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Flatulont tumours are such as easily yield to the They have a certain flavour, at their first appearpressure of the finger, but readily return, by their ance, from several accidental circumstances, which elasticity, to a tumid state again.

Quincy. they may lose if not taken early. Pease are mild and demulcent; but, being full of

Addison's Spectator. aerial particles, are flatulent when dissolved by diges- And flavoured Chian wines.

Dyer. tion.

Arbuthnot. FLAW, n. s. & v.a. Sax. floh; Gothic Vegetable substances contain a great deal of air, FLAW'LESS, adj. flah, from fla, to divide; which expands itself, producing all the disorders of


and thus the Icel. flaflatulency. To talk of knowledge from those few indistinct re- gan, to divide, gives flag the divided portion, see

Flag (a stone). Mr. H. Tooke considers floh presentations which are made to our grosser facul. tics, is a flatulent vanity.

Glanville's Scepsis.

as the past participle of flean, to flay. A breach;

crack; defect; hence, its causes, a sudden blast FLAVEL (John), a celebrated nonconformist

or blow; a tumult, or commotion (literally and divine, was educated at University College, Oxford; 'and became minister of Deptford, and figuratively); and its consequences, a fragment; afterwards of Dartmouth in Devonshire, where the Gothic usage we write to flaw; for to break;

piece separated or broken off: in conformity with he resided the greater part of his life. Though crack ; damage with fissures or by violence. he was generally respected at Dartmouth, yet, in 1685, several of the aldermen of that town, at

Oh, chat that earth, which kept the world in awe, tended by the rabble, carried about a ridiculous Should patch a wall, to expel the Winter's flaw. effigy of him, to which were affixed the bill of

Shakspeare. Hamlet. exclusion and the covenant. He, therefore,

And this fell tempest shall not cease to rage,

Until the golden circuit on my head thought it prudent to withdraw from the town.

Do calm the fury of this madbrained flaw. He died in 1691 aged sixty-one; after his death,

Shakspeare. his works, consisting of many pieces of practical

This heart shall break into a thonsand flaws divinity, were printed in 2 vols. folio. Among

Or ere I weep. tuese, the most famous are, 1. Navigation Spiri

Shakspeare. King Lear. tualised ; 2. Divine Conduct, or the Mysteries of

But his flawed heart,

Alack, too weak the conflict to support, Providence; and, 3. Husbandry Spiritualised; of all which there have been many editions.

'Twixt two extremes of passion, joy and grief, Burst smilingly.

Ia. FLAUNT, n. s. & v. n. Goth. flugant, flowing

Oh these flaws and starts, or fluttering (proudly). To fluiter, to make a

Impostors to true fear, would become Auttering or pert show or appearance. A flaunt

A woman's story at a Winter's fire. is any thing Inosely worn; ostentatious display.

Id. Macbeth. Let dainty wits cry on the sisters nine,

France hath flawed the league, and hath attached That, bravely masked, their fancies may be told, Our merchants? goods.

Id. Henry VIII. Or Pindar's apes, flaunt they in phrases fine,

Wool, new-shorn, being laid casually upon a vesRnamelling with py'd flowers their thoughts of gold. sel of verjuice after some time had drunk up a great

Sir P. Sidney.

part of the verjuice, though the vessel were whole, How would he look to see his work so noble,

without any flaw, and had not the bung-hole open. Wildly bound up, what would he say! or how

Bacon's Natural History. Should I in these my borrowed flaunts behold

As a huge fish, laid The sternness of his presence ! Shakspeare.

Near to the cold weed-gathering sbore, is with a north With ivy canopy'd, and interwove

flaw fraid, With flaunting boneysuckle.


Shoots back; so, sent against the ground, These courtiers of applause deny themselves things was foiled Éurialus.

Chapman's Iliad. convenient to flaunt it out, being frequently enough fain to immolate their own desires to their vanity.

Bursting their brazen dungeon, armed with ice, Boyle.

And snow, and hail, and stormy gust, and flaw,

Boreas, and Cæcias, and Argestes loud,
Here, attired beyond our purse, we go,

And Thrascias, rend the woods, and seas upturn. For useless ornament and flaunting show :

Milton. We take on trust, in purple robes to shine,

And laid her dowery out in law, And poor, are yet ambitious to be fine. Dryden.

To null her jointure with a flm. Hudibras. You sot, you loiter about ale-houses, or flaunt about the streets in your new-gilt chariot, never minding We found it exceeding difficult to keep out the air me dor your numerous family.

