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in the tabernacle, at the consecration of Aaron tween the troughs in the fire-room. The inside and his sons to the priesthood, Lev. ix. 24. It chambers should not be less than twenty-one afterwards descended anew on the altar in the inches, and thirty inches is sufficient for thei: temple of Solomon, at the consecration of that length. The bottom parts are first well stored teinple, 2 Chron. vii. 1. There it was constantly with short double-dipped reeds placed upright; maintained by the priest, day and night, with- and the remaining vacancy is filled with fireout suffering it ever to go out; and with this all barrel composition well mixed and melted, and the sacrifices were offered that required fire. then poured over them. The composition used This fire, according to some of the Jewish for this purpose is a mass of sulphur, pitch, tar, writers, was extinguished in the days of Ma- and tallow. There are five holes, of threenasseh; but the more general opinion among fourths of an inch in diameter and three inches them is, that it continued till the destruction of deep, formed in the top of the composition while the temple by the Chaldeans; after that it was warm; one being in the centre, and the other never more restored; but instead of it they had four at equal distances round the sides of the only common fire in the second temple.

barrel. When the composition is cold and The Chaldeans had a high veneration for hard, the barrel is primed by filling those holes fire, which they accounted a divinity; and in with fuse-composition, which is firmly driven the province of Babylon there was a city con- into them, so as to leave a little vacancy at the secrated to this usage, which was called the city top to admit a strand of quick-match twice of Ur, or of Fire. The Persians also adored doubled. The centre hole contains two strands God under the image or representation of fire, at their whole length, and every strand must be because it is fire that gives motion to every thing driven home with mealed powder. The loose in nature. They had temples, which they called ends of the quick-match being then laid within

Pyrza,' fire temples, set apart solely for the pre- the barrel, the whole is covered with a dipped servation of the sacred fire. They are said to curtain, fastened on with a hoop that slips over have in that empire fires still subsisting, which the head of the barrel, to which it is nailed. have burnt many thousand years. The worship The barrels should be made very strong, not of the goddess Vesta (see Vesta) and of fire only to support the weight of the composition was brought into Italy by Æneas and the other before firing, when they are moved or carried Trojans, who landed there; but the Phrygians from place to place, but to keep together whilst themselves had received it from the eastern na- burning : for if the staves are too light and thin, tions. Fire was held in religious veneration so as to burn very soon, the remaining compo among the Gauls; and similar sentiments and sition will tumble out and be dissipated, and the practices have prevailed in several countries of intention of the barrels, to carry the fame aloft, America.

will be frustrated. The curtain is a piece of Vulcan was worshipped among the ancients, coarse canvas, nearly a yard in breadth and and particularly the Egyptians, as the inventor length, thickened with melted composition, and of Fire; and Boerhaave has made it highly pro- covered with saw-dust on both sides. hable, that the Vulcan of the heathens was the FIRE-BAVINS, or Fascines, are made of birchTubal-Cain of the Hebrews, the first who ap- heath, or other brush wood, which is tough and pears to have known the use of fire, and to have readily kindled. They are usually two or three applied it in the fusion of metals and other pre- feet long, and have all their bush-ends lying one parations of chemistry. See PROMETHEUS. way, the other ends being tied together with

Fire, in theology, is frequently understood of small cords. They are dipped in the compothe punishment of the wicked after death. See sition at the bush-ends, whose branches are HELL.

afterwards confined by the hand, to prevent them FIRE, DIVINATION BY. See PYROMANCY. from breaking off by moving about; and also to : FIRE-ARROW, in naval artillery, is a small make them burn more fiercely. They are then iron dart furnished with springs and bars, toge- sprinkled with sulphur. ther with a match impregnated with sulphur and FIRE-COCKS. Church-wardens in London and powder, which is wound about its shaft. It is within the bills of mortality, are to fix fire-cocks intended to fire the sails of the enemy, and is at proper distances in the streets, and keep a large for this purpose discharged from a musquetoon engine and hand-engine for extinguishing fire, Or swirel gun. The match being kindled by the under the penalty of £10 by statute 6 Ann. c. explosion, communicates the flame to the sail 31. On the breaking out of any fire in London against which it is directed, where the arrow is or Westminster, the constables and beadles of fastened by means of its bars and springs. parishes shall repair to the place with their This weapon is peculiar to hot climates, parti- staves, and assist in extinguishing it, and cause cularly the West Indies, where the sails being the people to work for that end, &c. Rewards extremely dry by reason of the great heats, they for assistance are payable to the first turncock instantly také fire, and of course set fire to the 10s.- To the first engine not exceeding 30s.rigging, masts, and vessel.

The second not exceeding 208.— The third 10s.FIRE-Ball, in artillery. See Ball.

