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At this he started, and forbore to swear; life, he never lost sight of those literary pursuits Not out of conscience of the sin, but fear. Dryden. which early association had endeared to him, and
Liberty is the power a man has to do, or forbear which relieved the pressure of his more serious doing, any particular action, according as its doing or avocations, and lent a distinguished grace to his furbearance has the actual preference in the mind. character. Sir W. Forbes was one of the earliest
members of the celebrated literary club which There is not any one action whatsoever which a
boasted amongst its illustrious associates the man ought to do, or to forbear, but the Scripture will give him a clear precept or prohibition for it.
names of Johnson, Reynolds, Garrick, and South.
Burke. The literary leisure of his latter days This may convince us how vastly greater a pleasure
was devoted to the drawing up an account of is consequent upon the forbearance of sin, than can the life and writings of his friend Dr. Beattie, possibly accompany the commission of it. Id, which was published in 2 vols. 4to. 1806. He
Nor do I take notice of this instance of severity in died at his seat near Edinburgh in 1806, in the our own country to justify such a proceeding, but only sixty-eighth year of his age. to display the mildness and forbearance made use of Forbes (James), an accomplished modern under the reign of his present majesty.
writer, was born in London in 1749, and early
Addison's Freeholder. sent out by the East India Company to Bombay Who can forbear to admire and adore him who
as a cadet. While in India he traversed various weighed the mountains in scales, and the hills in a
parts of that continent, making observations and balance.
forming drawings of every thing worthy of noFORBES (Duncan), Esq. of Culloden, an tice. He returned to England with an ample eminent Scots lawyer and judge, born in 1685. fortune in 1784. At the rupture of the peace of By the advice of his friends he early applied him- Amiens, he was detained with the other English self to the civil law; in which he made a quick visitors in France, but obtained his release after progress, and in 1709 was admitted an advo- a stay of a few months, at the request of the cate. From 1722 to 1737 he represented the National Institute. He died at Aix-la-Chapelle, boroughs of Inverness, &c. In 1725 he was August 1st, 1819. Mr. Forbes was the author made king's advocate; and in 1737 Lord Pre- of Letters from France, 2 vols. 8vo. Reflections sident. In 1744 and 1745 he espoused the royal on the Character of the Hindoos, 8vo. and Oricause, and almost ruined his private fortune; ental Memoirs, 4 vols. 4to. splendidly illustrated but government did not make him the smallest with nearly 100 plates. recompense. He was well versed in the Hebrew
FORBID', v. a. & v.n. Pret. I forbade; language; and wrote some treatises concerning FORBID'DANCE, n. s.
part. forbidden or fornatural and revealed religion. He died in 1747, FORBID'DINGLY, adv. bid. Saxon, forbeoin the sixty-second year of his age; and his Forbid'der, n. s. dan; Gothic, forbu works have since been published in 2 vols. 8vo. FORBID'DING, part. adj.) da; Dut. verbieden.
Forbes (Patrick), bishop of Aberdeen, was To prohibit; to interdict any thing ; to command born in 1654, when the affairs of the church of to forbear any thing; to oppose; to hinder: to Scotland were in much confusion; to the settle- accurse, to blast; in this sense obsolete : to utter ment of which he greatly contributed. As chan- a prohibition. Forbiddance signifies an edict cellor of the university of Aberdeen, he improved against any thing: to do any thing forbiddingly that seat of learning by repairing the fabric, aug- is to do it in an unlawful manner. Forbidding, menting the library, and reviving the professor- the participial adjective, is used to signify raisships. He published a Commentary on the ing abhorrence, repelling approach; causing Revelations, at London, 1613; and died in 1635. FORBES (John), the son of Patrick, also bishop forboden, but eke the desire to don that sinne.
Here may ye see, that not only the dede of this is of Aberdeen; but was expelled by the Cove
Chaucer. The Persones Tale. nanters, and forced to fly beyond sea. Upon his return, he lived privately on an estate at Corse,
Trouth is a thing that I wol ever kepe till he died at 1648. His works were printed
Unto the day in whiche that I shal crepe
and elles God forbede:
His in 2 vols. folio, in Amsterdam in 1703.