Arbuthnot. from getting in at any imperceptible hole or flaw. Fortune in men has some small difference made ;

Boyle. One flaunts in rags, one sutters in brocade. Pope.

A star of the first magnitude, which the more high, FLAVOR, or French flair (scent); enough to make itself conspicuous.

more vast, and more flawless, shines only bright

Id. FLA'VOUR, n. s.

Welsh flare an unpleaFLA'vorous, adj. sant smell); Lat. flo, cracks, that it looks like a white, but like a crystalline

The cup was flawed with such a multitude of little FLA'VORED flare ; Greek, plaw, to cup.

Id. blow. Taste; pleasant or unpleasant savor;

The brazen cauldruns with the frosts are flawed, power of pleasing the taste; odor; fragrance.

The garment stiff with ice, at hearths is thawed. Myrtle, orange, and the blushing rose,

Dryden. With bending heaps, so nigh their bloom disclose,

The fort's revolted to the emperor,
Each seems to smell the flavour which the other blows.

The gates are opened, the portcullis drawn,

And deluges of armies from the town
Sweet grapes degenerate there, and fruits declined Came pouring in : I heard the mighty flaw;
From their first flavourous taste renounce their kind. When first it broke, the crowding ensigns saw

Id, Which choaked the passage. Id. Aurengsebe.



Traditions were a proof alone,

weeded when about three inches high; after Could we be certain such they were, so known : which forked sticks are to be stuck in the But since some fiaws in long descents may be, ground, so as to receive poles from ten to fifteen They make not truth, but probability. Dryden. feet long, six or seven inches above the lint. So many flaws had this vow in its first conception.

Each row of poles should be three or four feet Atterbury.

asunder, so as to support a layer of brush-wood, Their judgment has found a flaw in what the generality of mankind admires. Addison's Spectator.

laid as thick and level as possible. The brushHe that would keep his house in repair, must attend

wood may be of any sort except oak, which every little breach or flaw, and supply it immediately, tinges the lint; but none of the branches must else time alone will bring all to ruin. Swift.

be left sticking higher than eighteen or twenty Whether the nymph shall break Diana's law, inches above the lint. The brush-wood, when Or some frail China-jar receive a flaw. Pope. the flax springs up, catches it by the middle, and

An adversary, on the contrary, makes a stricter prevents it from lying down and rotting; infalsearch into us, discovers every flaw and imperfection lible consequences of sowing thick upon rich in our tempers.


ground. It also keeps it straight, moist, and FLAWN. Sax. plena; Fr. flan, i. e. flowing, soft at the roots; and, by keeping it warm and A custard or cheesecake; a soft or flowing kind shaded from the sun, greatly promotes its length. of pudding.

It must be pulled as soon as the seed is fully Fill oven full of flawns ; Ginny pass not for sleep, formed, before the lint turns yellow; and thus, To-morrow thy father his wake-day will keep. instead of that coarse hardness, which flax has


when let stand till fully ripe, it acquires a fine FLAX, 1. s. Sax. pleax, flex; Goth. silky property. It must be pulled above the Flax'-COMB, fleaks ; Teut. flachs ; Belg. brush-wood, and every handful laid upon it as FLAX'-DRESSER, vlasch. Quære from the

soon as possible: in fine weather it may be left Flax'en, adj. Goth. floa; Sax. flowan, to four or five hours in that manner; after which it FLAXY. flow, from its fibrous tex- should be conveyed to a shade near a barn,

The plant from which linen is made; the where it may be spread for four or five days, fibres of that plant prepared for the spinner : always putting it in the barn at night, or on the flax-comb is the instrument whereby it is cleans- appearance of rain. When in the barn, every ed: and fax-dresser he who cleanses or prepares precaution must be used to prevent it from heatit : flaxen, and flaxy, made of, flowing like, or

ing; and if it happen to get rain or wet, in the being of the color of, fax.

course of these operations, which must be contiThe four colours signify four virtues. The flary nued till it is perfectly dry, it should be allowed having whiteness appertains to temperance. Sandys.

to dry in the open air; for, if put

under cover I'll fetch some flax, and whites of eggs, T apply to's bleeding face.

when wet, it is apt to turn black, which must be Shakspeare. King Lear.

carefully guarded against, as this is a principal Then on the rock a scanty measure place

cause of those bars so much complained of by Of vital flax, and turn the wheel apace,

bleachers. In all these operations, the roots And turning sung.

