fortresses, their ground on their banks is marshy; should they garrisons would suffice to guard it. It happens contain islands, those on the side of the army frequently that a frontier is actually defended by must be occupied, in order to prevent the enemy fortresses, but that they are not properly adapted from throwing up defences within them, under to localities : in which case, intermediate points the protection of which he could more easily must be occupied by posts, so as to rectify the pass the stream; with regard to those on the defects in the defence. the other side, they ought to be observed by posts

In a mountainous country, the valleys are which are ordered to retreat when the enemy ap- chiefly inhabited, as they are more fertile and pears with a superior force; all thickets, brush- better supplied with water, communications and wood, &c., which might favor and conceal his accommodations of all sorts, than the elevated movements, should be cut down. It is less im- parts; wherefore the towns, or villages situated portant to occupy those islands than the others; within them, or near their openings, and in the besides, should they be attacked, you could not plains contiguous to them, are particularly suitakeep them on account of the impossibility of ble to the establishment of posts: those which conveying a sufficient force to defend them. defend the principal gorges, and serve as places

8. All fords must be guarded by strong posts, of rendezvous and depôts, should be strongly and no bridges suffered to remain, except those fortified, and preceded by smaller posts, in order which are indispensably necessary to penetrate to watch the enemy's movements; with regard into the enemy's country, should circumstances to the other gorges, they should be guarded by require it; when they are not situated within a posts whose requisite strength depends on the fafortress, or protected by it, the place where they cility which they may give to the enemy to penestand should be more or less strongly fortified, trate into the country. according to the importance of the passage, and Flat and open countries are more difficult to to the greater or less facility which the enemy guard than the preceding; in such countries, the may have of approaching tnem.

chief towns should be occupied, and those 9. A small stream may also be rendered ser- placed on the communications be more or less viceable, by means of dams thrown across its strongly fortified, according to the importance of bed; so as to form small inundations which ren- the points where they are situated ; intrenched der the access to the low parts of the ground camps, of which we shall speak hereafter, may more difficult to the enemy. The sluices of the also be formed, where their position enables them water miils, manufactories, &c., which are com- to be of service for the general defence of the fronmonly found on the banks of such streams, may tier. It is particularly requisite that those towns be used likewise to that purpose, and those should be capable of a strong resistance, which



are situated in fertile plains, as armies attempt and destitute of fortresses, posts strongly fortifea generally to advance through the most fruitful must be established near the principal communiparts of a country.

