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it is exceedingly obnoxious to the worm, but were regular, and the houses built of brick ; but
being put ten days in water, it will resist the it was destroyed during the late wars, and is
worm." The natural soil of the beech is upon now but slowly regaining its importance.
dry, chalky, or limestone heights. It grows to
a great size upon the hills of Surry and Kent;

FAIL, v. n., v. a. & n. s. 2. Fr. faillir ; Teut.
Fail'ing, n. s.

fehlen; Wel.fueln; upon the declivities of the Cotswold and Stroud


Belg. faalen, from water hills of Gloucestershire, and upon the bleak Goth. fela; Lat. fallo; Gr onlów, to deceive. To banks of the Wye, in Hereford and Monmouth be lacking or deficient;

cease; sink ; be borne sbires; where it is much used in making char- down; decay; miss; not succeed; die. As an coal. The mast, or seeds, yield a good oil for active verb, to desert; forsake; omit duty; dislamps; and are a very agreeable food to squire appoint; deceive. As a substantive it signifies, rels, mice, and swine. The fat of swine fed with miscarriage; non-success; omission; want : and them, however, is soft, and boils away, unless failing and failure are used in these last senses. hardened by some other food. The leaves gathered in autumn, before they are injured by the

And he suide to hem, whanne I sente you without frosts, make much better matrasses tban straw or

sachel and scrippe and schoon, wher ony thing failide chaff; and last for seven or eight years. The

to you?

Wiclif. Luk. xxii.

He will without fail drive out from before you nuts occasion giddiness and head-ache; but when Canaanites.

Jos. iii. 10. well dried and powdered, they make wholesome The waters fail from the sea, and the flood decayeth bread. They are sometimes roasted and substi- and drieth up.

Job xiv. ll. tuted for coffee. The poor in Silesia use the ex Help, Lord, for the godly man ceaseth ; for the pressed oil instead of butter. “The purple beech,' faithful fail from among the children of men. says Mr. Nicholls, 'is a fine ornamental variety,

Psalm xii. 1. and even promises to become fit for the decora Let him complayne who hathe been deceyved ; let tion of the park, although it has hitherto been him despayre to whom his promised hopes bave fayled; clutfiy confined to the pleasure-ground. A tree let him confesse it whom I shall ever call; let him of the purple variety in the gardens of Messrs. Tel. cruell or an homicide, whom I never promised, de

But let him not call me fords, within the walls of the city of York, and

ceyved, called, or admitted.

Spelman. another in the pleasure-ground at Enville, have assumed such tree-like forms, each being fully

But little may such guile thee now avail,

If wonted force and fortune do not much me fail. thirty feet high, that such an expectation may

Spenser. reasonably be entertained ; and the more espe

I am enjoined, by oath, if I fail, cially, as we know of several even in Scotland

Of the right casket, never in my

life from twenty to thirty feet high. It must, how To woo a maid in way of marriage. ever, be observed, that the purple beech plants

Shakspeare. most proper for the park or the lawn, or indeed Had the king in his last sickness failed, for any situation where it is required that they Their heads should have gone off. Id. Henry VIII. grow to a great size, are such as are grafted or How grounded he his title to the crown, budded on the common sort. Those raised by Upon our fail.

Id. layers grow more dwarf; and therefore should Mark and perform it, seest thou? for the fail be planted in situations where dwarf trees, or Of any point in't shall not only be bushes, are required.

Death to thyself, but to thy lewd-tongued wife. FAHLUN, a mining town of Sweden, the

Shakspeare. capital of the province of Dalecarlia. Some

Consider of deformity not as a sign, which is detimes the whole province is called by the name

ceivable, but as a cause which seldom faileth of the effect.

Bacon. of Fahlun. It stands in a small plain, is sur

Since nature fails us in no needful thing, rounded by hills, and consists of several parallel

Why want I means my inward self to see? streets, crossing others at right angles. It is

Davies. chiefly built of wood, and the population has di Besides what failings may be in a matter, even in minished from above 7000 to a little above 4000, the expressions there must often be great obscurities. the copper mines of the vicinity having become

Digby. less productive. They still yield an annual

By fate the strength of Gods supply of ochre and vitriol, together with small And this empyreal substance cannot fail. Milton. portions of silver and gold. It is 110 miles

perceive N.N. W. of Stockholm.

Thy mortal sight to fail ; objects divine FAHRENHEIT, a celebrated experimental

Must needs impair and weary human sense.