Beliveth this as siker as your crede. Historical and Theological Institutes have been
Id. The Chanones Yemannes Tale. highly valued. FORBES (William), born in 1585, was the first
Ere long to him a homely groome there came, bishop of Edinburgh. His ill health and the That in rude wise him asked what he wos, anti-episcopal disposition of the Scots, confined That durst so boldly, without let or shame, him chiefly to a retired life: and he died three Into bis lords forbidden hall to passe.
Spenser's Faerie Queene. months after his consecration in 1634.
Now the good gods forbid, FORBES (Sir William), was born in 1739 at
That our renowned Rome Pitsligo, in Scotland. Born to the inheritance
Should now eat up her own! of an ample fortune, he early devoted himself
Shakspeare, Coriolanus. to the promotion of the commercial interests of
Sleep shall neither night nor day his country, and was, in conjunction with the Hang upon his penthouse lid; late Sir James Hunter Blair, the founder of the
He shall live a man forbid. I. Macbeth. well known banking establishment at Edin A witch, a quean, an old cozening quean; have I burgh which bears their name. In his youth he not forbid her my house?
Shakspeare. had devoted much of his time to the study of With all confidence he swears, as he had scen't, literature; and, during the course of his long That you have touched his qucen forbiddenly.
The moisture being forbidden to come up in the Thus got the house of Lancaster the crown. plant, stayeth longer in the root, and so dilateth it. Which now they hold by force, and not by right. Bucon's Natural History.
Shakspeate. How hast thou yielded to transgress
Why, what need we The strict forbiddance? how to violate
Commune with you of this, but rather follow The sacred fruit forbidden ?
Our forceful instigation ? Id. Winter's Take.
Here let them lye,
Till famine and the ague eat them up:
We might have met them dareful, beard to beard. She with so sweet a rigour forbad him, that he
Shukspeare. durst not rebel.
Sidney. o Thou! whose captain I account myself, The chaste and holy race
Look on my forces with a gracious eye. re all forbidden this polluted place.
Id. Richard III. Dryden's Æneid. God hath assured us, that there is no inclination or Tragedy was made forbidding and horrible. temptation so forcible which our humble prayers and
A. Hill. desires may not frustrate and break asunder. We left our hero and third heroine in
Raleigh's History. A kind of state more awkward than uncommon; That morning that he was to join battle with Harold, For gentlemen must sometimes risk their skin his armorer put on his backpiece before, and his breastFor that sad tempter, a forbidden woman. Byron. plate behind; the which being espied by some that
FORCADO Rro, a river of Waree, in Africa, stood by, was taken among them for an ili token, and said to rise from a source far inland, and to have therefore advised him not to fight that day ; to whom
the duke answered, I force not of such fooleries; but a winding course. It is about two English miles broad, but so shallow as not to be navi- if I have any skill in soothsaying, as in sooth I have gable for vessels of more than seven or eight feet from a duke to a king.
none, it doth prognosticate that I shall change copy
Camden's Remains. water. Its banks are covered with trees, and
The secret of the power of Spain consiste:h in a produce a species of colored stones. The Por
veteran army, compounded of miscellany forces of all tuguese carry on a trade here in slaves. Lat.
Bacon 6° N.
The taking and carrying away of women forcihly, FORCE, n. s. & v. a. Fr. force; Lat. fortis. and against their will, except female wards and bondForc'es, n. s. plu. Literally it signifies the
women, was made capital. Id. Henry VII. FORC'EDLY, ado. exertion of strength : it Dangers are light, if they once seem light; and more Force'Ful, adj. is however applied to dangers have deceived men than forced them. Force'FULLY, adv. persons, words, and
Васил. FORCEʻless, adj. things, in a variety of
A ship, which hath struck sail, doth run For'cer, n. s. senses, all of them,
By force of that force which before it won.
Donne. For'cible, adj. however, to be easily
Liberal Nature did dispense For'cibleNESS, n. s. resolved into the pri
To all things arms for their defence; For'cibly, adv. mary meaning. Force
And some she arms with sinewy force is power in action, either physical, mechanical,
And some with swiftness in the course. legal, military, moral, or literary. To force is to
Couley. compel; to overpower; to impel.-In the active The usual means for the ascent of water is either by sense it also signifies to lay stress upon. Dr. suckers or forcers.
Wilkins's Dædalus. Joboson says this word he only found in the Not long in force this charter stood; passage quoted below from Camden's Remains. Wanting that seal, it must be sealed in blood.
