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FEUTERER, n. s. Fr. vautrier. A dog- If a spark of error have thus far prevailed, falling keeper.

eveu where the wood was green, and fartbest off from If you will be

any inclination unto furious attempts, must not the An honest yeoman feuterer, feed us first,

peril thereof be greater in men, whose minds are as And walk us after.


dry fewel, apt before hand unto tumults, seditions and broils ?

Hooker. Dedication. FEW, adj. 1 Sax. feu; Goth. fauai, fa;

Never, alas! the dreadful name, FEw'ness, n. s. ) Icl. fa ; Swed.fæ; Dan. fuu,

That fewels the infernal flame. fuæ ; Fr. peu. Small in number; not many; Others may give the fewel or the fire; used elliptically for not many words.'

But they the breath, that makes the flame, inspire. And he seyde to hem, ther is myche rype corn:

Denhan, and fewe werkemen, therfore preie ye the Lord of the A known quantity of fewel, all kindled at once, riipe corn : that he sende werkemen into his rype corn.

will causc water to boil, which being lighted gradually

Wiclif. Luk. x. will never be able to do it. Bentley's Sermons. We are left but few of many.

Jer. FEY, v.a. Dut. veghen; Goth. fagen. To To answer buth'allegations at once, the very sub- cleanse a ditch, or well, of mud. stance of that they contain is in few but this.

Such muddy deep ditches and pits in the field, Hooker.

That all a dry Summer no water will yield, Give every man thine ear, but few thy voice;

By feying and casting that mud upon heaps, Take each man's censure, but reserve thy judgment. Conimodities many the husbandhan reaps. Tresser.

Shukspeare. FEYJOO Y MONTENEGRO (Bened. Jerome), Fewness and truth, 'tis thus.


a Spanish Benedictine and writer of the last Many hands draw the cable with more violence than

He has been sometimes styled the

century. few.

Bp. Hall. No more shall be added in this place, his memory

Spanish Addison. His principal works are deserving a particular celebration, than that his learn. Teatro Critico Universal, 14 vols. 4to., Madrid ing, piety, and virtue, have been attained by few. 1733, and his Cartas eruditas y curiosas; both

Clarendon. works of great merit, and liberality of sentiment. So having said, he thus to Eve in few : Divinity, law, medicine, and philosophy, occupy Say, woman, what is this which thou hast done ?

his attention; and the superstitions of his church

Milton. are animadverted on with considerable freedom. So much the thirst of honour fires the blood;

He died in 1765. An edition of his works was So many would be great, so few be good; For who would virtue for herself regard,

published in 1778, 15 vols. 4to.; and a selection

from his Essays and Discourses appeared, in Or wed without the portion of reward ? Dryden.

an English translation, 1780, 4 vols., 8vo. On Winter seas we fewer storms behold,

FEZ, an extensive kingdom of West Barbary, Than foul diseases that infect the fold. Id.

These, by reason of their fewness, I could not dis- Africa, now united with the empire of Morocco, tinguish from the numbers with whom they are em

which see; of which it forms the most valuable bodied.


part. It is bordered by the chain of the Greater, The impartial lovers and searchers of truth are a

and crossed by the Lesser Atlas, extending from great deal fewer than one could wish or imagine. the former to the sea, which it touches at Tetuan.

Locke. The climate on the north of Mount Atlas is Thus Jupiter in few unfolds the charge. Dryden. greatly modified by that range on the one hand, The firm resolve I here in few disclose.


and the Mediterranean on the other. It differs, The fewer still you name, you wound the more ; therefore, but little from that of southern Europe, Bond is but one, but Harpax is a score.

Id. either in its temperature or salubrity. The heat Party is the madness of many, for the gain of a in some places, however, is occasionally very few.