Id. philosopher, born at Hamburgh in 1686. He I laugh, when those who at the spear are bold improved the thermometer, hy making use of And vent’rcus, if that fail them, shrink and fear.

Id. mercury instead of spirit of wine, and formed a new scale for the instrument, grounded upon the

Wherefore should not strength and might most accurate experiments. This scale has been

There fail where virtue fails, or weakest prove generally adopted by the English, but the French

Where boldest, though to fight unconquerable ? prefer that of Reaumur. Fahrenheit wrote a

Whether such virtue spent of old now fail dissertation on thermometers. He died in 1736.

More angels to create.


The ship was now left alone, as proud lords be FAIFO, or Hairo, an old town of Cochin when fortune fails them.

Sidney China, situated on a navigable river falling into All other arts may fail, but truth and integrity will the bay of Turon, about ten miles from the sea. carry a man through, and bear him out to the last. It was formerly of considerable size, the streets



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'The inventive god who never fails his part, and the adverbial use has followed these signifiInspires the wit when once he warms the heart. cations.

Dryden. My lips will be fain when I sing unto thee, and so This jest was first of the other house's making, will my soul whom thou hast delivered. And, five times tried, has never failed of taking.

Psalm lxxi. Id. Alas alas howe dull and deffe be the cares of cruel Her heart failed her, and she would fain have com death vnto men in misery that would fayne dye : and pounded for her life.

L'Estrange. yet refusythe to come and shutte vp the ye carefull In difficulties of state, the true reason of failing wepyng eyes.

Colvile. proceeds from failings in the administration. Id.

With hym truly, Where the credit and money fail, barter alone

Fayne 'speake would I, must do.


Sir quod she by my fay, He presumes upon his parts that they will not fail

He is so sike, him at time of need, and so thinks it superfluous la

Ye be not lyke, bour to make any provision before-hand. Id.

To speake with hym to day.

Sir T. More. He, that being subject to an apoplexy, used still to

And in her hand she held a mirrour bright, carry his remedy about him; but upon a time shifting

Wherein her face she often viewed fain. his clothes, and not taking that with him, chanced

Faerie Queene. upon that very day to be surprised with a fit; he owed his death to a mere accident, to a little inadvertency

Every weight to shroud it did constrain, and failure of memory.


And this fair couple eke to shroud themselves were fain.

Spenser. Por Titan, by the mighty loss dismayed,

Fairer than fairest, in his faining eye,
Among the heavens the immortal fact displayed,

Whose sole aspect he counts felicity.
Lest the remembrance of his grief should fail.

Id. on Love.

Whosoever will hear, he shall find God; whosoever Men who have been busied in the pursuit of the

will study to know, shall be also fuin to believe. philosopher's stone, have failed in their design. Id.

Hooker. There must have been an universal failure and want of springs and rivers all the summer season.

I was fain to forswear it; they would else bave Woodward.

married me to the rotten medlar. Shakspeare.

When Hildebrand had accursed Henry IV. there Endeavour to fulfil God's commands, to repent as

were none so hardy as to defend their lord; whereoften as you fail of it, and to hope for pardon of him.


fore he was fain to humble himself before Hildebrand. Even good men have many temptations to subdue,

Raleigh's Essays. many conficts with those enemies which war against emulation, than this principality of Israel ; 2 people

There cannot be conceived an honour less worth the soul, and many failings and lapses to lament and


that could give nothing ;-a people whom their leader He does not remember whether every grain came

was fain to feed with bread and water.

Bp. Hall's Contemplations. 'up or not; but he thinks that very few failed.

Mortimer's Husbandry.

The learned Castalio was fain to make trenchers at

Baste, to keep himself from starving. Locke. To failings mild, but zealous for desert; The clearest head and the sincerest heart. Pope.

Why wouldest thou urge me to confess a fiame

I long have stifled, and would fain conceal. He (the clerk) used a sort of ivory knife with a

Addison. blunt edge to divide a sheet of paper, which never

The plebeians would fain have a law enacted to lay failed to cut it even, only requiring a steady hand.

all men's rights and privileges upon the same level. Swift.

Swift. Books, like friends, should be few and well chosen.

Teach me—too early taught by thee! Like friends, too, we should return to them again and

To bear, forgiving and forgiven : again-for, like true friends, they will never fail us

On earth thy love was such to me; never cease to instruct--never cloy.

It fain would form my hope in Heaven.
Joineriana, 1772.