Denham. Thou shalt not destroy the trees by forcing an ax
O that fortune against them.
Deuteronomy xx. 19.
Had brought me to the field where thou art famed How forcible are right words!
To have wrought such wonders with an ass's jaw, A testament is of force after men are dead.
I should have forced thee soon with other arms. Hebrews ix.
Milton. For certes, by no force, ne by no mede,
Who therefore can invent Him thought he wos not able for to spede,
With what more forcible we may offend For she was strong of frendes.
Our yet unwounded enemies ?
Ye myrtles brown, with ivy never sere,
I come to pluck your berries harsh and crude,
And with forced fingers rude Save that he loveth, wherefore ye shold
Shatter our leaves before the mellowing year. Id. The more in charite of him hold;
He swifter far, The force of Love maketh him doe this;
Me overtook, his mother all dismayed,
And in embraces forcible and foul
The Gospel offers such considerations as are fit to Into the castle entered forcibly. Faerie Queene.
work very forcibly upon two of the most swaying and Manifest it is, that the very majesty and holiness of governing passions in the mind, our hopes and our the place where God is worshipped, hath, in regard fears.
Tillotson. of us, great virtue, force, and efficacy; for that it
Stooping, the spear descended on his chine, serveth as a sensible help to stir up
Just where the bone distinguished either loin :
Hooker. It stuck so fast, so deeply bury'd lay, He never could maintain bis part but in the force That scarce the victor forced the steel away. w bis will. Shakspeare. Much Ado about Nothing.
To free the ports, aud ope the Punique land means of which it is able to remove obstacles To Trojan guests ; lest, ignorant of fate,
lying in its way; to lessen, destroy, or overcome The queen might force them from her town and state.
the force of any other moving body, which meets Id.
it in an opposite direction; or to surmount any Porce ber.- I like it not.
dead pressure or resistance, as tension, gravity, This foundation of the earth upon the waters doth friction, &c., for some time; but which will be most aptly agree to that structure of the abyss and
lessened or destroyed by such resistance as lesantediluvian earth; but very improperly and forcedly
sens or destroys the motion of the body. This to the present form of the earth and the waters.
is called vis motrix, moving force, and by some Jersey, belnved ty all ; for all must feel
late writers vis viva, to distinguish it from the The influence of a form and mind,
vis mortua spoken of before ; and by these appelWhere comely grace and constant virtue dwell, lations, however different, the same thing is unLike mingled streams, more forcible wŁen joined : derstood by all mathematicians, viz. that power Jersey shall at thy altars stand,
of displacing, of withstanding opposite moving Shall there receive the azure band.
forces, or of overcoming any dead resistance, Now to the copse thy lesser spaniel take,
which resides in a moving body, and which, Teach him to range the ditch and force the brake.
in whole or in part, continues to accompany Gay's Rural Sports.
it, so long as the body moves. See MECHAThe heat of the dispute had forced out from Luther expressions that seemed to make his doctrine run higher than really it did.
FORCE, COMPARATIVE, OF MEN AND HORSES. He poised in air, the javelin sent,
There are several curious as well as useful obThrough Paris' shield the forceful weapon went.
servations in Desagulier's Experimental Philo
Pope. sophy, concerning the comparative forces of that tender force, what dignity divine,
men and horses, and the best way of applying What virtue consecrating every feature;
them. A horse draws with the greatest advanAround that neck what dross are gold and pearl ! tage when the line of direction is level with his
Young's Busiris. breast; in such a situation, he is able to draw Bnt when the day had his meridian run,
200 pounds eight hours a day, walking about Between his highest throne and low declining,
two miles and a half, an hour. And if the saine Thirsil again his forced task begun,
horse is made to draw 240 pounds he can work His wonted audience his sides entwining.
but six hours a day, and cannot go quite so fast. Fletcher's Purple Island.