Swift. great. Ali Bey says that, in the beginning of An experiment very frequent among modern au- June, it exceeded 90° of Fahrenheit, in his tedt, thors, is to write upon nothing: when the subject is a little north-east of Fez. The valleys of this utterly exhausted, to let the pen still move on; by region are luxuriantly fruitful: it is divided into some called the ghost of wit, delighting to talk after nine provinces, Shavnya, Temsena, Fez Proper

, the death of its body. And to say the truth, there Beni-hassen, Garb, Shaus, Rif, Tedla, and Garet. seems to be no part of knowledge in fewer hands. The principal rivers are the Mulluvia, the Lucos than that of discerning when to have done.

The imagination of a poet is a thing so nice and (Lixus of the ancients), the Suboe, and the river delicate, that it is no easy matter to find

out images of Sallee. The principal towns are Fez, Mequicapable of giving pleasure to one of the few, who, nez, Melilla, Ceuta, Tangier, Larache, Mamora, in any age, bave come up to that character.

and Sallee. The statistics, government, and

Berkley to Pope. commerce of this region, are the same in almost Man's rich with little, were his judgment true; every respect as in Morocco, and will be found Nature is frugal, and her wants are few :

under that article. Those few wants answered, bring sincere delights ; Fez Proper, a fertile province of the above But fools create themselves new appetites.


country, situated between the range of Atlas and Ralph did it justice, remarking a few imperfections, the province of Beni-hassen. It consists of one and applauding such parts as were excellent.

entire plain, surrounded by ranges of hills, also Franklin.

capable of the highest cultivation. To the east FE'WEL, n. s. & 0.a. Fr. feu. Now written it has extensive dependencies. FUEL, which see.

Combustible matter; mate- Fez, a city of Morocco, the capital of the kingrials for keeping fire. To supply with fuel. dom of that name, situated near the bottom of a

Get home with thy fewel, make ready to fet, funnel-shaped valley, the surrounding hills of 'The sooner the easier carriage to get.


which are covered with woods and orchards.

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They surround it, indeed, on all sides except the Mahommedan countries is displayed solely in
Dorth and north-east. It consists of the Old and the interior, where spacious courts are found,
New town, the latter of which is almost entirely and the apartments are decorated with paint-
built on the heights which encompass the other. ings, arabesques, and often with gold and silver,
It is chiefly inhabited by Jews. Chenier, though while the walls of the houses, next the street, are
he thinks the description of Leo exaggerated, built of mud, and in many places cracked and
admits that Fez is one of the most agreeable falling. He states the population at 100,000,
cities in the empire. The finest edifice is the and it was double this amount till reduced by a
mosque of Carubin, built during the most late plague. Mr. Jackson, from the public
flourishing period of Fez, and described by Leo documents to which he had access, makes it
as a mile and a half in circumference. Euro- 380,000. It is 230 miles north-east of Morocco.
peans, however, are not permitted to see it. The FEZZAN, a considerable country in the north-
city contains 200 caravanseras, or inns, called east part of Central Africa, to the south of Bar-
fondaques, which are tolerably convenient. bary, forms a sort of island in the midst of that
They are two or three stories high, with galleries immense desert of sand which reaches as far as
towards the court, which is always in the centre the Niger. It is tributary to the dey of Tripoli,
and admits light into the apartments. The tra- from which its nearest part is about 250 miles
veller, however, is not supplied with provisions, south-east. Its northern extremity, at the well
or even bedding. His whole accommodation is of Bonjem, is in lat. 30° 35', and its southern
a room and a mat. The streets generally are limit at Tegerry in lat. 24° 4' N. Its length is
dark and dirty, and so narrow in some parts that therefore about 450 miles. On the north-east it
two persons can scarcely ride abreast. Several is bounded by the White Mountains of Harutz.
of the buildings that face the streets are dilapi- This country was known to the ancients under
dared, and some of them propped up. The the title of the Phazania Regio, and the country
shops are little better than mere stalls, where of the Garamantes; Garama, its ancient capital,
the sedentary occupant sits surrounded by bas- has been recognised by major Rennell in the
kets, to which he points his customers as they modern Germa. The name of Fasan, or fezzan,
enter. The markets, however, are immensely seems to have been imposed by the Saracens,
crowded, as there is no other place in that part when they overran this with all the rest of north-
of the country that deserves the name of a town; ern Africa, and established the Mahommedan
and the Arabs of the surrounding re.ions resort faith here.
thither to purchase all the foreign and manufac- Though, compared with the surrounding dis-
tured articles their domestic habits require, or tricts, Ferzan is tolerably fertile, the want of
their means afford. Fez and Morocco are also water precludes almost every kind of steady cul-
great marts for the Soudan trade; the former has tivation: there are only three springs in the
about 200 caravanseras.

