An Inquiry Into the Various Systems of Political Economy: Their Advantages and Disadvantages; and the Theory Most Favourable to the Increase of National Wealth
Peter A. Mesier, 1812 - 492 стор.
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abundance Adam Smith advantages afford agricultural amount annual appears bank benefits bills capital carried causes chap circulation civil classes coin commerce commodities consequently considerable considered consists consumed consumption contribute debt demand derived diminished effects employed England equal equivalent established Europe exchange existence expences extent favourable fixed follows force foreign French fund give gold and silver greater important improve increase individuals industry influence interest Italy kind labour land laws least less limited loans manufactures means measure ments merchants metallic millions nations nature necessary never object observed obtain occasion opinion paid political economy population portion principles produce profit progress proportion prosperity proved purchase quantity regard rendered respect riches savings says share success supply supposed surplus things tion trade true VARIOUS SYSTEMS wages wants wealth writers
Сторінка 66 - THE annual labour of every nation is the fund which originally supplies it with all the necessaries and conveniences of life which it annually consumes, and which consist always either in the immediate produce of that labour, or in what is purchased with that produce from other nations.
Сторінка 9 - What is the species of domestic industry which his capital can employ, and of which the produce is likely to be of the greatest value, every individual, it is evident, can, in his local situation, judge much better than any statesman or law-giver can do for him.
Сторінка 263 - Such a difference of prices, which, it seems, is not always sufficient to transport a man from one parish to another, would necessarily occasion so great a transportation of the most bulky commodities, not only from one parish to another, but from one end of the kingdom, almost from one end of the world to the other, as would soon reduce them more nearly to a level.
Сторінка 251 - As it is the power of exchanging that gives occasion to the division of labour, so the extent of this division must always be limited by the extent of that power, or, in other words, by the extent of the market.
Сторінка 390 - Between whatever places foreign trade is carried on, they all of them derive two distinct benefits from it. It carries out that surplus part of the produce of their land and labour for which there is no demand among them, and brings back in return for it something else for iwhich there is a demand.
Сторінка 134 - A great part of the machines made use of in those manufactures in which labour is most subdivided, were originally the inventions of common workmen, who being each of them employed in some very simple operation, naturally turned their thoughts towards finding out easier and readier methods of performing it.
Сторінка 258 - Seed wherewith to sowe the same. I say, that when this man hath subducted his seed out of the proceed of his Harvest, and also, what himself hath both eaten and given to others in exchange for Clothes, and other Natural necessaries; that the remainder of Corn is the natural and true Rent of the Land for that year; and the medium of seven years, or rather of so many years as makes up the Cycle, within which Dearths and Plenties make their revolution, doth give the ordinary Rent of the Land in Corn.
Сторінка 306 - ... scarcity of money. Money, like wine, must always be scarce with those who have neither wherewithal to buy it, nor credit to borrow it. Those who have either, will seldom be in want either of the money, or of the wine which they have occasion for. This complaint, however, of the scarcity of money, is not always confined to improvident spendthrifts. It is sometimes general through a whole mercantile town, and the country in its neighbourhood. Overtrading is the common cause of it. Sober men, whose...
Сторінка 9 - The statesman, who should attempt to direct private people in what manner they ought to employ their capitals, would not only load himself with a most unnecessary attention, but assume an authority which could safely be trusted, not only to no single person, but to no council or senate whatever, and which would nowhere be so dangerous as in the hands of a man who had folly and presumption enough to fancy himself fit to exercise it.