cations, and in the points most advantageously No particular rule can be given, with regard to situated to defend it, and secure the army's rethe method of fortifying posts of frontiers, since treat, if necessary; indeed, less precautions are it depends on the configuration of the ground, requisite, when the army which invades such a the time which you can command, &c. But, country intends only to make a temporary stand, as those posts are intended to serve instead of either to levy contributions, or to draw in the fortresses, particular attention must be paid to eneiny and make a diversion; however, it should the dispositions for their defence; and that you occupy, as it advances, the principal communicashould avail yourself of every advantage which tions, and the positions which will secure its flanks localities may offer; a stream which allows an and rear; as, otherwise, its subsistencies would inundation to be formed, or whose passage may be continually exposed to be burnt or taken away be rendered difficult to the enemy by other con- by the parties of the enemy; besides the rear of venient means, an impassible morass which se- the army would be annoyed, and the army, percures part of the post, or a marshy ground which haps, be cut off. obstructs the approach to it; a wood where an The winter quarters of an army, and particuabatis, properly supported, can he made; or larly in a hostile country, should also be covered which must be entirely cut down, as it would by posts so placed as to defend the principal conceal the enemy's movements, and expose the communications; for without it the quarters post to be surprised; buildings, which, being will not be secure, nor will the troops enjoy any placed between two works, form a sort of cur- repose, as they may be attacked at every motain connecting their defences, and whose walls ment: nay, should the enemy take the field early, may be pierced with loop-holes; or which pro- and attack the quarters before they have time ject in front of the post, and will flank part of it, to assemble, he might crush them, and thus deafter being secured by works, or by other practi- stroy part of the army in the beginning of the cable dispositions: some other buildings which campaign. must be pulled down, either because they would As all posts should be fortified according to the mask the fire of the post and render it less effec- same general principles, we refer the reader to tive, or because they would favor the enemy's ap- the hints which we have given, when speaking of proach, and enable him to see into the post; a posts of frontiers. street, which should be barricaded, or cut across iii. Of intrenched Camps of Frontiers.—Some by trenches : some particular points, where works of the positions to be occupied along a frontier, must be thrown up, as, on account of their situ- for its defence, may not be inhabited, or the ations, their fire will Aank other works, or defend number of habitations which they contain may them in: reverse: a ravine, a ditch, a steep be too small for the troops, which in those two ground, &c., which may strengthen the defence, cases must be encamped; and then the positions or which would weaken it, should not proper take the name of intrenched camps of frontiers. precautions be taken : these, and other consi- There are two sorts of intrenched camps of derations, which circumstances may require, frontiers; namely, those which have a small exshould fix the attention of an engineer, in form- tent, and are only intended to guard the points ing his plan for the defence of a post, and, if he where they are placed; they differ from posts of cannot depend upon sufficient time to complete frontiers, of which we have been speaking in the all the dispositions which are requisite, he must preceding section, merely because they are situattend, first, to the most essential; next, to those ated in an uninhabited place; and what we have which are less important; and ultimately to the explained, with regard to the former, is also apformation of such works and obstacles as will plicable to the latter, with some modifications improve the defence of the post, although it may which the difference in their situation may renot indispensably require them. The first step to quire. The other intrenched camps of frontiers be taken, in such a case, is to secure the post from contain a considerable body of troops, and are a coup de main. It is scarcely necessary to ob- intended not only to guard the points where they serve, that the defences thrown up for that pur- are established, but to cover the country; these pose must be so disposed as not to prevent the camps, which are formed for the same purpose addition of others, should circumstances permit as flying camps, and only differ from them as it.

they are fortified, afford great advantages, when Let us suppose that an army intends to invade properly disposed; they keep the enemy in the territory of the enemy, and to reinain there- check, and prevent him from penetrating through in ; in this case, the march of the army requires some weak points of the frontier, in order to adparticular precautions suitable to the nature of vance in the country; for then his flanks and the frontier through which it proposes to pene- rear would be exposed to be attacked by the en trate: for instance, should the frontier be pro- camped troops, as they can march in all directected by fortresses well calculated in all respects tions; his lines of communication would not b? for its defence, they must be taken as the army safe, and his retreat might be cut off. It is eviadvances, and then be repaired, garrisoned, and dent that camps of this sort require to be so forsupplied with stores and provisions, in order to tified as to afford a resistance proportionate to keep in awe the invaded country, and afford their object, and to the importance of the points points of support which may secure the army's which they occupy; and that their situations retreat, should it be compelled to fall back, and must be such as not to expose them to be rapidly supply all its wants ; but if the country is open, and unexpectedly surrounded; for the troops



could not march to the tnreatened points, nor if these are wanting, by making a ditch round it. make good their retreat when their safety required and using the earth to strengthen the wall. The it; and therefore they would be exposed to no doors and windows are fortified with boards, and purpose.

barricadoed. Loop-holes are every where made, The proper situation for an intrenched camp but in such a direction that the enemy cannot of frontiers requires, likewise, that it cannot be reach them with his firelocks, so as to fire into taken in reverse, nor the troops prevented from the inside of the house. If there is no ditch retreating or communicating with other parts of round it, other impediments are to be made use the frontier, according to circumstances; and that of, to hinder the enemy from approaching close the enemy may not, by crushing some posts, to the wall. The roof is broken down, and all oblige the encamped troops to withdraw from combustible matter covered with earth and rubtheir intrenched position, for fear of their retreat bish, to defend the house from an attack from being cut off. Lastly, it should be examined, above, which might otherwise be executed by whether the situation of the camp affords easy ladders. In a stone house, the walls will genemeans to penetrate into the enemy's country, rally be strong enough, or, if not, they are to be should such offensive movement be requisite, and prepared as above. The same is also to be obwhether it can be placed in a spot protected by served respecting the windows and the roof; some natural obstacles, as then it will require less and, if possible, it is to be made shell proof from time and labor in fortifying.