whole of this vast tract. Water is sometimes Old Fez was founded towards the close of the found in beds of clay, in some places at ten or eighth century, by Edris, a Barbary farmer; and twelve feet below the surface. Trees of the miit soon became the capital of all the western mosa species, called talh, are occasionally seen, Morocco states.

In the twelfth century Leo and near the towns a scanty stock of palms apAfricanus describes it as containing 700 temples pears, with a few esculent vegetables. Small and mosques, of which fifty were magnificent, patches of grain are sometimes raised with great and adorned with marble pillars. Such was the labor and care ; but the trouble of keeping the veneration in which it was held, that, when the soil moist causes the largest of these patches not road to Mecca was occasionally shut up, pil- to exceed an acre. The water is drawn by asses grimages were made to Fez. It was no less fa- from the weils, by very complicated machinery, mous as a school of learning. Its numerous and small channels are cut from the reservoirs to schools for philosophy, physic, and astronomy, the gardens. Nearly all the water of Fezzan is were resorted to from all the Mahommedan brackish. Wheat and barley are sown in Octokingdoms of Spain and Africa, and even at- ber and November, and reaped in March and tended by Christians. The population was also April, and until the last month the crops require occasionally replenished from the opposite shores watering twice a week. The principal vegetable of Europe, during the whole period of the products are—Indian corn, wheat, barley, beans. Moorish war with Spain. The remains of its in- and peas, with some small seeds. A species of stitutions still exist, but most that was valuable clover is sown in January and February, and will has long since vanished.

bear cutting repeatedly, as food for the horses The studies are confined to the Koran and ts and camels, till November. In such a country commentators, to a slight tincture of grammar few domestic animals of course can be kept. The and logic, and to clumsy astronomical observa- camel, best adapted to its wants, is therefore the tions, made solely with a view to regulate the time most numerous. Horses, asses, cows, sheep, and of their religious exercises. They have Euclid in goats are scarce, and only a very few dogs of the folio volumes, neither copied 'nor read. The greyhound species are seen. The wild animals teacher sits crosslegged on the ground, and repeats include the tiger-cat, the hyæna, fox, jackal, in a drawling tone, between singing and crying, buffalo, antelope, gerboa, rabbits, and hares. words which are echoed by the scholars seated Among the birds are the ostrich, eagle, vulture, round him. Their religious prejudices exclude hawk, wild turkey, and raven, with several them from the study of anatomy and medicine. smaller birds, besides domestic fowls, partridges, Ali Bey describes Fez as a singular mixture of pigeons, ducks, and geese. The chief mineral splendor and ruin. The magnificence usual in productions are similar to those of many other

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regions in this part of Africa, and may be taken contrived to get the government of the country as a specimen of the rest that are less known. into his own hands, by promising the bashaw to Soda, rock-salt, alum, gypsum, saltpetre, and triple the amount of the annual tribute. For this sulphur, are all said to exist. The first three purpose, in the year 1811, he came upon Mourare in sufficient quantities to form articles of zouk by surprise, caused the sultan, his brother,