On a carriage, indeed, where friction alone is to be With what force, my Lord, with what protection overcome, a middling horse will draw 1000 are you prepared to meet the united detestation of the pounds. But the best way to try a horse's force people of England. All philosophy is only forcing the trade of happiness, a single pulley or roller; and in such a case,
is by making him draw up out of a well, over when nature seems to deny the means. Goldsmith. There the vast mill-stone with inebriate whirl
one horse with another will draw 200 pounds. On trembling floors his forceful fingers twirl,
Five men are found to be equal in strength to Whose finty teeth the golden harvests grind, one horse, and can, with as much ease, push Feast without blood ! and nourish human-kind. round the horizontal beam of a mill, in a walk
Darwin. forty feet wide; whereas three men will do it in He stumbled on to try if he could find
a walk only nineteen feet wide. The worst way A path to add his own slight arm and forces, of applying the force of a horse, is to make him To corps the greatest part of which were corses.
carry or draw up hill; for if the hill be steep, Byron.
three men will do more than a horse, each man Force, in philosophy, denotes the cause climbing up faster with a burden of 100 pounds of the change in the state of a body, when being weight, than a horse that is loaded with 300 at rest, it begins to move, or has a motion which pounds, a difference which is owing to the posiis either not uniform or not direct. While a tion of the parts of the human body being better body remains in the same state, either of rest or adapted to climb than those of a horse. On the of uniform and rectilinear motion, the cause of other hand, the best way of applying the force its remaining in such a state is in the nature of of a horse, is in an horizontal direction, wherein the body, and it cannot be said that any extrinsic a man can exert least force ; thus a man, weighforce has acted on it. This internal cause oring 140 pounds and drawing a boat along by. principle is called Inertia. Mechanical forces means of a rope coming over his shoulders, canmay be reduced to two sorts; one of a body at not draw above twenty-seven pounds, or exert rest, the other of a body in motion. The force above one-seventh part of the force of a horse of a body at rest, is that which we conceive to employed to the same purpose. The very best be in a body lying still, on a table, or hanging and most effectual posture in a man, is that of by a rope, or supported by a spring, &c., and rowing; wherein he not only acts with more this is called by the names of pressure, tension, muscles at once for overcoming the resistance, force, or vis mortua, solicitatio, conatus mo- than in any other position; but as he pulls backvendi, conamen, &c. To this class also of forces wards, the weight of his body assists by way of we must refer centripetal and centrifugal lever. See Desaguliers, Exp. Phil. vol. i. p. forces, though they reside in a body in motion; 241; where we have several other observations because these forces are homogeneous to weights, relative to force acquired by certain positions of pressures, or tensions of any kind. The force the body, from which that author accounts for of a body in motion is a power residing in that most feats of strength and activity. See also a body so long as it continues its motion; hy Memoire on this subject by M. de la lire, in
Mem. Roy. Acad. Sc. 1629; or in Desaguliers, to allege that the taking was for lucre. It is no Exp., &c. p. 267, &c., who has published a excuse that the woman at first was taken away translation of part of it with remarks.
with her own consent : for if she afterwards FORCE, or La Force, in geography, a town of refuse to continue with the offender, and be France, in the department of Dordogne, six forced against her will, she may from that time miles west of Bergerac; famed for its trade in properly be said to be taken against her will; cattle, grain, and wine.
and it is not material whether a woman so taken Force, in law, signifies any unlawful violence away be at last married or defiled with her own offered to things or persons, and is divided into consent or not, if she were under force at the simple and compound.
time; the offender being in both cases equally FORCE, COMPOUND, is where some other within the words of the act. violence is committed with such an act as of who, after the fact, received the offender, are bu itself alone is criminal; as if one enters by force accessories after the offence, according to the into another's house, and there kills a person, or rules of common law; and those that are only ravishes a woman. There is likewise a force privy to the damage, but not parties to the implied in law, as in every trespass, rescue, or forcihle taking away, are not within the act, disseisin, and an actual force with weapons, H. P. C. 119. A man may be indicted for number of persons, &c.' Any persons may law- taking away a woman by force in another fully enter a tavern, inn, or victualling house; country; for the continuing of the force in any so may a landlord his tenant's hous to view country, amounts to a forcible taking there. repairs, &c. But if, in these cases, the person Ibid. Taking away any woman child under the that enters 'commits any violence or force, the age of sixteen years and unmarried, out of the law will intend that he entered for that purpose. custody and without the consent of the father
Force, Simple, is what is so committed that or guardian, &c. the offender shall suffer five it has no other crime attending it; as where a and imprisonment; and if the woman agrees to person, by force, enters on another's possession, any contract of matrimony with such person, she without committing any other unlawful act. shall forfeit her estate during life, to the next of
FORCIBLE DETAINER, in law, is where one by kin to whom the inheritance should descend, &c. violence withholds the possession of lands, &c., Statute 4. and 5. P. & M. c. 8. This is a so that the person who has a right of entry is force against the parents; and an information harred, or hindered therefrom.
