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the tail. When the mother was again with came from out of the earth; at the same time, after young, the three animals of the former litter be- listening with the greatest attention, I could not came very mischievous. One of these, when exactly hear from what quarter it came. The about three months old, was driven, against his sound of the lion's voice does not bear the least inclination, into the garden of the museum, when resemblance to thunder, as M. de Buffon, tom he made a spring at the keeper, Felix Cassel, ix. p. 22, from the voyage of Bouillage le Gouz, and seized his arm with so much violence as to affirms it does. In fact, it appeared to me to tear the sleeve of his coat. We are not able be neither peculiarly piercing nor tremendous; any further to describe the development of yet, from its slow prolonged note, joined with character in the above-mentioned three animals, nocturnal darkness, and the terrible idea one is since two of them have fallen victims to the first apt to form to one's self of this animal, it made effects of dentition, an operation very dangerous me shudder, even in such places as I had an to most animals that are produced in captivity. opportunity of hearing it in with more satisfacThe lion that bit the keeper was one of those tion, and without having the least occasion for that died.

fear. But when he is irritated his cry is shorter, All the passions of the lion, the soft passion repeated more suddenly, and is still more terrible of love not excepted, are excessive; the love than the roaring ; he beats his sides with his of offspring is extreme: the lioness is naturally tail, stamps with his feet, erects and agitates the weaker, less bold, and more gentle than the lion; hair of his head and mane, moves the skin of but she becomes perfectly ferocious and terrible his face, shows his angry teeth, and lolls out his when she has young. She then regards no dan- tongue. The gait of the lion is stately, grave, ger; she attacks indifferently men and animals, and slow, though always in an oblique direction. kills them and carries them to her young ones, His movements are not equal or measured, but whom she thus early instructs to suck their blood consist of leaps and bounds; which prevent him and tear their flesh. She generally brings forth from stopping suddenly, and make him often in the most secret and inaccessible places; and, over-leap his mark. When he leaps upon his when afraid of a discovery, she endeavours to prey, he makes a bound of twelve or fifteen conceal the traces of her feet, by returning fre- feet, falls above it, seizes it with his fore feet, tears quently on her steps, or rather by effacing them the flesh with his claws, and then devours it with with her tail; and, when the danger is great, his teeth. If he chances to miss his leap, he she carries off her young, and conceals them will not follow his prey any farther; but, as if elsewhere. But, when an actual attempt is he were ashamed, turning round towards the made to deprive her of her young, she becomes place where he lay in ambush, slowly, and step perfectly furious, and defends them till she be by step, as it were, measures the exact length torn in pieces. The lion seldom goes abroad in between the two points, in order to find how the day; but sallies forth in the evening and much too short of, or beyond, the mark, he bad night in quest of prey. He is afraid of fire, and taken his leap. One would suppose that the seldom or never approaches the artificial fires roaring of the lion would prove serviceable to made by the shepherds for the protection of the other animals, by warning them to betake their flocks; he does not trace animals by the themselves to flight; but as, when he roars, he scent, but is obliged to trust to his eye. Many puts his mouth to the ground, so that the sound historians have even represented him as incapa- is diffused equally all over the place, without ble of finding out his prey; alleging that he is its being possible to hear from what quarter it obliged to the jackal, an anima of exquisite comes, the animals are intimidated to ich a de scent, to provide for him, and that this animal gree, as to fly about backwards and forwards in either accompanies or goes before him for this the dark to