There is said to be one plain of and the principal Mameluke, to be strangled, solid salt thirty miles in length. Mourzouk, the and by his oppressions of the people, but chiefly capital, is situated in the southern part, and by the wars which he waged, and still continues there are three or four more considerable to wage with his defenceless neighbours, for the towns, as Sockna, Zuela, and Gatrone, all of sake of procuring slaves, he has hitherto managed which, except Zuela, lie in the common route. to fulfil his promise, and retain his government. Mourzouk is a walled town, with about 2500 in- While, however, Messrs. Lyon and Ritchie were habitants. The walls consist of mud, and are at Mourzouk, reports were circulated that another strengthened by round towers with loop holes sultan was on his way from Tripoli to supersede for the musketry. See MOURZOUK.

him. Most of the people here are capable of per- • These reports, corroborated by one or two forming the business of carpenter and mason as private letters,' says captain Lyon,' very much far as domestic purposes require, and many work alarmed the sultan, and caused him to fall sick very well in leather. Others make substantial and take to his bed. He began, for the first but clumsy articles in iron, and some display time in his life, to pray at the regular hour tolerable skill in working gold and silver. Some ordered by the law; he ceased to swear, talked coarse hayks are also woven in the country. A much of Paradise, and the superiority of the considerable commerce in slaves, and other arti- other world to this. Mr. Ritchie was at this cles common to these countries, is carried on time very weak, and began again to be indisbetween Fezzan and the interior of the continent, posed, but he constantly visited Mukni, and at as well as with Egypt, Bornou, &c.

last succeeded in restoring him to health; thus The government of Fezzan is an absolute returning by kindness the ill treatment we had monarchy. All the boys are said to be taught to received from him. We both went frequently to read the Koran, but of every other book they are the castle, and learnt by degrees that some experfectly ignorant. Dates constitute almost the pressions of Mukni's had come to the ears of the only article of general subsistence. The Fez- bashaw, whose emissaries he expected would be zanners are represented as possessing little cou- sent to strangle him, and take all his wealth. rage, enterprise, or honesty, and are as com- Never was a haughty tyrant so completely pletely submissive as their oppressors could humbled by his fears as this man; he sat conwish. Their complexion is quite black, and the stantly in a dark room, would receive only one females the very reverse of handsome. Neither or two visitors, aud was nursed by degresses sex is noted for figure, strength, or activity. A day and night; always speaking in a low voice, peculiar cast of countenance distinguishes them and, in his terror, betraying all his secrets.'-p. from all other blacks, their cheek-bones being 164. He determined, however, to try what higher and more prominent; their faces fatter, bribes and promises would do; and with this and their noses less depressed. They have small view despatched his principal man of business to eyes, wide mouths, but good teeth. Their hair Tripoli with presents of civet, and other articles, is mostly woolly. The females arrive early at ten fine slave girls for the bashaw, and handpuberty, and have often the appearance of old some negresses for the bey, his son, for his browomen at sixteen. They are cheerful people, thers, and for the principal people about the fond of singing and dancing, and kind and court; making at the same time secret preparaobliging to each other. But their affections are tions for flight, such as getting all his horses cold and interested; they mapifest a general shod by night, and all his women employed in indifference to the common incidents of life; grinding corn. For some time, however, his and are particularly devoid of that sudden anger, agent succeeded in diverting the storm.' or determined revenge, which marks the Arab. • The females are here allowed more liberty

A tenth part at least of the population of than those of Tripoli, and are more kindly Mourzouk are slaves. Many of them, however, treated. The effect of the plurality of wives is were brought from their native countries so but too plainly seen, and their women, in conyoung, and are so mildly treated, that they are sequence, are not famed for chastity. Though so scarcely sensible of slavery. Very little dif- much better used than those of Barbary, their ference can be perceived between the household life is still a state of slavery. A man never venslaves and the freemen. They are often entrusted tures to speak of his women ; is reproached if he with their master's affairs, and, when any of the spends much time in their company; never eats family die, one of the slaves is generally liberated. with them, but is waited upon at his meals, and

