Зображення сторінки

If Moses had received a command, that rod which mate is salubrious, and the soil a rich black lgam fetched water from the rock, could as well have fetched with some sand, producing barley, cats, and the blood of the Amalekites out of their bodies. kitchen roots. There is a considerable quantity

Bp. Hall's Contemplations.
So have we seen a hawk, cast off at a hernshaw, there are also some veins of copper.

of bog iron ore of a good quality in this island; to look and fly a quite other way; and, after many

FETÖLOCK, n. s. Feet and lock. A tuft of careless and overly fetches, to tour up unto the prey

hair that grows behind the pastern joint of many intended.

Bp. Hall.

horses. General terms may sufficiently convey to the people

Their wounded steeds what our intentions are, and yet not fetch us within the compass of the ordinance,

Sanderson. Fret fetlock deep in gore, and with wild rage

Yerk out their armed heels at their dead masters. These ways, if there were any secret excellence

Shakspeare. Henry V. among them, would fetch it out, and give it fair op

White were the fetlocks of his feet before, portunities to advance itself by.


And on bis front a snowy star he bore. Dryden. If earth, industrious of herself, fetch day

Stamping like Bucephall, whose slackened raynes, Travelling East; and with her part averse

And bloody fet-locks fry with seven men's braides. From the sun's beam, meet night ; her other part

Bp. Hall's Satires. Still luminous by his ray. Id. Paradise Lost.

FETOR, n. s. Lat. fætor.

A stench; a When evening grey doth rise, I fetch my round

strong and offensive smels. Over the mount.

But Sidrophel, as full of tricks

The fetor may discover itself by sweat and humour.

As rota men of politicks,
Straight cast atout to over-reach

When the symptoms are attended with a fetor of
The' unwary conqueror with a fetch.

any kind, such a disease will be cured by acescent Hudibras.

substances, and none better than whey. Arbuthnot. The seat of empire where the Irish come, FETTER, n. s., and commonly used in the And the unwilling Scotch, to fetch their doom. plural, fetters, from feet; Sax. fettere. Chains

Waller. for the feet; chains by which walking is huWith this fetch he laughs at the trick he hath dered; to bind with such chains; to shackle. played me.


Doctrine unto fuols is as fetters on the feet ; and The hare laid himself down, and took a nap; for,

like manacles on the right hand. Eccles, xxi. 19. says he, I can fetch up the tortoise when I please.

Fetter strong madness in a silken thread;

Charm ach with air, and agony with words.
The fox had a fetch in't.

Shakspeare. The fox fetched a hundred and a hundred leaps at

Drawing after me the chains and fetters whereunto a delicious cluster of grapes.


I bave been tied, I have by other men's errours failed. During such a state, silver in the coin will never

Raleigh. fetch'as much as the silver in bullion. Locke.

Doth a master chide his servant because he doth They have no sooner fetched themselves up to the not come, yet knows that the servant is chained and fashion of the polite world, but the town has dropped fettered, so as he cannot move ?

Bramhall. them.

4 dilison. Neither her great worthiness, nor his own suffering An human soul without education is like marble in for her, could fetter his fickleness.

Sidney. the quarry, which shews none of its beautics 'till the

It is no wonder, then, that learning has been so skill of the polisher fetches out the colours.

little advanced since it grew to be mercenary, and Id. Spectator.

the progress of it has been fettered by the cares of the Talk to her of an unfortunate young lady that lost

world, and disturbed by the desires of being rich, and her beauty by the small-pox, she fetches a deep sigh. the fears of being poor.

Sir W. Temple.

Passion's too fierce to be in fettets bound,
From these instances and fetches

And nature flies him like enchanted ground.
Thou makest of horses, clocks, and watches,

Dryden. Quoth Mat, thou seemest to mean

Pleasure arose in those very parts of his leg that That Alma is a mere machine.


just before had been so mucb pained by the fetter. Draw forth the monsters of the abyss profound,

Addison. Or fetch the' aerial eagle to the ground. Pope. Profuseness is a cruel and crafty demon, that gra

FETID, adj. Fr. fetide ; Lat. fætidus. dually involves her followers in dependence and debts; FET'Idness, n. s. ) Rancid; of strong and of- that is, fetters them with 'irons that enter into their


Adventurer. fensive smell. Most putrefactions are of an odious smell ; for they

A chain which man to fetter man has made; smell either fetid or mouldy. Bacon, By artifice imposed, by fear obeyed.