Dryden's Ovid. should be kept as even as possible; and if any I bought a fine flaren long wig. Addison.

coarse lint be discovered it should be separated The best materials for making ligatures are the from the rest. As it is a principal object to flaren threads that shoemakers use. Sharp's Surgery.

preserve the lint entire, or unbroken, the bolls The matron, at her nightly task,

are beat off with a round mall or beetle. When With pensive labour draws the flaxen thread. it is intended to water it immediately, it is next.

Thomson's Winter, tied up in bundles about as large as a man may Five sister-nymphs with dewy fingers twine grasp in his two hands. The pit ought to be dug The beamy flax, and stretch the fibre-line;

three or four months before it is used, about five Quick eddying threads from rapid spindles reel, feet deep and seven or eight broad, the length Or whirl with beating foot the dizzy wheel. Darwin.

according to the quantity of flax to be watered, FLAX, the linum usitatissimum of Linné, has The water should be soft, and free of any metallic been cultivated in this country, and in most Ore; and no flood or foul water should be allowed civilised countries, from time immemorial, both to enter the pit; but a small stripe of clear water for its fibre in making thread, and for its seed, should always run in and off from it while the occasionally, as yielding a serviceable oil. The lint is in it. Along the sides of the pit, hooks of common flax has scarcely any varieties worth this form > must be driven in at about five feet remarking. The blue or lead-colored is men- distance, so as to hold a long pole under the tioned by Marshall as being cultivated in York, surface of the water; after which the lint must shire; and professor Thaer mentions a finer and be made up into bundles, laying the sheaves coarser variety; he also, as well as some other head to head, and making each to overlap the writers, has tried the linum perenne, but the fibre other about one-third. When they are thus built, is coarser, though strong, and with difficulty de- till the bundle is about four feet or four feet and tached.

a half high, it is then tied in the middle and at Flax, for fine lawn and cambric, is recom- each root end, wrapped in straw and put into the mended to be sown on a rich light soil, previ- water, with the thin or broad side andermost. ously well prepared by ploughing and made level The lint being thus put into the water in distinct like a garden. As the soil cannot be too rich, bundles, so as they may be easily taken out, it ought to have at least double the quantity of cross poles are put in with their ends under the seed coramonly sown by farmers; and, when long ones in each side of the pit, so as to keep sown in dry weather, the ground should be im- the lint three or four inches under water, but mediately rolled. The lint should be carefully without any of it touching the gr rund.

The soils generally most proper for flax, be- immediately put in, or another light ploughing sides the alluvial kinds, are deep and friable and harrowing be first given. loams, and such as contain a large proportion of With regard to the choice of seed, the same vegetable matter in their composition. Strong writer states, that that which is of a bright brownclays do not answer well, nor soils of a gravelly ish color, oily to the feel, and at the same time or dry sandy nature. But, whatever be the kind weighty, is considered the best. Linseed, imof soil, it ought neither to be in too poor nor too ported from various countries, is employed. That rich a condition ; because, in the latter case, the brought from Holland is, however, in the highest flax is apt to grow too luxuriant, and to produce estimation, as it not only ripens sooner than any a coarse sort; and, in the former case, the plant, other that is imported, but also produces greater from growing weakly, affords only a small pro- crops, and flax of that quality which best suits duce. If there be water at a small depth below the chief manufactures of this country. American the surface of the ground, it is thougła by some seed produces in common fine flax; but neither still better, as is the case in Zealand, which is the quantity of flax, nor of the pods, provincially remarkable for the fineness of its flax, and where the bolls, which contain the seeds, is so large the soil is deep and rather stiff, with water as the produce from Dutch linseed. The Riga almost every where, at the depth of a foot and a seed yields a very coarse sort of flax, but a half or two feet underneath it. It is said to be greater quantity of seeds than any other. It is owing to the want of this advantage, that the common in some parts of Scotland to sow seeds other provinces of Holland do not succeed saved from the crop the preceding year, especiequally well in the culture of this useful plant; ally when the crop was raised from seed imnot but that fine flax is also raised on high lands, ported from Holland. The success of this pracif they have been well tilled and manured, and tice is found to depend greatly on changing the if the seasons are not very dry. It is remarked, seed from one sort of soil to another of an oppoin the letters of the Dublin Agricultural Society, site nature; but the saving in the expense of that moist stiff soils yield much larger quan- purchasing that sort of seed, in place of what is tities of flax, and far better seed, than can be ob- newly imported from Holland, is so inconsidertained from light lands; and that the seed se- able, and the risk of the crop misgiving so much cured from the former may, with proper care, be greater in the one case than in the other, that it rendered full as good as any that is imported is supposed those only who are ignoraut of the from Riga or Zealand. M. du Hamel, however, consequences, or who are compelled from necesthinks that strong land can hardly yield such sity, are chargeable with this act of ill-judged fine flax as that which grows on lighter ground. parsimony in the business.