The population scattered over this wild waste fanned by them while he sleeps; yet these poor is estimated by Mr. Horneman to amount beings, never having enjoyed the sweets of only to 70,000 or 75,000 souls, of which liberty or affection, are, in spite of their humiliaMourzouk, as we have seen, contains, accord- tion, comparatively happy. The authority of ing to Lyon, about 2,500. The government parents over children is very great, some fathers was hereditary in a black family of shreefs of the better class not allowing their sons to eat, for more than five centuries, but tributary to the or sit down in their presence, till they become bishaw of Tripoli. This tribute was collected men; the poorer orders, however, are less strict.' by Mukni, the present sultan of Fezzan, who Specimens of rock collected by captain Lyon,

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in various parts of his journey, have enabled barren and miserable country. In our general professor Buckland of Oxford, to determine the article on Africa, par. 254-256, will be found geological structure of Tripoli and Fezzan; all several interesting particulars of the people and of which may be referred to the three formations, manners, supplied by captain Lyon. 1. Basalt; 2. Tertiary limestone, of about the FIANONA, a borough and castle of Italy, in same age with the calcaire grossier of Paris ; 3. the province of Istria, and district of Albona, New red sandstone. The Soudah, or Black four miles from Albona, and one from the coast. Mountains, are of basaltic formation; their di- It has a good harbour, and a rivulet which turns. rection is east and west, and they extend proba- twenty-two mills. It is seated on the Gulf of bly across the continent, Horneman having Carnero, seventeen miles north of Pola, and crossed them nearly 200 miles to the south-east- nineteen east of Rovigno. Fard of Lyon, where they take the name of the FI'AT, n. s. [Lat. i.e. be it so.] Order; deBlack Harutsch. Some basalt also appears in the cree. Gharian Mountains; but this ridge, which runs I resolve all into the sole pleasure and fiat of our probably to the borders of Egypt, is composed Omnipotent Creator.

Bentley apparently of trap and calcareous rocks, the ter

What wealth in souls that soar, dive, range around, tiary limestone above-mentioned. The rocks Disdaining limit or from place or time, contain marine shells, particularly two species of And hear, at once, in thought extensive, hear cardium, in a state of delicate preservation. In- The’ Almighty fiul, and the trumpet's sound. deed most of the limestone formation, in every

Young. part of Northern Africa, appears to be loaded

FIB, n. s. & v. n. Probably contracted from with fragments of organic remains, the most dis- fable, or the Latin fabula. Á lie or falsehood : tinct of which, brought away by captain Lyon, to tell lies: one of the cant terms in common use, may be referred to the genera ostrea and pecton.

to make lying appear less odious. We are informed by Horneman, that the ruins If you have any mark, wbereby one may know when of the temple of Siwah are limestone, containing you fib, and when you speak truth, you had best tell petrifactions of shells and small marine aniinals; it me.

Arbuthnot. and from this place, westerly, the face of the

Destroy his fib or sophistry; in vain, rocky chain, rising abruptly from the sandy

The creature's at his dirty work again. Pope. desert, was so crowded and filled with marine

I so often lie,

Scarce Harvey's self has told more fibs than 1.7 animals, and shells, and white detached mounds,

Id. as it were, wholly composed of shells, that when taken in connexion with the sea-sand, which

FIBRARIÆ, a class of fossils, naturally and covers the desert, this vast tract of country, he essentially simple, not inflammable nor soluble concludes, must have been flooded at a period in water: and composed of parallel fibres, some later than the great deluge. Farther south, and shorter, others longer; their external appearclose to the Black Harutsch, the calcareous hills, ance being bright, and in some degree transpanising steep from the level desert, are so friable, rent. They never give fire with steel, nor ferthat petrified conchs, snail-shells, fish, and other ment with or are soluble in acid menstrua. marine substances, may be taken out by the FIBRE,n.s. 2. Fr. fibre ; Lat. fibra. A small band. "I found heads of fish', says Horneman,

FI'BRIL, thread or string : the first conthat would be a full burthen for one man to


Sstituent part of bodies: fibril is carry.' The third and last formation appears

a diminutive of fibre. under its usual form of loose red sand, accom- The difference between bodies fibruus and bodies panied by rock salt and gypsum, associated with viscous is plain ; for all wool and tow, and cotton and beds of a calcareous breccia, cemented by mag- silk, have a greediness of moisture.