Prior. In the most severe orders of the church of Rome, The wretch in double fetters bound, those who practise abstinence, feel after it fetid hot Your potent mercy may release.

Id. eructations.


I thought her pride Plague, fiercest child of Nemesis divine, Had broke your fetters, and assured your freedom. Descends from Ethiopia's poisoned woods,

A. Philips. From stifled Cairo's filth and fetid fields.

If then, just then, all thoughts of mercy lost,

Thomson. When hope, long lingering, at last yields the ghost, FETLAR, an island of Scotland, in the Nor- The sound of pardon pierce his startled ear,

He drops at once his fetters and his fear; thern Ocean, one of the most northerly of the

A transport glows in all he looks and speaks, Shetland Isles, six miles east of North Yell. It

And the first thankful tears bedew his cheeks. is four mies and a half long and three and a

Cooper. half broad, and forms a parish, which is united There the curst spells of superstition blind, with that of North Yell." See Yell. The cli And fix her fetters on the tortured wind;


[ocr errors]

She bids in dreams tormenting shapes appear, with the death of the enemy; and thence usually
With shrieks that shock Imagination's ear. Darwin. called deadly feud. Feud, called also feida, and

FETTI (Dominico), an eminent painter in the faida, in the original German signifies guerram, style of Julio Romano, born at Rome, in 1589, i. e. war. Lambert writes it feeth, and says, ' it and educated under Ludovico Civoli of Flo- signifies capitales inimicitias, implacable hatred. rence. He excelled in historical pieces; his pic- In Scotland and the north of England, feud is tures are much sought after, and are scarce. He particularly used for a combination of kindred, shortened his days by excess, and died in his to revenge the death of any of their blood, against thirty-tifth year.

the killer and all his race, or any other great FÉTTLE, v. n.

A diminutive of fet, proba- enemy. bly. Dr. Johnson says, “a cant word from feel.' Feud, Feoda, in law, the same with fief or fee. Grose, that to fettle is to set or go about any See Feudal System. thing; to dress, prepare, or put in order. It is a FEU’DAL, adj. & n. s. 1. Fr. (old) feudal ; word still used in this last sense in the North of FEU’DATORY, n. s. & adj. | Lat. feudalis. See England. To do or prepare trifling business; FEODATORY. Pertaining to fees, feus, or tenures to bustle; to arrange household furniture. by which lands are held of a superior lord. A Now doth he inly scorne his Kendall-Greene,

dependence; something held by tenure; a fee. And his patcht cockers now despised beene.

A feudatory is one who holds lands by some Nor list he now go whistling to the carre

conditional tenure from a superior. As an adBut sells his teme and fetleth to the warre.

jective it means, held by such tenure. Bp. Hall's Satires.

The duke of Parma was tempted to be true to that When your master is most busy in company, come

enterprize, by no less promise than to be made ferin and pretend to fettle about the room; and if he

datory, or beneficiary king of England, under the chides, say you thought he rung the bell. Swift.

seignory in chief of the pope, and the protection of FETU, or AFFETU, a small kingdom of Africa, Spain. on the Gold Coast, east of Commendo, extend Wales, that was not always the feudal territory of ing 160 miles in length, or into the interior, ac England, having been governed by a prince of their cording to some geographers; but not above fif own, had laws utterly strange to the laws of England.

Hale. teen or sixteen miles in breadth along the coast: here is situated Cape Coast Castle, the capital of

Nothing is more suitable to feudal ideas, than that the English settlements. It was formerly governed the same person should be both a lord and a vassal,

independent in one capacity, and dependent in anoby a chief, assuming the title of dey, and belong


Robertson's History of Scotland. ing to the class of fetishmen, or priests; but he

If the one crown had been considered not as impewas subdued by the Fantees, who are now, or rial and independent, but as feudatory to the other, a were lately, in this town, subjugated by the treaty of union could not have been concluded on Ashantees, See FANTEES. It was formerly very equal terms.