will lie for seducing a young man or woman Forcible Entry is a violent and actual from their parents, against their consents, in entry into houses or lands. At common law, order to marry them, &c. See MARRIAGE. any person that had a right to renter into lands, FORCING, in gardening, a method of pro&c., might retain possession of it by force But ducing ripe fruits from trees, before their natural this liberty being abused, to the breach of the season. The method of doing it is this: a wall peace, it was therefore found necessary that the should be erected ten feet high; a border must same should be restrained; though, at this day, be marked out on the south side of it, of about he who is wrongfully dispossessed of goods may four feet wide, and some stakes must be fastened by force retake them. By statute, no persons into the ground, all along the edge of the border; shall make an entry on any lands or tenements, these should be four inches thick. They are except where it is given by Jaw, and in a intended to rest the glass lights upon, which are peaceable manner, even though they have title of to slope backweds to the wall, to shelter the entry, on pain of imprisonment; and where a fruit as there shall be occasion : and there niust forcible entry is committed, justices of peace are be, at each end, a door to open either way, authorised to view the place, and enquire of the according as the wind blows. The frame should force hy a jury, summoned by the sheriff of the be made moveable along the wall, that when a county; and they may cause the tenements, &c., tree has been forced one year, the frame may be to be restored, and imprison the offenders till removed to another, and so on, that the trees they pay a fine. A writ of forcible entry also may each of them be forced only once in three lies, where a person seised of a freehold is by years, at which rate they will last a long time. force put out thereof.
They must be always well grown trees that are FORCIBLE MARRIAGE, of a woman of estate, chosen for forcing; for young ones are soon is felony. For, by the statute 3 Hen. VII. c. 2., destroyed, and the fruit that is produced from it is enacted, ' That if any persons shall take them is never so well tasted. The dung, before away any woman having lands or goods, or it is put to the wall, should be laid in a heap for that is heir apparent to her ancestor, by force, five or six days, that it may heat thoroughly; and against her will, and marry or defile her; and when thus prepared, it must be laid four the takers, procurers, abettors, and receivers of feet thick at the base of the wall, and go sloping the woman taken away against her will, and up till it is two feet thick at the top. It must be knowing the same, shall be deemed principal laid at least within three or four inches of the felovs ;' but as to procurers and accessories, they top of the wall; and when it sinks, as it will are, before the offence be committed, to be ex- sink two or three feet, more dung must be laid cluded the benefit of clergy, hy 39 Eliz. c. 9. on; for the first heat will do little more than just The indictment on the statute 3 Hen. VII. is swell the blossom-buds. The covering the trees expressly to set forth, that the woman taken with glasses is of great service; but they should away had lands or goods, or was beir apparent; be taken off to admit the benefit of gentle and also that she was married or defiled, because showers to the trees, and the doors at the ends no other case is within the statute: and it ought should be either left entirely open, or one or both
of them opened. and a mat hung before them, at FORD, n. s. & v.a.? Sax. foro, from farm once to let the air circulate and keep off the FORD'ABLE, adj. Iran, to go, proceed. frosts. The dung is never to be applied till See Fare. Goth. fiard; Swed. fiord; Welsh towards the end of November; and three changes fford. A shallow part of a river where it may of it will be sufficient to ripen the cherries, which be passed without swimming. It sometimes will be very fine in February; As to the aprio signifies the stream; 'the current: to pass withcots, grapes, nectarines, peaches, and plu.ns, if out swimming. the weather be milder, the glasses are to be Adam's shin-bones must have contained a thou. opened, to let in sunshine, or gentle showers. sand fathom, and much moro, if he bad forded the If a row or two of scarlet strawberries be planted ocean.