Bacon. nesian limestone, and of compact dolomite. The My heart sinks in me while I hear him speak, drift-sand is composed of extremely minute And every slackened fibre drops its hold, grains of red semi-transparent quartz. Mr. Buck- Like nature letting down the springs of life : land observes, that the frequent occurrence of The name of father awes me still. Dryden. salt-springs and of rock salt and gypsum goes

I saw Petreus' arms employed around far to identify this sand of the deserts with the A well-grown oak, to root it from the ground; new red sandstone in the south of England. In This way and that he wrenched the fibrous bands,

Id. this also are ferruginous corcretions, forming the trunk was like a sapling

in his hands. Etites or geodes; the broken fragments of which

The fibrous and solid parts of plants pass unaltered

Arbuthnot on Aliments. are compact, sonorous, and of a dark liver color,

through the intestines. having a shining polished surface; they are

A fibre, in physick, is an animal thread, of which abundantly found among the sand. A narrow

some are soft, flexible, and a little elastick ; and these bed entirely composed of tubular concretions of full of little cells, as the nervous and Reshy fibres :

are either hollow, like small pipes, or spongious and ion, of similar origin near the pass of Kenair, others are more solid, flexible, and with a strong elasthrew out irregular ramifications through the ticity of spring, as the membraneous and cartilaginous rand like the roots of trees, and presented at fibres : and a third sort are hard and Alexible, as the first sight the resemblance of lava. Most of the fibres of the bones. Some so very small as not to be plains are strewed with magnesian limestone

or easily perceived; and others so big as to be plainly which break and rattle under the feet like pottery still smaller fibres : these fibres first constitute the subMany other varieties of magnesian limestone and

stance of the bones, cartilages, ligaments, membranes, carbonates of lime are associated with the sand nerves, veins, arteries, and muscles. Quincy. and sandstone of the hills and plains of this

The muscles consist of a number of fibres, and each


Vol. IX.

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fibre of an incredible number of little fibrils bound to- Latin, printed in 4to. 1536. The Lives of cegether, and divided into little cells.

lebrated Lawyers, 1565, 4to. A work entitled, Cheyne's Philosophical Principles. Onomasticon Philosophico-Medico Synonymum, Now sliding streams the thirsty plants renew, 1574. De Cautelis, 1577. And Concilium MaAnd feed their fibres with reviving dew.


trimoniale, 1580. He died in 1581. Inveterate habits choke the' unfruitful heart,

FICHET (Alexander), a Jesuit and able Their fibres penetrate its tenderest part,

writer on rhetoric, was born about 1589. He And, draining its nutricious powers to feed

became professor of the classics and rhetoric in Their noxious growth, starve every better seed.


the college at Lyons, where he published an The age-worn fibres goaded to contract,

edition of the Latin poets, under the title of By repetition palsied, cease to act. Darwin.

Chorus Poetarum, 1616. He also published a New embryon fibrils round the trunk combine collection called Musæum, Rhetoricum et PoetiWith quick embrace, and form the living line. cum; and a work with the title of Arcana Stu

When strong desires or soft sensations move diorum omnium methodus, et Bibliotheca ScienThe astonished Intellect to rage or love;

tiarum, 8vo. He also printed Favus Patrum, Associate tribes of fibrous motions rise,

or Thoughts of the Fathers, 12mo. Flush the red cheek, or light the laughing eyes. FICHTE (John Theophilus), a modern Ger

Id. If in a church one feels the floor and the pew trem. facturer, was born at Rammenau, a village of

man metaphysician, the son of a riband manuble to certain tones of the organ; if one string vibrates of its own accord when another is sounded