Mr. Donaldson observes, that flax is sown In Ireland the cultivators of flax prefer the after all sorts of crops, but is found to succeed American seed for the lighter and more elebest on lands lately broken up from grass. And vated and exposed lands; but the Baltic or that in Scotland, the most skilful cultivators of Dutch for those which are of a heavier quality. flax generally prefer lands from which only one The seed of home produce is often sown for crop of grain has been taken, after having been white flax in Yorkshire; but the Baltic sort is several years in pasture. When such lands have mostly preferred where seed is the object; which, been limed or marled, immediately before being for the ensuing year, and one or two afterwards, laid down to grass, the crop of tax seldom or is found to answer as well as white flax. But it never misgives, unless the season prove remark- is highly probable that, if that which has been ably adverse to it. It succeeds in general much collected from the perfectly ripened seed of our better after green crops, than those of the grain own growth be made use of, it will be equally kind.

productive in both the flaxy substance and the The land, in order to render it fit for the quantity of seed, and the former be equally vagrowth of this sort of crop, requires to be ren- luable for all the purposes of the manufacturer. dered perfectly fine and mellow, by being re- Proportion of Seed.-In respect to the quanpeatedly ploughed over, and broken down by tity of seed used, it varies in different places acsevere harrowings. When grass land is to be cording to the circumstances of the soil, the mebroken up for this crop, it should be done in the thod of sowing, and the uses to which the crop autumn, and left exposed to the influence of the is to be applied; but from two bushels, to two atmosphere until the early part of the following bushels and a half, the English statute acre, is year, when it should be well pulverised and the ordinary allowance. In determining the broken down by heavy harrowing; then, in the proper quantity necessary for the acre, it is recourse of a week or two, ploughed again, in quisite to pay great attention to the condition of which state it may remain till the period of put- the land. When the land is rich and fertile, and ting in the seed, when another light harrowing the season so favorable that it can be got should be given, and the ploughing performed thoroughly pulverised, if too much seed is sown afterwards by a very light furrow. But in cases the crop is in great danger of lodging; and wnere the crop is sown after grain, or other when that happens, particularly before the pods crops that have the property of keeping the land are formed, the flax proves inconsiderable in clean from weeds, the first ploughing need not quantity, and very inferior in quality. When be given till January, when it may remain in that cultivated in the drill mode, at narrow distances, situation until it becomes pretty dry in the early a much less quantity will be sufficient than in spring, being then well reduced by good har- other cases; and where the intervals are large, rowing and rolling; and, after continuing in that scarcely one-half the quantity is required. When state about a fortnight, the seed may either be the crops are intended for seed, in wbatever manner the sowing is performed, much less will it up in very high ridges, in order that the winter be necessary, than where flax is the main object frosts may the more effectually moulder and of the grower.