consequence of which, purpose. The jackal, perhaps, sometimes fol- they often run on to the very spot from whence lows the lion, but is to pick up what he leaves the sound proceeds, and which they meant most behind, not to provide for him. The lion, when to avoid. Dr. Sparrman, in his account of the hungry, will attack any animal that presents lion, detracts considerably from the character of itself; but he is so formidable, that all endeavour courage and generosity generally ascribed to that to avoid his rencounter; this circumstance often animal; and relates several anecdotes in proof obliges him to conceal himself, and lie in wait of his opinion. 'A yeoman,' says Dr. Sparrman, till some animal chances to pass. He lies squat . a man of veracity, related to me an adventure on his belly in a thicket; from which he springs he had in these words: one day walking over with such" force and velocity, that he mostly his lands with his loaded gun, he unexpectedly seizes them at the first bound. He endures met with a lion. Being an excellent shot, he hunger longer than thirst; he seldom passes thought himself pretty certain, in the position water without drinking, which he does by lap he was in, of killing it; he therefore fired his ping like a dog. In burning deserts, where piece. Unfortunately he did not recollect that rivers and fountains are denied, they live in a the charge had been in it for some time, and perpetual fever, a sort of madness fatal to every consequently was damp, so that his piece hung animal they meet with. “The roaring of the fire, and the ball, falling short, entered the lion,' says Dr. Spartman,' consists in a hoarse ground close to the lion. In consequence of inarticulate sound, which at the same time seems this he was seized with a panic, and took directly to have hollowness in it, something like that to his feet; but being soon out of breath, and proceeding from a speaking trumpet. The sound closely pursued by the lion, he jumped upon a is between that of a German u and an o, being little heap of stones, and there made a stand, drawn to a great length, and appearing as if it presenting the butt-end of his gun to his adver

every side;



superiority in the numbers and industry of his head from his body. The terror and conmankind, at the same time that it has broken sternation of the gentleman may be easily conthe rigor of the lion, seems likewise to have ceived; he flew out of the room, obtained Enervated his courage. In the vast deserts of assistance, and secured the animal. For his Zaara; in those which separate the negroes and ordinary subsistence, the lion requires about Moors, between Senegal and the boundaries of fifteen pounds of raw flesh each day. Mauritania; in those uninhabited regions above The body of the lion appears to be the best the country of the Hottentots; and, in general, model of strength joined with agility. The in all the meridional parts of Africa and Asia, force of his muscles is expressed by his prodiwhere mankind have disdained to dwell, lions gious leaps and bounds, often twenty feet at are still as numerous and as ferocious as ever. once; by the brisk motion of his tail, a single Accustomed to measure their strength by that of sweep of which is sufficient to throw a man to in all other animals which they encounter the the ground; by the ease with which he moves habit of conquering renders them haughty and the skin of his face, and particularly of his foreintrepid. Having never experienced the strength head; and by the faculty of erecting and agitaof man, or the power of his arms, instead of ting the hair of his mane when irritated. Lions discorering any signs of fear, they disdain and are very ardent in their amours; when the feset him at defiance. Wounds irritate, but do male is in season, she is often followed by eight not terrify them: they are not even disconcerted or ten males, who roar incessantly, and enter at the sight of numbers. A single lion of the into furious engagements, till one of them comdesert has been known to attack a whole cara- pletely overcomes the rest, takes peaceable posFan; and if, after a violent and obstinate engage- session of the female, and carries her off to some ment, he finds himself weakened, he retreats secret recess. The length of time the lioness fighting, always keeping his face to the enemy. goes with young is variously stated by different On the other hand, the lions which live near the writers; Ælian says two months, Philostratus villages or huts of the Indians or Africans, six; among the moderns the period of gestation being acquainted with man and the force of his is said to be five months; but it has been clearly arms, are so dastardly as to fly and leave their ascertained by La Cepéde, that the lioness goes prey at the sight of women or children. A lion with young 108 days, or rather more than three iaken young, and brought up among domestic months and a half. A lion and lioness of about animals