Dear it of Lusatia, on the 19th of May, 1762. Young equal length, tension, and thickness ; if a person who Fichte displayed at school considerable genius

, sneezes, or speaks loud, in the neighbourhood of a

and was patronised by some respectable persons; harpsichord, often hears the strings of the instrument but becoming impatient of restraint he abmurmur in the same tone, we need not wonder, that sconded, and was found sitting on the banks of some of the finer fibres of the human frame should be the Saale, with a map, on which he was endeaput in a tremulous motion, when they happen to be in vouring to trace the way to America. He after unison with any notes proceeding from external ob- this prosecuted his studies in a very desultory jects.


manner; occasionally attending the lectures of FIBRE, in anatomy, is defined to be a per- various professors of Wirtemberg and Leipsic. fectly simple body, being fine and slender like a Theology, however, was his favorite study. Posthread, and serving to form other parts. Some sessing no fortune to enable him to indulge in are hard, as the bony fibres; others soft, as those the luxury of mere speculation, he was compelwhich form all the other parts. The fibres are led by his circumstances to accept the situation divided, according to their situation, into straight, of tutor in the family of a Prussian gentleman. oblique, transverse, annular, and spiral; being lere he was enabled to cultivate the acquaintfound arranged in all these directions in different ance of the celebrated Kant, to whose judgment parts of the body. See ANATOMY.

he submitted his first work, the Critical Review FI'BULA, n. s. Lat. The outer and less of all Revelations, which was published, anonybone of the leg, much smaller than the tibia: it mously, in 1792, and which was for a time aslies on the outside of the leg; and its upper end, cribed to the pen of that philosopher. Fichte which is not so high as the knee, receives thé now set out on a course of travels through Gerlateral knob of the upper end of the tibia into a many and Switzerland, and married at Zurich small sinus, which it has in its inner side. Its a niece of Klopstock's

. In 1793 he published lower end is received into the small sinus of the the first part of his very popular work, Contritibia, and then it extends into a large process, butions towards rectifying the Opinions of the which forms the outer ankle.—Quincy.

Public respecting the French Revolution. His Fibula, in antiquity, was a sort of button, reputation was now so well established, that he buckle, or clasp, used by the Greeks and Ro- was soon after appointed to the philosophical mans for keeping close or tying up some part of chair at Jena, and commenced his lectures by their cloaths. They were of various forms, and a programme, in which he endeavoured to give an often adorned with precious stones. Men and idea of the doctrine of science (wissenschaftswomen wore them in their hair and at their shoes. lehre), the name by which he distinguished the Fibulæ are often found in the tombs of the principles of his philosophical system. Besides ancient Romans, Gauls, Franks, and the ancient the ordinary duties of his professorship, he gave Britons. Many antique fibulæ of bronze are to a regular course of lectures, in the form of serbe found in various cabinets and collections of mons, every Sunday, in the year 1794, on the antiquities, and a few in the British Museum, literary calling, which were numerously attended. among other articles of the toilet or of personal He now endeavoured to extend the application of decoration.

his principles to the several departments of phiFibula, in surgery, an instrument used among losophy; and with this view published, in the ancients for closing wounds. Celsus speaks 1796, his Fundamental Principles of the Law of of the fibula as to be used when the wound was Nature; and two years afterwards, his System of so patent as not easily to admit of being sewed. Morals. In conjunction with Niethammar, he

FICHARD (John), was born at Frankfort-on- also published a Philosophical Journal, in which the-Maine in 1512, and devoting himself to the several articles were inserted, containing some study of jurisprudence became syndic of Frank- views of religion which were considered athefort. He wrote, The Lives of illustrious Men, istical. Among other objectionable propositions, distinguished for their Talents and Erudition it was maintained that God was nothing else during the fifteenth aud sixteenth Centuries, in than the moral order of the universe; and that


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