Byron. It is more disgraceful never to try to speak (in pub

FAINT, v.n., v. a. & adj. From Fr. faner, lic) than to try it, and fail ; as it is more disgraceful,


to fade, says Dr. not to fight, than to fight and be beaten. Johnson. Canst thou be too well fortified against the terrors

FAINIHEART'EDLY, adv. Johnson; but Mr. of that day? And art thou sure that the props which


Horne Tooke says support thee now will not fail thee then ?


it is the past parti

Faint'ish, adj. Timidity and irresolution were his predominant

ciple of the Saxon

FAINT'ISHNESS, n. S. failings; the one occasioned by his natural constitu

fynigean, to grow tion, and the other arising from a consciousness that


musty; to spoil. his abilities were not equal to his station.

FAINT'LY, adv.

To decay; waste Robertson's History of Scotland, Farnt'NESS, n. s.

or wear away; lose They never fail who die FAINT'y, udj.

vigor, or muscular In a great cause : the block may soak their gore; strength; grow feeble or dejected. Shakspeare Their heads may sodden in the sun ; their limbs

only (as we find) uses it in an active sense for to Be strung to city gates, and castle walls

enfeeble: faint, as an adjective, means weak in But still their spirit walks abroad.


any sense, and is applied to light, color, sound, FAIN, v. n., adv. & adj. ? Sax.

fægn; Goth. objects of taste, &c. : faintly follows this variety. FAINLY, adv.

faginon, or fagn; of acceptation : faintish is slightly, or beginning Swed. fagna; Icel. feigin, to be glad. To de- to grow, faint : fainty is an obsolete and poetical sire; wish. As an adjective, the old sense is synonyme of faint : faintling, timorous ; feeblefond; glad; desirous; afterwards it was used minded. The other compounds seem not to refor desirous of one evil in preference to a greater : quire explanation.


fibres ;

They will stand in their order, and never faint in The fainty knights were scorched, and knew not where their watches.

Eccles. xliii. 10. To run for shelter; for no shade was near. Id. Fear not, neither be fainthearted. Isaiah vii. 4.

Villain, stand off! base, groveling, worthless Consider bim that endured such contradiction

wretches, against bimself, lest ye be wearied and faint in your Mongrels in faction ; poor fainthearted traitors. minds. Heb. xii. 3.

Addison. – Sooth it is said, and tried in each degree,

How while the fainting Dutch remotely fire, Poist friends when they fall out, most cruel foe-men And the famed Eugene's iron troops retire. be. Spenser.

Smith. This evil proceeds rather of the unsoundness of the The blue compared with these is a faint and dark counsels, or of faintness in following and effecting the colour, and the indigo and violet are much darker same, than of any such fatal course appointed of God. and fainter.

Newton. Spenser. The length of the image measured from the * If the prince of the lights of heaven, which now as faintest and utmost red at one end, to the faintest and a giant doth run his unwearied courses, should through utmost blue at the other end, excepting only a little a languishing faintness begin to stand. Hooker. penumbra.

Id. Opticks. Loth was the ape, though praised, to adventure ; A certain degree of heat lengthens and relaxes the Yet faintly 'gan into his work to enter.

whence proceeds the sensation of faintishness Hubbard's Tale. and debility in a hot day.

Arbuthnot on Air. Should they resolve the next day, as victorious

There's no having patience, thou art such a faintling conquerors, to take the city, or else there, as faint- silly creature. Arbuthnot. History of John Bull. hearted covards, to end their days.


These faintings her physicians suspect to proceed The paleness of this flower

from contusions.

Wiseman's Surgery. Bewrayed the faintness of my master's heart.

Words pronounced at length, sounded fuint and Shakspeare. languid.

It faints me

From ber naked limbs of glowing white,
To think what follows.

In folds loose foating fell the fainter lawn.
Id. Henry VIII.

Thomson. I have told you what I have seen and heard but

An obscure and confused idea represents the object faintly; Dething like the image and borrour of it.

Id. King Lear.
80 faintly, that it doth not appear plain to the mind.

Watts The imagination cannot be always alike constant

The showery arch and strong, and if the success follow not speedily it

Delights and puzzles the beholder's eyes, will faint and lose strength. Bacon's Natural History.

That views the wat’ry brede with thousand shews Paint heart never won fair lady.

Of painture varied ; yet unskilled to tell

Or where one colour rises, or where one faints.
Proverb, in Camden's Remains.

Philips. The defects which hindered the conquest, were the

Gilded clouds, while we gaze upon them, faint befaini prosecution of the war, and the looseness of the civil government

Pope. Davies on Ireland.

fore the eye, and decay into confusion.