Raleigh's History. at the back of the frame, they will ripen in Pliny placeth the Schenitæ upon the Euphrates, February, or the beginning of March; the vines where the same beginneth to be fordable. Raleigh. will blossom in April, and the grapes will be ripe
Her men the paths rode through made by her in June. It should be carefully observed, not to
sword ; place early and late ripening fruits together, be- They pass the stream, when she had found the ford. cause the heat necessary to force the late ones
Medusa with Gorgonian terror guards will be of great injury to the early ones after
The ford, and of itself the water flies they have fruited. The masculine apricot will
All taste of living wight. be ripe in the beginning of April; the early nec
Milton's Paradise Lost, tarines will be ripe about the same time; and the Rise, wretched widow! rise ; nor undeplored forward sort of plums by the end of that month. Permit my ghost to pass the Stygian ford: Gooseberries will have fruit fit for tarts in Janu- But rise, prepared in black to mourn thy perished ary or February, and will ripen in March; and lord.
Dryden. currants will have ripe fruit in April. The trees A countryman sounded a river up and down, to need not be planted so distant at these walls as try where it was most fordable; and where the water at others, for they do not shoot so freely as in the ran too smooth, he found it deepest; and, on the open air; nine feet asunder is sufficient. They contrary, shallowest where it made most noise.
L'Estrange. should be pruned about three weeks before the heat is applied. See HORTICULTURE and Hot FORD (John), a dramatic writer of considerllouse.
able elegance, was the second son of a gentleman Forcing, in the wine trade, a term used by of Devonshire, where he was born in 1586. He wine merchants, for the fining down wines, and entered in the Middle Temple in 1602, for the rendering them fit for immediate draught. The purpose of studying law, and, while there, pubprincipal inconvenience of the common way of lished in 1606 a piece entitled Fame's Memoriall, fining down the white wines by isinglass, and a species of monody on the earl or Devonshire. the red by whites of eggs, is the slowness of the In his twenty-first year, having been disappointed operation; these ingredients not performing by the death of lord Mountjoy, an expected their office in less than a week, or sometimes à patron, he resolved to travel, but it is doubtful fortnight, according as the weather proves favor. whether he did so, as nothing more is known of able, cloudy or clear, windy or calm : this him until he printed his first tragedy of the appears to be matter of constant observation. Lover's Melancholy in 1629. But this was not But the wine-merchant frequently requires a
his first play, as a piece of his, entitled A Bad method that shall, with certainty, make the wines Beginning makes a good Ending, was previously fit for tasting in a few hours. A method of this acted at court. He wrote, or assisted to write, at kind there is, but it is kept in a few hands as a least eleven dramas; and such as were printed valuable secret. Perhaps it depends upon a appeared from 1629 to 1634. Most of these prudent use of a tartarised spirit of wine, and the were his own composition, but some were writcommon forcing, along with gypsum, as the ten in conjunction with Decker, Drayton; Hathprincipal; all of which are to be well stirred erewaye, &c. The date of his death is uncertain, about' in wine, for half an hour before it is but it is thought that he did not long survire suffered to rest.
1639. A writer in the Censura Literaria, has FOʻRCEPS, n. s. Lat.
attributed to him an able little manual, entitled
A Line of Life pointing to the Immortalitie of a Forceps properly signifies a pair of tongs; but is Vertuous Name, 1620, 12mo. used for an instrument in chirurgery, to extract any
FORD (Sir John), a gentleman of considerable thing out of wounds, and the like occasions. Quincy.
talents as an engineer of the seventeenth century, FORCEPS, in surgery, &c., is also used for a
was the son o' Sir John Ford, of Harting, Sussex, pair of scissars for cutting off, or dividing, the where he was born in 1605. He was educated fleshy membranous parts of the body. See at Trinity College, Oxford, and knighted by SURGERY.
Charles I., after serving the nffice of high-sheriff FOʻRCIPATED, odj. From forceps. Formed of Sussex. He afterwards commanded a regilike a pair of pincers to open and enclose. ment of horse in the royal cause, and was
The locusts have antennæ, or long horns before, imprisoned on suspicion of aiding the escape of with a long falcation or forcipated tail bebınd.
the king from Hampton Court. He was however
Browne. soon released by the interest, as it is thought, of When they have seized their prey, they will so te
Ireton, whose sister he had married, and in 1656 naciously hold it with their forcipated mouth, that they employed himself in several mechanical invenwill not part there with, even when taken out of the tions of importance. With Cromwell's en
Derham. couragement, and at the request of the citizens of