Id. populous and powerful, but is now almost ruined,

FEUDAL SYSTEM. About twelve centuries the inhabitants not being sufficient to till the ground; effects which Walker ascribes to war

ago, this system was so universally received in and the slave trade. It is naturally fertile, law of nations in our western world.' Hence it

Europe, that Sir Henry Spelman calls it the abounding in corn, fruits, trees, palm wine, oil, deserves our attention in a particular manner; a and cattle. The Dutch have a fort in it.

knowledge of the different feuds being indispenFETUS, n. s. Lat. fætus. Properly there- sably requisite for a proper understanding either fore written fætus. Any animal in embryo; any of the civil government of our own country, or the thing yet in the womb; unborn; young. laws by which its landed property is regulated. That paradox of Hippocrates some learned physi

The military policy of the Celtic, or northern cians have of late revived, that the fetus respires in nations, kuown by the names of Goths, Vandals, the womb.


Franks, Huns, and Lombards, furnished the Sax. feahd, enmity. Quarrel; original constitution or system of feuds. These contention; opposition; war.

people, pouring out in vast multitudes from the Almighty Jove in wrathful mood,

same officina gentium, or store-house of nations, To Freak the guilt of mortal sins is bent;

over-ran all the European countries on the deHurls forth his thundering dart with deadly feud, clension of the Roman empire. They brought larolled in flames and smouldring dreariment. the feudal system along with them from the

Faerie Queene. countries out of which they emigrated; and, supThough men would find such mortal feuds la sharing of their publick goods.


posing it to be the most proper method of secur

ing their new conquests, they introduced it into In former ages it was a policy of France to raise their more southerly colonies. According to this and cherish intestine feuds and discords in Great Britain.


system, the victorious general allotted consideraSwift contrived an intercourse, from which they

ble tracts of land to his principal officers; while both departed discontented; he procured a second, they, in like manner, divided their possessions which only convinced him that the feud was irrecor. among the inferior officers, and the common cileable. Johnson. Life of Swift.

soldiers who were thought to be the most deQuarrels were transmitted from father to son, and, serving. Allotments of this kind were named under the name of deadly feuds, subsisted for many feoda, fiefs, fees, or feuds, from a combination generations with unmitigated rancour.

of words, in the language of these barbarians, Robertson's History of Scotland. signifying a reward or stipend bestowed on cerFevp, in ancient customs, is used for a capi- tain conditions. See Feod. The conditior upon tal quarrel or enmity, no!' to he satisfied but which these rewards were given, was, cat the

[merged small][ocr errors][merged small]

FEUD, n. s.


possessors should faithfully serve the person from which might take place among the lords themwhom they were received, both at home and selves; so that they were never obliged to ap. abroad, in the military way. To this they en pear in the field unless when called forth by the gaged themselves by a juramentum fidelitatis, or sovereign against the enemies of the nation at oath of fealty, in the event of a breach of which, large. This circumstance we might suppose to either by not performing the service agreed upon, be an advantage, but it ultimately operated or by deserting their lord in time of battle, &c., otherwise; becoming the means of changing the the lands were to return to their original pos- allodial right into a feudal tenure.