Nature affords at least a glimmering light; Why are we faint in spiritual things, when we are not denied, but delayed ?

The lines, tho' touched but faintly, are drawn right.

Bp. Hall's Contemplations.
Lest they fuins
Upon hearing the honour intended her, she fainted

At the sad sentence rigorously urged,

away, and fell down as dead. All terror hide.


Two neighbouring shepherds, faint with thirst, stood Now the late fainthearted rout

at the common boundary of their grounds. O'erthrown and scattered round about,


Faint o'er her couch in scintillating streams
Chaced by the horrour of their fear,

Pass the thin forms of fancy and of dreams.
From bloody fray of knight and bear,

Took heart again and faced about,

Lifts proud Anteus from his mother-plains
As if they meant to stand it out. Hudibras,

And with strong grasp the struggling giant strains ; He faintly now declines the fatal strife ;

Back falls his fainting head, and clammy hair, So much his love was dearer than his life.

Writhe his weak limbs, and fits his life in air. Id.

Denhum. In intemperate climates, the spirits, exbaled by heat

His brow was pale, his blue eyes sunken in, or comprest by cold, are rendered faint and sluggish. And blood-drops sprinkled o'er his yellow hair


Showed that his faintness came not from despair, This proceeded not from any violence of pain, but

But nature's ebb.

Byror. from a general languishing and fuintness of spirits, FAIR, adj., adv. & Sax.çæger; Gothic, which made him think nothing worth the trouble of Fair'ly, adv. [n. s. faigr or fager ; Sw.fo one careful thought.

Id. FAIR'NESS, n. s.

ger, Dan. faur, formert: The pump after this being employed from time to FAIR-SPOKEN, adj. from the old verb fey, ta time, the sound grew fainter and fainter. Boyle. cleanse, or Swedo-Goth. and Icel. fagia ; Teut

Our faint Egyptians pray for Antony; fegen, to purify. Minsheu says, from Gr. paepo But in their servile hearts they own Octavius.

shining; Heb. 1XD, pheer, beauty. This adjec

Dryden. When Jove in dusky clouds involves the skies,

tive has, throughout its various applications, the And the faint crescent shoots by fits before their eyes. its adverbial use, it preserves the same idea. As

sense of clear or bright, literal or figurative. In

Id, With his lolled tongue he faintly licks his prey,

a substantive, it is principally used for women, His warm breath blows her fix up as she lies.

Id, collectively or individually ; for honesty in The ladies gasped, and scarcely could respire;

transactions; and the quality of fairness in things The breath they drew, no longer air, but fire :

or persons. VOL. IX.



Thou art a fair woman to look upon. Gen. xii. 11.

For to reduce her by main force Feir weather cometh out of the north.


Is now in vain ; by fair means, worse. Take fire, and bere it into the derkest hous

Hudibras. Betwix this and the Mount of Caucasus,

Greedily they pluck
And let men shette the dores, and go thenne, The fruitage fair to sight, like that wbich grew
Yet wol the fire as faire lie and brenne

Near that bituininvus lake where Sodom flamed,
As twenty thousand men might it behold.

This more delusive, not the touch, but taste
Chaucer. Cant. T'ales. Deceived.

Milton. Ey flattering fortune, loke thou neuer so fayre,

His doom is fair, Or peuer so pleasantly begin to smile,

That dust I ain, and shall to dust return. As though thou wouldst my ruine all repayre,

Id. During my life thou shalt got me beguile.

Not only do'st degrade them, or remit

Sir T. More. To life obscured, which were a fair dismission ; He only fair, and what he fair hath made, But tbrow'st them lower than thou didst exalt them All other fair like flowers untimely fade. Spenser.


Id. Agonistes. All the lords came in, and, being by fair means Let us look upon men in several climates : the wrought thereunto, acknowledged king Henry. Ethiopians or black, flat-nosed, and crisp-haired : the

Id. On Ireland. Moors tawny; the northern people large, and fuir All this they fairly overcame, by reason of the con- complexioned.

Hale. tinual presence of their king,

Id. That which made her fairness much the fairer was Arius, a priest in the church of Alexandria, a sub that it was but an ambassador of a most fait mind. tle-witted and a marvellous fairspoken man, but dis

Sidney: contented that we should be placed before him in ho After all these conquests he passed the rest of his nour, whose superior he thought bimself in desert; age in his own native country, and died a fair and because through envy and stomach prune unto contra natural death.