To be paid by the churchwardens or overseers, FIRE-Ball, in METEOROLOG Y. See that but not without the approbation of an alderman article.

or justice of the peace. The churchwardens, FIRE-Barrels, a sort of small barrels used &c., to be repaid by the inhabitant if the fire for fire-ships, of a cylindrical form, as best begins in a chimney. adapted to contain the reeds with which they The Fire Engine is an apparatus of comparaare filled, and more convenient for stowing bê tively modern invention, although the forcing. pump, of which it is an application, is more than upper part screws on to the lower by a screw of 2000 years old. There are laws still un- several threads, so truly turned as to be water repealed which make it penal for persons to be tight in every situation. The conic form of the unprovided with hand squirts' for the purpose spouting-pipe serves for wire-drawing the water of extinguishing fires, and the rude contrivances on its passage through it, which occasions a fricthat were employed for that purpose in the last tion that produces such a velocity of the jet as to century must still be in the recollection of many render it capable of breaking windows, &c., whilst of our readers.

the valves and leathern pipes of the engines The apparatus for extinguishing fires, contrived have sufficient water-way to supply the jet in its by Mr. Newsham is exceedingly simple in the greatest velocity. Leathern pipes of considerable arrangement of its parts, and, as such, appears length may be screwed at one end of the nozle of best calculated to explain the construction of the engine, and furnished at the other end with this important engine. It is shown at fig. 1, a wooden or brass pipe for guiding the water plate I. HYDRAULICs, and consists of a cistern into the inner apartments of houses, &c. BeAB, about three times as long as it is broad, tween the pyramidal box L, and the fore-end made of thick oaken planks, the joints of which of the engine, there is a strong iron bar 0, lying are lined with sheet copper, and easily moveable in a horizontal position over the middle of the by means of a pole and cross bar C in the fore cistern and playing in brasses supported by two part of the engine, which is so contrived as to wooden stands; one of which, P, is placed beslide back under the cover of the cistern, and on tween the two fore-stands of the upper rails, and four solid wheels, two of which are seen at D the other is hid in the enclosure over the bind part. and E. The hind axle-tree, to which the wheel Upon proper squares of this bar are fitted, one E and its opposite are fixed, are fastened across near each end, two strong cross bars, which take under the bottom of the cistern; but the fore hold of the long wooden cylindrical handles, by axle-tree, bearing the wheel D, &c., is put on a means of which the engine is worked; and the strong pin or bolt, strongly fastened in a hori- treadles by which they are assisted are suspended zontal situation in the middle of the front of the at each end by chains in the form of a watchbottom of the cistern, by which contrivance the chain, and receive their motion jointly with the two fore wheels and the axle-tree have a circular handles that are on the same side, by means of motion round the bolt, so that the engine may two circular sectors of irou fastened together, and stand as firm on rough or sloping ground as if it fixed upon proper squares of the middle boriwas level.

zontal bar; the two fore ones may be seen at Q; Upon the ground next to the hind part of the the two hind ones, represented on a large scale in engine may be seen a leathern pipe , one end fig. 2, differ from the former only in thickness ; of which may be screwed on and off upon occa- for the fore sectors are made to carry only one sion to a brass cock at the lower end of the cis- chain each fastened by one end to their upper tern : the other end is immersed in the water, part, and by the lower end to the treadles; supplied by a pond, fire-plug, &c., and the pipe whereas the sole of the two hind sectors is wide becomes a sucking pipe for furnishing the pumps enough to carry two chains each ; one set fasof the engine by its working, without pouring tened like those of the fore ones for the motion water into the cistern. To the hind part of the of the treadles : and the other two chains are cistern is fastened a wooden trough G, with a fastened by their lower ends to the lower part of copper grate for keeping out stones, sand, and these sectors, and by their upper ends to the top dirt, through which the cistern is supplied with of the piston bars, in order to give them motion. water when the sucking pipe cannot be used. See fig. 2, in which the hind sectors and their The fore part of the cistern is also separated from apparatus are represented as they would appear the rest of its cavity by another copper grate, to a person standing betweeen the two fore-wheels, through which water may be poured into the and looking at the hind part of the engine. cistern.

Those that work the pumps of this The square over the letter A is the section of the engine move the handles visible at the long sides middle bar, on which, right over the two barrels

, up and down, and are assisted by others who are placed the two sectors BCA and DEA, stand on two suspended treadles; throwing forged together. EG H K and fghk are the their weight alternately on each of them, and two piston-rods; and the openings between the keeping themselves steady by taking hold of two letters G, H, and g, h, are the spaces through round horizontal rails, H, I, framed into four which the hind parts of the two treadles pass. vertical stands, which reach to the bottom of the L and M represent two strong studs rivetted on cistern, and are well secured to its sides. the other side of the bars on which they are

Over the hind trough there is an iron handle placed; and to each of these is fastened a chain or key K, serving to open or shut a cock placed like a watch-chain, fixed by their upper ends to under it on the bottom of the cistern. L is an the


extremities Dand B of the iron sectors inverted pyramidal box or case which preserves by which they are drawn up and down alterthe pumps and air-vessels from damage, and also nately. These sectors give also an alternate supports a wooden frame M, on which stands a motion up and down to the piston-rods, by means man, who, by raising or depressing, and turning of two other chains left white in the figure, in about the spout N, directs the stream of water as order to distinguish them from the others: these occasion requires. This spout is made of two are fastened by their lower ends to the lower expieces of brass pipe, each of which has an elbow; tremities of the sectors E and C, and their upper the lower is screwed over the upper end T of the ends, terminating in a male screw, are made tight pipe that goes through the air-vessel, and the to the piston-rods at I and F, by two nuts. The