The holders of fiefs had for some time an emiThe possessors of feudal allotments thus be- nent advantage over the allodial proprietors. This came interested in the defence of them; and not was owing to the imperfection of the existing only the receivers, but those who gave them, public governments; so that the nobles had it in were equally and mutually bound to defend their their power to revenge their own quarrels, while possessions, none of them being able to pretend the weak were equally exposed to the insults of any right but that of conquest. For this purpose, both parties. The lord and his vassals there. government and subordination were absolutely fore were always formidable; but the allodial necessary; it being impossible to conduct any sys- proprietors had scarcely any means of defendtem of defence where every thing was tumultuous ing themselves. The reasons of this were, first, and irregular. Every person, therefore, who was a that the law did not allow them to commit any feudatory, i.e. who had received lands, was bound hostilities: and secondly, they were too distant to do every thing in his power to defend the lord and unconnected to form any proper league for of his fee; while, on the other hand, the latter was mutual defence; and hence proceeded the necessity no less subordinate to his immediate superior; of converting allodial property into feudal tenure. and so up to the prince himself. In like manner This was indeed owing in a great measure to the a reciprocal bond of defence existed down from absurdity and violence of the times, by which the prince to the lowest feudists. Such were the gifts of property, burdened with service, and foundations on which the feudal system was pro- which might return to the person who granted perly established; and the natural consequence them, were rendered superior in value to the abwas, a military subjection throughout the whole solute and unconditional possession of a subject. community. The prince could always collect an Other considerations likewise contributed to army of feudatories ready to defend not only the produce the same effect. As in those dark ages kingdom in general, but the particular possessions no right existed but what had its origin in conof each person; and the propriety of this constitu- quest, it thence followed, that the greatest contion was soon apparent in the strength which these queror was the most honorable person. The king, newly erected kingdoms acquired, and the valor in whom the whole exploits of the community with which their conquests were defended. centered, as being their head, was the most honorEurope owed to it, in afterages, as Mr. Hallam has able person; all others derived from him that observed, the free constitution of England, the portion of honor which they enjoyed, and which firm monarchy of France, and the federal union of was most nicely adjusted in proportion as they Germany. Besides these feudal grants, however, approached him. Allodial proprietors, therewhich were held only on the terms of military fore, having no pretensions of this kind, were service above mentioned, there were others called treated with contempt as a kind of poltroons. allodial, which were given upon inore enlarged From this disagreeable situation they wished to principles. To these every free man had a title; free themselves, by converting their allodial pro and could not only claim his territory as well as perty into feudal tenures; while the princes, the rest, but dispose of it at his pleasure; and supposing it their interest to extend those tenures this freedom was denominated allodiality. These as much as possible, discouraged the allodial posallodials, however, were not exempted from mi- sessions. As the feudists supported the imlitary service. A part of their freedom consisted portance of the nation, and dignity of the in liberty to go to the wars; for this, in the monarch, it was not thought proper to allow barbarous times we speak of, was the only way the allodial proprietors any greater compento acquire any degree of renown. Only the sations than what were given to vassals in similar serfs or villeins were destined to follow the arts

Thus they were exposed to continual of peace; while every free person was not only mortifications in courts of justice; they were at liberty to defend his country, but under an neglected by the king; denied sufficient proobligation to do it in case of any urgent neces- tection from the laws; exposed not only to consity. Thus there was a feudal and a national tinual insults, but to have their property on all militia. The free people only were allowed to occasions destroyed by the great; so that they possess property; the feudal vassals constituted were without resource except from the feudal the army, properly so called; while the national tenures, and were obliged even to solicit the primilitia was composed of the allodial proprie- vileges which were bestowed in other cases on tors. This allodiality, however, was not con vassals. In these unhappy circumstances, they fined to landed property, but included likewise were glad to yield up their lands to any superior moveable estates or money; so that proprietors whom they thought most agreeable, and to of the latter kind were obliged also in times of receive them back from him as a feudal gift. danger to bear arms and appear in the field. Be- Thus the landed property was every where tween the feudal and allodial proprietors, how- changed into feudal tenures, and fiefs became :ver, there was this farther difference, that the almost universal. See TENURE. latter had no concern with any private quarrels For some time the feudal system was not only