Temple. diction,

Hooker. For still, methought, she sung not far away:
Fair is foul, and foul is fair ;

At last I found her on a laurel-spray :
Hover through the fog and filthy air.

Close by my side she sat, and fair in sight,

Shakspeare. Full in a line, against her opposite. Dryden.
I never yet saw a man,

In this plain fable you the effect may see
But she would spell him backward ; if fair faced,

Of negligence, and fund credulity; She'd swear the gentleman should be her sister :

And learn besides of flatterers to beware, If black, why, nature, drawing of an antick,

Then most pernicious when they speak too fair.
Made a foul blot. Id. Much Ado about Nothing.

Yourself, renowned prince, stood as fair

As I interpret fairly your design,
As any comer I have looked on yet,

So look not with severer eyes on mine. Id. Por my affection. Id. Merchant of Venice.

'Waiting 'till willing winds their sails supplied, Well, you must now speak sír John Falstaff fair.

Within a trading town they long abide,
Full fairly situate on a haven's side.'

1d. 0, princely Buckingham, I'll kiss thy hand,

Of sleep forsaken, to relieve his care, In sign of league and amity with thee :

He sought the conversation of the fair. Now fair befall thee and thy noble house !

Id. Fables. Thy garments are not spotted with our blood. Id.

When fair words and good counsel will not preHereby, upon the edge of yonder coppice,

vail upon us, we must be frighted into our duty. A stand wbere you may make the fairest shoot.


He that attacks received opinions, with any thing Our love is not so great, Hortensio, but we may

but fair arguments, may, I own, be justly suspected blow our nails together, and fast it fairly oul.

not to mean well, nor to be led by the love of truth; Id. Taming of the Shrew.

but the same may be said of him too who so defends Carry him gently to my fairest chamber,


Loche. And hang it round with all my wanton pictures.

He who fair and softly goes steadily forward, in a Shukspeure.

course that points right, will sooner be at his journey's But if greatness be so blind,

end, than he that runs after every one, though he
As to trust in towers of air,

Let it be with goodness joyned,

Gentlemen who do not design to marry, yet pay
That at least the fall be fair. Bacon. .

their devoirs to one particular fair. Spectator. A standard of a damask-rose, with the root on, was

This promised fuit at first. set in a chamber where no fire was, upright in an

Addison on Italy
full of fair water, half a foot under the

In vain you tell your parting lover,

You wish fair winds may waft him over.
There is due from the judge to the advocate some

Prior. commendation and gracing where causes are fairly

To the first advantages we may fairly lay claira; pleaded.


I wish we had as good a title to the latter. He through his virtue was as free from greediness,

Atterbury as through his fair livelihood, far from neediness.


I am not much for that present; we'll settle it be. Careth the world, thou love, thou live, or die ?

tween ourselves; fair and square, Nic, keeps friends together,

Arbutlinot. Careth the world how faire thy faire one bee?

Bp. Hall's Satires.

This nutritious juice, being a subtile liquor, scarce About three of the clock in the afternoon the wea

obtainable by a buman body, the serum of the blood ther was very fair and very warm. Clarendon. is fairly substituted in its place. Id, on Aliments. The king did so much desire a peace, that no man

I looked for the jugular veins, opened the fuitest, need advise him to it, or could divert him from it, if

and took away a dozen ounces of blood, Wiseman. fuir and honourable conditions of peace were offered Virtuous and vicious every man must be, o him.

Id. Few in the extreme, but all in the degree;

earthen pan,


The rogue and fool by fts is fair and wise, crease their own revenues by the tolls which And even the best, by fits what they despise. their charters authorised them to levy at these

Pope. fairs. Hence the multitude of attendants inThe stage how loosely does Astrea tread, creased, some of whom were actuated by reWho fairly puts all characters to bed! freedom of a nation consists in an absolute unlimited dral or monastery, it was not uncommon to It is a church of England man's opinion, that the ligious, and others by commercial views. When

a fair was held within the precincts of a cathelexislative power, wherein the whole body of the oblige every man to take an oath at the gate, propie are fairly represented in an executive duly before he was admitted, that he would neither limited.