above. The doors are either barricadoed, or deiv. Of grand têtes de pont.-When part of a fended by a tambour constructed before them, to frontier is covered by a river, it is necessary to have a flanking fire. secure the principal communications across it, so A church-yard, a farm, or an estate, is fortified that an army may march to the enemy's country, in a similar manner; but, if surrounded by a or retreat from it, according to circumstances: wall, either loop-holes are made through it, or, grand têtes de pont are constructed for that pur- if too high, a kind of scaffolds, called echafaupose.

dages, are to be erected, serving for the soldiers It is evident that grand têtes de pont ought to to stand upon while firing. The church, or the be capable of a great resistance; for, as their building on an estate, are then generally used as object is very important, the enemy has a ma- a corps de garde, and made shell proof, by terial interest in destroying them; they require breaking down the roof and the uppermost story, also a rather considerable extent, in order to and using it to cover the building. The doors

, contain a sufficient number of troops to check and particularly the corners of the walls round him, when the army is advancing or retreating such a place, are generally covered by tambours ; through them. Lastly, they must be so disposed but, if time permits, caponniers, and other impeas to prevent him from perceiving the bridges diments to the advancing of the enemy, are made which they encompass; otherwise he would at- use of. The street and roads, leading towards tempt to destroy them from a distance, with his them, are generally made impracticable by old

or broken carts, harrows, boards with nails, When the communication to be secured is wheels, &c. All the houses in the neighboursituated in a town, and not seen from without, hood, which may be advantageous for the enemy, the part of the town beyond the river must be or which may favor or cover his approach, are fortified, and then it serves as a tête de pont. levelled, and the rubbish of them used to

But should the opening of the communication strengthen the walls. The trees near such a be outside of the town, and seen from the coun- place, if large, are hewed down or sawed off, try, not only the town must be fortified, but the that even not a single rifleman may approach opening requires to be covered by works suffici- covered by any of these parts. ently extensive to hide the bridges; or the points A small, or country town, if surrounded by a from which the enemy can see and batter them wall, is fortified in a similar manner; but echa. must be fortified.

faudages are generally used behind its walls,and, Lastly, if the communication is at a certain if possible, two rows of soldiers are employed, distance from the town, its opening towards the one firing through loop-holes, and the other over enemy should be fortified, and the requisite pre- the walls. Guns are placed wherever their fire cautions taken to secure the bridges from being is of the best effect. The gates are barricadoed, battered.

and covered by impediments which binder the It happens frequently that these grand commu- enemy from advancing ; besides this, they are nications across rivers are only established in covered by traverses, and a flanking fire is estabtime of war; wherefore, the bridges which form lished before them, if possible. Only such parts them have no great solidity: in this case, stoc- of the gates as are essentially necessary to be cados should be constructed in the upper part open for the communication are not barricadoed, of the river, so as to stop every thing which the but strongly defended, while every thing is to be enemy may let go with the current, to break done that may render the interior communicaopen or destroy the bridges. When there are tion better and more easy, by means of sufficien* islands near a tête de pont, those whence the passages. enemy could take it in reverse or batter the

PART III. bridges should be fortified.

A single house, when it has no stone walls, ON THE ATTACK OF FORTIFIED PLACES. may be fortified in the following manner : the It has been suggested that our treatise on the walls may be strengthened by boards in the in- above art requires some detailed mode of attack, side, or by rafters applied as in blockhouses, or, as one of the best exemplifications of the doc


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