, will easily be accustomed to his master the same age having arrived from Northern or keeper, and refrain from injuring them. Africa, at the menagerie of Paris, they were When led into captivity, he will discover symp- permitted to couple, which they did, five times in toms of uneasiness, without anger or peevish- the same day. The first time the lioness was with ness ; on the contrary, his natural temper softens, young, she miscarried at the end of about two he obeys his master, caresses the hand that gives months, bringing forth two fetuses. The second him food, and sometimes gives life to such ani- time she produced, at the end of about 108 days, mals as are thrown to him alive for prey; by three young ones. One of these, about five this act of generosity he seems to consider him- hours after it came into the world, had the folself as for ever bound to protect them: he lives lowing measurements: peaceably with them; allows them a part, and Eighteen inches and a half from the fore part sometimes the whole, of his food; and will of the forehead to the origin of the tail ; four rather submit to the pangs of hunger, than de- inches and a quarter from the muzzle to the ocstroy the fruit of his beneficence. Ælian, ciput; three inches and a quarter from one ear quoting Eudemus, speaks of the affection en- to the other; four inches and three quarters from tertained by a lion for a dog. He informs us, the elbow to the end of the toes of the fore feet; that a lion, a dog, and a bear, lived together in three inches and three quarters from the knee 10 the most intimate friendship. The attachment the heel; three inches and a half from the heel between the two first was most tender. The to the extremity of the toes of the hind feet; six dog, in one of his frolics, having by accident inches and a quarter from the origin of the tail bitten the bear, the natural ferocity of that animal to its extremity. returned, and he tore the offender to pieces, but These little animals were, at first, entirely the irritated lion revenged the death of his com- destitute of hair; and we are informed that the panion, by immediately destroying the bear. long hair or mane on the neck and round the But as his passions are impetuous and vehement, face of one of the males, which survived the it is not to be expected, that the impressions of rest

, did not begin to appear till he had attained education will at all times be sufficient to balance the age of nearly three years and a half; and them; for this reason it is dangerous to let him that, from that time, this has been continually insuffer hunger long, or to vex him by ill-timed creasing in quantity. He had no tuft at the end teazings; bad treatment not only irritates him, of his tail till about the same period. The hair but he remembers it long, and meditates revenge. of all the young animals of this litter was at Labat informs us of a gentleman, who kept a first woolly, and not of the same color as that of lion in his chamber, and employed a servant to their parents, but a mixed gray and red, marked attend it, and who as usual mixed his caresses by a great number of narrow brown stripes. with blows. One morning the gentleman was These were very distinct at the middle of the awakened by an unusual noise in his room, and back, and towards the origin of the tail; and drawing his curtains aside, he perceived the they were disposed transversely on each side of lion growling over the body of the unhappy a longitudinal stripe, of the same color, that exman, whom it had just kille 1, and had separated tended from the back of the head to the end of reckoned very valuable. In Asia these animals with black, and thrice obscurely annulated are found on the mountains of Caucasus, from with black near the end. In general appearance Persia to India; and also in China, where they it has the form of the domestic cat. Its length is are called Poupi. By the Bukharian traders, two feet and a half from the nose to the base of who often bring their skins to Russia, they are the tail : its tail little more than eleven inches : styled Bars. The leopard inhabits also Arabia, its height before is nineteen inches; behind where it is called Nemr. Mr. Forskal says, that twenty. It is sometimes found larger, there in that country, as well as in Egypt, it will do being instances of its reaching the length of three no harm to man unless provoked; but will enter feet from the nose to the tail. This animal inhouses by night and destroy the cats.