useful in itself

, but honorable in its principles; and tyranny of the Normans appear the more inbut this continued no longer than while the im- tolerable. porters of it into Europe adhered to their ori In process of time, the state of society began ginal simple and noble maxims. During that to suffer a remarkable alteration. The high and period, the lord exercised his bounty to the disinterested notions, from which the happiness vassal, which the latter repaid by acts of grati- above mentioned took its origin, declined; the tude; so that the intercourse between them was romantic ideas of chivalry ceased (see Chiof the most affectionate kind; and this gave rise valry,) and much more interested notions of to what are called the feudal incidents. The property came in their stead. The separation of expectants of fiefs were educated in the hall of the the interests of the lords from their vassals was superior, while the tenures were precarious or the first step towards the destruction of the feuonly for life: and, even when they became here- dal system. Then the incidents, which had hiditary, the lord took care of the son and estate of therto promoted their happiness, now had a his deceased vassal; not only protecting his per- reverse tendency. Property being looked upon son, but taking charge of his education, and di- as a distinction superior to personal merit, introrecting the management of his affairs. He took duced the most mercenary views. In consepleasure in observing his approach to maturity; quence of these, the infant wurd, the care of and when he came of age never failed to deliver whom was wont to be considered as a sacred and to him the lands, with the care of which he had honorary trust, was now only looked upon as a been entrusted, and which he had been careful to mean of procuring emolument to the superior. improve. This was called the incident of ward- The latter regarded the profits of his vassals as ship. The incident of relief was founded upon so many diminutions of his own wealth. Instead the gratitude of the vassal; who, upon entering of taking care to improve the state of his ward on his fief, brought a present to his lord, as an as formerly, he impoverished it; not only negacknowledgment of his care of him during the lecting the education of the heir, but offering inEarly part of his life, and in order to conciliate sults to himself; insomuch that the relations of his future regard. The incident of marriage pro- the unfortunate vassal were often obliged to ranceeded also upon the principle of gratitude on som from the avaricious superior both his person the part of the vassal. The latter, conscious of and effects. By merchandise of this kind the the favors he had received, did not choose to coffers of princes were filled, and wardships let ally himself with a family inimical to his chief: out to strangers, who might exercise their rapawhile the superior himself, ambitious to aggran- city with greater freedom. When the vassal at dise and augment the importance of his family, last attained the years of maturity, he came to sought the most advantageous match for his vas- the possession of his lands without any of that sal. Sometimes the superior himself was re- joy and festivity which usually took place on the duced in his circumstances by war or other occasion. He received an inheritance wasted accidents: but from whatever cause his distress and impoverished, while new grievances daily proceeded, even though it had arisen from his occurred, to augment the horrors of his situaown extravagance or prodigality, or when only tion. All the incidents, which formerly were so destitute of means to support his ambition (r many expressions of gratitude on the part of the grandeur, his vassals were bound to support and vassal, were now changed into taxes exacted at relieve him according to their circumstances; the pleasure of the lord. Before the vassal was and this was called the incident of aid. The in- invested in his land, the superior exacted from cident of escheat took place on the part of the him a certain sum or gift, to be measured only vassal, when, through cowardice, treachery, or by his own rapacity; and in case of delay or inany remarkable misbehaviour, he rendered him- ability to pay this demand, the superior continued self unworthy of his fief. In that case, the in possession of the estaté. Such scandalous optaking it from him, and giving it to one more pression could not but produce the greatest disworthy, was called an escheat. While the lords content and clamor. Applications were made to and vassals thus vied with one another in mutual the law without success; nor were even the laws acts of friendship and benevolence, universal regarded which were fabricated on purpose for happiness, liberty, and activity, were diffused their relief. The incident of marriage now through the society. The vassals behaved cour- proved a source of the most dreadful oppression, teously towards the retainers, who were immedi- The lord assumed a right of marrying his vassal ately below them; while they again were courted to whom he pleased ; and he not only exerted by the lords as constituting their importance and this right himself, but would sell it to a stranger, strength; the lords, lastly, giving a like impor- or allow the vassal to buy it himself; while the tance and dignity to the sovereign himself. Thus penalty annexed to a marriage without the consent a regular, powerful, and compact system of go- of the superior involved no less punishment vernment took place; a unanimity and attention than the loss of the estate itself, or some such pervaded the various departments of the state; grievous infliction as for a crime of the first magso that while the subjects were free, the nation nitude. The case was still worse with a female at large was formidable. During this state of ward; whose beauty and accomplishments beaffairs, the members of the national assembly in came a source of gain to the superior, or were every country in Europe appeared there in arms, sacrificed to please his whim or caprice: so that whether they came personally or by their repre her relations were frequently obliged to buy from sentatives. Such particularly was the case under him the privilege of marrying her to the person the Anglo-Saxon government; and the happiness she or they thought most proper.

In like man. chey at that time enjoyed made the oppression ner the aid, which was formerly a voluntary gift

[ocr errors]

ply with.

from the vassal in cases of distress happening to furnish a certain number for the service of the his lord, now became an unavoidable tax. An sovereign; and in those from the nobility to their aid formerly was demanded when the superior’s vassals, the like service was required. Even the eldest daughter was married, when his eldest son commons who had grants from the crown furwas knighted, or when he himself was taken pri- nished a certain proportion of knights. The soner in battle. These were the only legal causes force of the nation was called into action by of making a demand of this kind: but in the grants in capite, or from the sovereign and nosubsequent times of degeneracy, the most fri- bility. A numerous and powerful army was involous pretences were made use of by the prince stantly assembled, and at once ready for action. to oppress the lords, and by the lords to oppress Of this army the king was the general, the notheir vassals; demanding subsidies at pleasure, bility the officers, and the vassals soldiers; the which their inferiors were always obliged to com- whole being exactly arranged, and capable of