loosen its parts. In the month of February, The time of sowing it must depend much upon where the land is not too wet, some very rotten the soil and situation; but the ordinary season dung should be laid on, and immediately coof sowing flax-seed is from the middle of March vered over with the mould. The seed should to the middle or end of April; but the last week afterwards, at the proper season, be sown, and of March, and the first ten days of April, are harrowed in with a light or bush harrow, so as esteemed the best times; and accordingly within not to bury it too deep. As this, when young, these periods the greatest quantity of flax-seed is is a very tender plant, and is more easily injured sown in this country. In the county of York, and checked in its progress by weeds than any where this sort of crop is grown on land broken other that is usually cultivated in the field, it is up from grass, the seed is commonly sown before indispensably necessary that the danger of inthe second week in April, where it can possibly jury in this way should be well guarded against, be done; while, on such lands as have been in a in order to save future trouble and expense. previous state of tillage, the sowing is frequently Where the principal object of the grower is deferred a week or ten days longer. Wherever flax, the most general method of putting in the it can be safely practised, early sowing has the crops is that of sowing them broadcast over the advantage of getting the flax plants to cover the surface of the land. In performing the business, surface of the land well, before they can run much care is necessary that the seed be dispersed much risk of injury from the rising of weeds, or as evenly as possible over the ground, to prevent the parching effects of heat. In some of the the plants rising in an unequal or tufty manner. southern counties of Europe, however, the hus- It should be afterwards covered in by regular bandmen who raise filax, sow part of their seed harrowing, once or twice in a place, with a light in September and October; so that the plants common or bush-harrow, as just noticed, not which spring from thence remain of course in covering it in too deep. But, where the seed the ground all the winter; and this may be a constitutes the chief intention of the cultivator, judicious practice in those places, because plants it is contended by some that the drill mode is which have not covered the earth well before the preferable, as requiring much less seed in sowsummer heats come on are apt to be parched ing, and affording a much better and more by the heat and drought which usually prevail abundant produce. Besides, the smoothness and in that season. They sow linseed agai also in weight of the seed render it extremely proper for the spring; but the latter does not yield so large being drilled; and the crops can be kept clean a crop; the flax, however, which it produces is with greater facility. more esteemed, because it is finer than that In this method, the distances of the rows or sown in autumn. M. du Hamel seems indeed drills should vary according to the circumstances to think, that the autumnal sowing yields the of the soil, and the manner in which the crops best seed; but however that may be, in places are to be kept clean. Where the hand-hoe is to where the winter is apt to be severe, and where be chiefly depended upon, narrow distances may the flax, which is but a tender plant, would in be proper, as ten or twelve inches; but, where course be in danger of being destroyed during the work is to be principally executed by the that season, almost all the flax is sown about the horse-hoe or cultivator, larger intervals may he end of March, or in the beginning of April, as more suitable, as those of eighteen or twenty already stated.

inches. Sligbt harrowing and rolling are someThe land which is intended for fax crop: times afterwards necessary, especially the latter, should be brought to an exceeding fine tilth, in in dry seasons. It has been observed that thick the way directed above, before the seed is put sown flax runs up in height, and produces fine in. When pasture lands are broken up, in order soft flax; but that when sown thin it does not to their being sown with flax, they must be well rise to such a height, but spreads out more, wrought during several months, before they will sending off a greater number of side branches, be fit for producing such crops, in the manner which produce a great abundance of seed which just described. To defray the expense of this is much better filled, more plump and heavy than culture, some other crops may be got off the that which is produced from thick-sown filax land in the mean time, especially of such plants crops. Flax crops cultivated in this way are not as do not occupy it long, and particularly of so liable to be beaten down in bad weather, the those which are remarkably benefited by fre- stems being stronger and better fortified by the quent stirring of the earth whilst they grow; more free admission of sun and air among them; such as beans, peas, turnips, &c., because these and they are not so much exposed to danger in repeated stirrings render the mould fine and weeding or cleaning the rows. loose, and help to kill the weeds, which would Where fax crops are sown in the brcadcast otherwise do great damage to the fax. It is as- method, they are seldom much attended to afterserted, that the Livonians, when they clear wood- wards : it is, however, highly useful and neceslands, burn the wood upon them, then ploughsary that they should have one good'hand-hoeing, them, and in this state prefer them to any other or weeding, as soon as ever the crop is suffikind of soil for flax crops. If the land which is ciently up; care being taken not to injure the intended for flax be stiff

, great care should be plants by too much treading amongst them. In taken not to work it when it is wet, for fear of the drill manner of sowing, the after-culture of kneading it; but it is often an excellent plan to the crops must be regulated by the distance of work it deeply before winter, when dry, laying the rows; but they may in general be cleaned Vol. IX.