habits the reeds and woods in the marshy parts F. lynx Canadensis, the Canadian lynx, has that border on the western sides of the Caspian pale yellow eyes, and erect ears tufted with long Sea, particularly about the castle of Kislar on black hair. The body is covered with soft and the river Terek, and in the Persian provinces of long fur, cinereous tinged with tawny, or gray Ghisan and Masenderan, and frequent about the mixed with white, and marked with black or mouth of the Kur, the ancient Cyrus.-In mandusky spots more or less visible in different sub- ners, voice, and food, it agrees with the wild cat. jects, dependent on the age or season in which It conceals itself in the day, and wanders over the the animal is killed; the legs are strong and flooded tracts in search of prey; feeding on rats, thick; the claws large. It is about three times mice, and birds, but seldom climbing trees. It the size of a cat; though only about a foot high, is excessively fierce, and never frequents the and the tail is four inches long, tipt with black. haunts of mankind. It is so impatient of captiThis species inhabits the vast forest of North vity, that one which was taken in a trap, and America. It is called in Canada le chat cervier, had a leg broken, refused for many days the or le lóup cervier, on account of its being so food placed by it; but in its fury devoured the destructive to deer: which it drops on from the fractured limb, with pieces of the stake it was trees, like the puma, and, fixing on the jugular fastened to, and broke all its teeth in the phrensy vein, never quits its hold till the exhausted ani- of its rage. mal falls through loss of blood. The English F. lynx vulgaris, the common lynx, is about call it a wild cat. It is very destructive to the two feet and a half long and fifteen inches high. young pigs, poultry, and all kinds of game. He has a great resemblance to the common cat; The skins are in high esteem for the softness and but his ears are longer and tufted, and his tail is warmness of the fur; and great numbers are an- much shorter: his head and body are of a grayish nually imported into Europe.

color tinged with red; his hair is streaked with F. caracal, the siyah-ghush, or Persian lynx, yellow, white, and black colors. The lynx inhas a lengthened face and small head ; very long habits the vast forests of the north of Europe, slender ears, terminated with a long tuft of black Asia, America, and Japan. His eyes are brilliant, hairs; eyes small: the upper part of the body is his aspect is soft, and his air is gay and sprightly. of a very pale reddish brown; and the belly and Like the cat, he covers his urine with earth ; he breast are whitish: the limbs are strong and howls something like the wolf, and is heard at a pretty long; and the tail is about half the length considerable distance; he does not run like the of the body. These animals inhabit Arabia, dog or wolf, but walks and leaps like a cat; he Persia, India, and Barbary; where they are often pursues his prey even to the tops of trees; neibrought up tame, and used in the chase of smaller ther wild cats nor squirrels can escape him; he quadrupeds, and the larger sort of birds, such as lies in wait for stags, goats, hares, weasels, birds, cranes, pelicans, peacocks, &c., which they sur- &c., and darts suddenly upon them; he seizes prise with great address. When they seize their them by the throat and sucks their blood; then prey, they hold it fast with their mouth, and lie opens the head and eats the brain; after this, he for a time motionless on it. They are fierce frequently leaves them and goes in search of when provoked; Dr. Charleton says, he saw one fresh prey. The color of his skin changes acfall on a hound, which it killed and tore to cording to the season or the climate; the winter pieces in a moment, notwithstanding the dog furs are more beautiful than those of summer. defended itself to the utmost.— The Arabian These furs are valuable for their softness and writers call it anak el ard; and say, that it hunts warmth : numbers are annually imported from like the panther, jumps up at cranes as they fly, North America, and the north of Europe and and covers its steps when hunting.

Asia; the farther north and east they are taken, F: lynx chaus, the Caspian lynx, has a the whiter they are, and the more distinct the round head, a little more oblong than that of the spots. Of these the most elegant kind is called common cat; shining restless eyes, with a most irbys, whose skin sells on the spot for £1. sterbrilliant golden pupil; ears erect, oval, and lined ling. The ancients, particularly Pliny, (viii. 8.) with white hairs; their outside reddish, their celebrated the great quickness of the lynx's sight; summits tufted with black. The hairs are coarser and feigned that its urine was converted into a than those of the cat or common lynx, but less precious stone. so than those of the wolf. They are shortest on F.onca, the American tiger, the jaguar of Buffon, the head, but on the top of the back above two is of a bright tawny color; the top of the back inches long. The color of the head and body is marked with long stripes of black; the sides a yellowish-brown; the breast and belly of a with rows of eyes like annular spots, open in the bright brown, nearly orange. The tail reaches middle, which is of the ground color of the hair: only to flexure of the leg; is thick and the thighs and legs are marked with full spots cylindric; of the same color with the back, tipped of black, the breast and belly whitish: the tail


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London Published by Thomas T9.3.thapsrike. lat?1.1897.

2.Leopardus. The leopard

3.Onca. The Jaguar




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