Lastly, the escheat, which in former entering upon any expedition withou' the least times, took place only in cases of cowardice, delay. Thus a remedy was found in some meatreachery, or some other heinous crime, was now sure for the weakness of the feudal sovereigns; inflicted on the most trilling occasions. If the but though the knight's tenure could accomplish vassal happened to be too long in attending the this, it could not bring back the former affection court of his superior to take the oath of fealty; and cordiality, which had subsisted between the if he committed any action which could in the various ranks of people. On the contrary, by least be construed an infringement of the oath; uniting them more firmly to one another by legaliif he neglected to give his lord warning of any ties, it rendered matters rather worse. But the opmisfortune which he might suppose was about to pression originating from the operation of the befal him; revealed any thing concerning him; feudal incidents, still continued with unremitting made love to his sister or daughter, &c.; or violence. The grants of knight's tenure were even if he should grant a tenure of land to ano- attended with the same oaths of homage and ther person in form different from that in which fealty; the same incidents of relief, wardship, he held his own; all these, nay others still more marriage, aid, and escheat, with the feudal tenures. ridiculous, were judged sufficient reasons for the The princes promised to abate somewhat of their superior to seize on the estate of the vassal, and rigor in demanding the feudal perquisites, but involve him and his family in ruin. Notwith- did not keep their word. Laws were occastanding these oppressions, however, the vassal sionally promulgated, and for some time had an was still obliged to submit to his lord ; to own effect; but palliatives soon became ineffectual, him as his superior; and even, in appearance, to and a new state of weakness began to commence. pay him the same respect as formerly, when the The two remarkable eras in the feudal history greatest unanimity and cordial affection subsisted are, the time before the invention of knight-serbetween them. Still he was obliged to perform vice (See Knight), and that during which it the same military service; because failure in that continued. Fiefs were in a state of Aluctuation respect would have subjected him to a forfeiture from the destruction of the Roman empire till of lands according to the original agreement. A the ninth century; but they were rendered pervast difference, however, now took place in the petual in France about A. D. 877, and were valor and activity which inspired the army. The generally become so in every country of Europe vassals, forced into the field with desponding about the beginning of the tenth. Du Cange, hearts, were indifferent as to the success of the voce Militia, gives us an example of a knight-fee cause in which they were engaged, and fre- in A. D. 880. By the year 987, when Hugh quently obstructed instead of forwarding the ope- Capet was raised to the throne of France, knight rations of the field. Hence the sovereign found service was become general all over Europe, and himself embarrassed; and, though nominally at was introduced into England after having made the head of a martial and powerful people, was its appearance in other countries. Dr. Stuart frequently unable to effect any thing by reason of informs us, that it appears from the records of the mutual hatred and dissension which every Malcolm IV. in 1153, that knight-service was wbere prevailed.

known in Scotland, and that it was a novelty at Thus the feudal states of Europe became un- that time. He thinks it even probable that it was naturally weak: a remedy was necessary; and known in the time of David I. In England, it is remarkable, that the same remedy was ap- however, there have been several doubts and plied all over the continent. This was, the enquiries among the learned concerning the inmaking fiefs hereditary, which till now had only troduction of the feudal laws. Many are of been granted for a long term of years ; and, in opinion that they were first introduced by William return, burdening the lands with a certain num the Conqueror; and, consequently, that they ber of soldiers, which were not to be refused were entirely unknown to the Anglo-Saxons: but upon any pretence whatever. Hence was de- others think, that they existed among the latter rived the tenure of knight-service. A certain in the same form under which they were conportion of land, burdened with the service of tinued by the Normans. Dr. Stuart is of opinion one soldier or knight, was called a knight's fee; that the Saxons who settled in England could and thus an estate, furnishing any number of not be strangers to fiefs. He supposes the consoldiers, was said to contain as many knight's formity of manners, which undoubtedly prevailed fees; so that now the manors, baronies, &c., be- between the Saxons and other barbarians, a sufficame powerful according to the number of sol- cient proof that the hereditary grant of land, as diers they were bound to furnish. In the grants well as the fluctnating state of feudal tenures from the crown, the nobility were obliged to which preceded it, was known to the former.

« НазадПродовжити »