from weeds, and kept in vigorous growth, by unequally, so that some parts are ready for pulproper implements and horse labor. The ground ling before other parts; only what is ready between the rows is mostly wrought by a proper should be pulled, and the rest should be suffered horse-hoe, cultivator, or small hoe-plough, taking to stand till ready. The flax-raiser ought to be care that none of the mould is thrown against at pains to pull, and keep by itself, each differthe rows; to prevent which, the intervals may be ent kind of lint which he finds in his field; hoed with a triangular harrow, having a proper what is both long and fine, by itself; what is number of iron tines in it, and guided by two both long and coarse, by itself; what is both short handles fixed behind. By these handles the tines and fine, by itself; what is both short and coarse, are made to go deeper or shallower at pleasure; by itself; and in like manner every other kind and if the intervals are cultivated with this in- by itself that is of the same size and quality. If strument, beginning before the earth is become the different kinds be not thus kept separate, the stale, and while the weeds are small, the land flax must be much damaged in the watering and may be kept very clean, and in fine tilth, at much the other succeeding operations. What is comless expense than hand-hoeing: for one horse is monly called under-growth may be neglected as sufficient for this work. A great deal may be useless. Few persons that have seen pulled flax, done in a day; and hy a frequent repetition of are ignorant of the method of laying it in handthe hoeing, especially when the earth is dry, the fuls across each other; which gives the flax sufweeds may be so effectually kept down as never ficient air, and keeps the handfuls separate and to rise to any height. But the rows must be ready for the rippler. weeded by hand. With some it has been a Donaldson observes, that a crop of flax frecustom to sow, with their linseed, either annual quently grows short, and runs out a great number or perennial grass-seeds, when they intend to lay of seed-bearing branches. When this is the the land down for pasture after the crop is taken case, the seeds, not the flax, ought to be the off. But as grass plants grow but weakly under farmer's chief object, and the crop should be althe flax, it is a practice by no means to be re-. lowed to stand till the seeds are in a great meacommended. No other sort of crop should, how- sure perfected. But that when the crop thrives, ever, be ever grown with this, as much injury and is likely to become more valuable for the filax may be done by it. Flax is sometimes damaged than the seeds, it should be pulled soon after the by insects, when it it about three or four inches bloom drops off, and before the pods turn hard high. These, it is said, may be destroyed by and sharp in the points. When flax is grown for a slight strewing of sout, ashes, &c., over the its fibre, Brown considers it the safest course to сгор. At all events, this dressing will give take it a little early, any thing wanting in quanvigor to the flax though it may not kill the in- tity, being, in this way, made up by the superisects. If any weeds appear afterwards among ority of quality. the flax, as is almost always the case, they must After pulling, if the flax is to be regarded be thoroughly rooted out: and, that the flax may more than the seed, it should lie some hours be as little damaged as possible in the doing of upon the ground to dry a little, and so gain some this, the weeders should work as carefully as pos- firmness, to prevent the skin or harle, which is sible. The finest fax is most liable to be laid, the filax, from rubbing off in the rippling; an particularly in countries subject to storms. To operation which ought by no means to be negguard against this accident, some people run lected, as the bolls, if put into the water along across their flax-fields slender poles fixed to with the flax, breed vermin there, and otherwise stakes : but a better method is to run small ropes spoil the water. The bolls also prove very inacross the field, both lengthwise and breadth- convenient in the grassing and breaking. In wise, where necessary; for these being fastened Lincolnshire and Ireland, they think that ripwhere they intersect one another, and supported pling hurts the flax; and, therefore, in place of by stakes at due distances, form a kind of net- rippling, they strike the bolls against a stone. work, which is proof against almost every acci- The handfuls for rippling should not be great, as dent that can happen from tempestuous weather. that endangers the lint in the rippling comb. These practices are, however, both troublesome After rippling, the flax-raiser will perceive that and expensive, and are seldom or ever necessary he is able to assort each size and quality of the where the crops have not been sown too thick on flax by itself more exactly than he could before. the ground.

If the flax be more valuable than the seed, it When the crop grows so short and branchy, ought by no means to be stacked during winter; as to appear more valuable for seed flax, it for its own natural juice assists it greatly in the ought not to be pulled before it be thoroughly watering; whereas, if kept long unwatered, it ripe; but if it grows long and not branchy, the loses that juice and the harle adheres so much seed should be disregarded, and all the attention to the boon, that it requires longer time to water, given to the flax. In the last case it ought to be and even the quality of the flax becomes therepulled after the bloom has fallen, when the stalk by harsher and coarser. Besides, the flax stacked begins to turn yellow, and before the leaves fall, up over year, is in great danger from vermin and and the bolls turn hard and sharp-pointed. other accidents; the water in spring is not so When the stalk is small, and carries few bolls, soft and warm as in harvest; and nearly a year is the flax is fine; but the stalk of coarse flax is thereby lost of the use of the lint: but if the gross, rank, branchy, and carries many bolls. Alax be so short and branchy as to appear most When the fax has fallen, and lies, such as lies valuable for seed, it o:ght, after pulling, to be ought to be immediately pulled, whether it has stooked and dried upon the field, as is done with grown e:ough or not, as otherwise it will grow corn; then stacked up for winter, rippled in


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