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shape of the piston-rods, and the size and situa- shut, and the other two are open alternately by tion of the chains that give them motion, are so the motion of the pistons and the action of the contrived, that the vertical axis of the pistons is atmosphere, together with the re-action of the air exactly in the middle of the breadth of the per- contained in the air-vessel. HI is the section of pendicular part of the chains, and the upper one of the barrels of the two pumps, which are part of the piston-rod taken together. PQ re- both sucking and forcing, as is evident from the presents one of the two cross bars through the position of the valves and the structure of the ends of which pass the long handles to which the pistons, each of which is composed of two iron men apply their

hands when they work the engine; plates, of two wooden trenchers, and of two flat these cross bars are fitted on the middle bar at pieces of leather turning one up and the other some distance from the sectors. The other parts down. LK represents one of the piston-rods of this useful engine may be understood by the edge-wise, behind which is one of the chains, the help of fig. 3, which represents a vertical section top screw of which, K, can only be seen. M is taken through the middle line of the hind part of the end of the middle bar, and N a section of the engine, as also the section of the air-vessel, the hindmost of the two middle stands which and that of one of the barrels, and likewise the support the middle bar. profiles of the hind sectors, and of several other The principle on which the common engine parts. AB is the section of the bottom of the acts, so as to produce a continued stream, is cistern, and C that of the hindmost axle-tree. obvious; the water being driven into the airDE is the vertical section of a strong piece of vessel, as in the operation of common sucking cast brass or hard metal so worked as to have a and forcing pumps, will compress the air conhollow in it, represented by the white part, and tained in it, and proportionably increase its fixed to the bottom of the cistern: this reaches spring, since the force of the air's spring will from the opening D through the cock W, and always be inversely as the space which it posafterwards divides itself into two branches, so as sesses; therefore, when the air-vessel is half to open under the two barrels; one of these filled with water, the spring of the included air, branches is exhibited in the figure and the other which in its original state counterbalanced the is exactly behind this. Through this channel, pressure of the atmosphere, being now comwhich may be called the sucking-piece, water is pressed into half the space, will be equal to twice conveyed to the pumps by the pressure of the the pressure of the atmosphere; and, by its acatmosphere, either from the cistern itself, or from tion on the subjacent water, will cause it to rise any place at a distance, by means of a leathern through the conduit-pipe, and to play a jet of pipe, F. fig. 4, which screws on to the sucking- thirty-two or thirty-three feei high, abating the piece at D, fig. 3, under the hind trough Z, the effect of friction. When the air-vessel is twograte of which is represented by the horizontal thirds full of water, the space which the air occustrokes. FG represents the vertical section of pies is only one-third of its first space; thereanother piece of cast brass or hard metal that fore its spring, being three times as great as that may be called the communication-piece, having of the coinmon air, will project the water with two hollows for conveying the water from under twice the force of the atmosphere, or to the height the two pistons to the two openings of the flanch of sixty-four or sixty-six feet. In the same manof the air-vessel ; one of these hollows appears in ner, when the air-vessel is three-fourths full of the figure; the other lies exactly behind this, water, the air will be compressed into one-fourth though not in a parallel direction. Between the of its original space, and cause the water to ascend section of the sucking-piece DE, and that of the in air with the force of three atmospheres, or to communication-piece FG, may be observed the the height of ninety-six or ninety-nine feet, &c., section of one of the plates of leather, which as in the following table. makes all tight, and forms one of the two sucking-valves, of which there is another just behind this under the other barrel. RST is the section

Height of Proportion

Height to of the copper air-vessel, and TV that of the con- Height of

which the

the Com- of the Air's duit-pipe; this vessel is screwed on to the hind

the water.

Water will pressed Air.

Spring. part of the communication-piece, and at top is

Rise. fastened by a collar of iron to a cross piece of timber.



3 Between the flanch of the air-vessel and the



99 communication-piece may be observed the sec

132 tion of one of the plates of leather, making all


165 tight, and screwing one of the two forcing valves,


198 of which there is another just behind this, ex


231 actly over the other opening of the communica


264 tion from the air-vessel. These valves are loaded

10 ปร

297 with a lump of cast iron or leaa, having a tail or teat let through the flap of the valve and crosspinned under it; and it is to be observed that, Since it is impossible, when a pump is well though both the valves are represented open in made and is in good order, that its piston can the figure, they are never both open at the same move without displacing the water that is above time; for when the engine is not at work they or below it, according to the circumstances of are closed down by the weights on the

ctio in all pumps that consist of surfaces; and, when the engine works, two are cylindrical working barrels and pistons, nothing

upper its const

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