There are other nice, though inferior cases, in lie, nor steal, nor cheat, while he continued at which a man must guard, if he intends to keep fair the fair. The duration of fairs is determined with the world, and turn the penny.

by proclamation, by stat. 2 Ed. III. c. 15; and Collier on Popularity. if a person shall sell any goods after the time of Nature's circle, like a chariot wheel the fair expires, he shall incur a forfeiture of Rolling beneath their elevated aims,

double the value of the goods sold, one-fourth Makes their fair prospect fairer every hour, to the prosecutor, and the rest to the king. Any Advanring virtue in a line to bliss. Young. citizen of London may carry bis goods to any For as by depredations wasps proclaim

fair or market in England at his pleasure. If The fairest fruit, so these the fairest fame. Id.

any person is entitled to hold a fair or market, Bebold, my fair, where'er we rove,

and another is set up within the distance of a What dreary prospects round us rise.

third part of twenty miles, either on the same Johnson. Winter's Walk. Not slothful he, though seeming unemployed,

day, or a different day, it is a nuisance, and an

action on the case lies; and also against persons And censured oft as useless. Stillest streams Oft water fairest meadows, and the bird,

disturbing such as are coming to buy or sell in the That fiutters least, is longest on the wing.

fair or market, so that the person holding the

Coroper. fair, &c., loses his toll, or receives prejudice So, robed by beauty's queen, with softer charms in the profits arising from it. There is a toll Saturnia wooed the thunderer to her arms;

usually paid in fairs on the sale of things, and O'er her fair limbs a veil of light she spread, for stallage, piccage, &c. Fairs abroad are And bound a starry diadem on her head. Darwin,

either free, or charged with toll and impost. The When blest with the smiles of my fair,

privileges of free fairs consist chiefly, first, in I know got bow much I adore;

that all traders, &c., whether natives or foreigners, Those smiles let another but share, And I wonder I prized them no more! Byron.

are allowed to enter the kingdom, and are under

the royal protection, exempt from duties, impoFair, a.s. ? Fr. foire; Ital. fieru ; Port. sitions, tolls, &c. Secondly, that merchants, in Faie'iso. faira ; Span. feria : Teut. feyer; going or returning, cannot be molested or arWelsh ffair ; Swed. fira; either from Lat. ferie, rested, or their goods stopped. They are esfeast days, or forum, the market place; Gr. poplov, tablished by letters patent from the prince. merchandise.–Minsheu. A stated market : ą Fairs, particularly free fairs, are of great importmeeting-day, or meeting-place, for buyers and

ance in the commerce of Europe, especially in sellers: a fairing is a present brought from, or that of the Mediterranean, and" inland parts of given at, a fair.

Germany, &c. With silver, iron, tin and lead, they traded in thy The principal fairs in Europe are-1. Two fairs.

Ezek. in Frankfurt; the first commeneing the Sunday Sweetheart, we shall be rich ere we depart,

before Palm Sunday, and the second on the If fairings come thus plentifully in. Shakspeare.. Sunday before the 8th of September. Each lasts

Like children that esteem every trife, and prefer a three weeks; the first called the week of accepfairing before their fathers.

Ben Jonson. His corn, his cattle, were his only care,

tance, the second the week of payment. They And his supreme delight a country fair. Dryden.

are famous for the sale of all kinds of commodiThe ancient Nundina, or fairs of Rome, were kept of books, no where else to be found, whence the

ties; but particularly for the immense quantity every ninth day : afterwards the same privileges vere granted to the country markets, which were at booksellers throughout all Europe used to furnish Erst ander the power of the consuls.

themselves. Before each fair there is a catalogue

Arbuthnot on Coins. of all the books to be sold, printed and dispersed. Now he goes on, and sings of fajes and shows; to call together. purchasers; though the learned For still new fairs before his eyes arose :

have long complained of unfair practices herein ; Hoe jedlars stalls with glittering toys are laid, as fictitious titles, names of books purely imagi. The various fairings of the country maid.

nary, &c., besides great blunders in the names of Gay's Pastorals.

the authors, and the titles of the real books. Fares are generally kept once or twice in the 2. The fairs of Leipsic, which are held thrice year, and in most places on the same day with a-year; one beginning on the 1st of January, the festival of some patron saint to whom the the second three weeks after Easter; and the church was dedicated. This may in some mea third after Michaelmas, 3. The four fairs of şure serve to show us their origin. When Novi, in the Milanese, commencing on the 2d of bishops and abbots observed that crowds of February, the 2d of May, the 1st of August, people assembled to celebrate the festivals of their and 2d of September. Though the commodities patron saints, they applied to the crown for char- bought and sold are very considerable, yet what ters to hold fairs at those times, for the accom- chiefly contributes to render them famous is, the modation of strangers, and with a view to in- vast concourse of the most considerable nier

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