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enigmatical. We see that she rather bowed beneath the universality of his genius, than loved the man. Miss Fuller's essay might be termed an amplification of Rahel's remark. That Göthe sought greatness from things without, breadth and largeness rather than purity and insight into spiritual questions,—is now pretty generally allowed. Mighty in intellect, strong in judgment, and strenuous in pursuit of any attainment, he passed, step by step, over a long scale of being. He could be at one and the same time the experimenter and the beholder—his intellect detaching itself, and standing apart, from the colored mists of the emotions'-and afterwards publishing the experience with all the clearness and freedom from bias of a third party. He was a liver in every sense of the word, for his life may be said to have embraced somewhat of all life. He knew every step of the ground he had gone over, from the wasting beats of sensuality, to the clear blue of the empyrean; hence we never find that he slurs any epoch of life, or paints things as they ought to be; but resolutely and faithfully sets down all the consecutive steps in progressive being. We do not see in him the high moral worth and unbending loftiness of Michael Angelo; the Hebrewlike austerity and stately grandeur of John Milton; nor the child-like simplicity and purity of Emerson,-but rather one endowed with an intellect so penetrative, and experience so far-reaching, added to gifts of discrimination so acute and masterly, that he could, like a strong swimmer, dive into those deep seas of soul, and tell us of the treasures therein contained. As artist he excels, and we have seen why. His whole life was a series of preparatory lessons to enable him to shine in the region of art. He did not aspire after the Beautiful and the True for their own sakes merely, but for what they yielded him. That ennobling thought which elevates the beholder in the works of Phidias, and overpowers him in the paintings of Raphael, he sought to sieze—that he might embody it in the forms of literature. In the Meister, heedless of incident and narrative, save as connecting links, he inculcates the deepest wisdom, by carrying the hero thrö an ascending scale of characters; hence those who fail to perceive the mythic mode of teaching rise from it dissatisfied and disappointed, for as a tale it is without interest, save in the exquisite episode of Mignon. In it we see the process of development of the mind of Göthe; and they who read aright, will not be without their reward. Let the beautiful outburst in defence of poetry at the commencement, be compared with the calm, searching, comprehensive criticism of the Hamlet farther on. It is the purple light of the morning and the clear azure of noon. Even while passing thrö the early portions of the work,—those portions that have appeared to many so objectionable as to suggest the question * Is Göthe a moral writer ?'--we are like parties in a crowd of very questionable characters, yet ever hearing some one near utter words full of meaning and wisdom, that find their way to our inmost bosoms. We wish the scope and purpose of this work were better understood. Carlyle has done much for it, yet from his excessive admiration, and consequent over-estimation of Göthe, his essay has not been received as it ought to have been, nor as its merit demands. His worship of Göthe, we think, arises out of these circumstances :—that while the German, partly owing to the fine constitution he inherited by nature, but more to his resolute training, attained to perfect repose of nature and self-government, Carlyle, thrö dyspepsia, over-working of the brain to the neglect of bodily exercise, relaxation, and change, and a system whose excitability is increased by the baneful effects of smoking, is still in a state of turmoil and heat-the only escape valve for which is a terribly earnest article now and then, in defence of this very earnestness, be it in Prophet or Preacher, Poet or Seer. Miss Fuller's article is the middle point between the rhapsodies of Carlyle and the cynic sneers of Menzel, and should be carefully studied by the small-fry critics of Göthe, who forget that when they cannot see over a mountain, they should look up to it, learning to reverence where they cannot comprehend.
Miss Fuiler’s favorite among the moderns is evidently Beethoven. In this essay she contrasts him with Göthe, and makes him appear, or rather is herself
satisfied that he appears, to great advantage. Here again her predilection for - spirituality exhibits itself. The greater individual nature of Beethoven, narrowed
as the circumference of his Being was by devotion to his particular art, his deafness, and other circumstances, is far dearer to her than the many-sided boast of the Germans. We love and revere the character of Beethoven-have listened with delight to his exquisite passages—yet we doubt if his influence on the age, if even his influence as a liver, will be found at all comparable to that of Göthe. The beauty of Beethoven's character lay in his simply obeying the law of his own nature, which was pure rather than strong or speculative: whereas Göthe was strong in every region of being. Athletic as a Greek, his bodily conformation led him in youth to make trial of his strength in manly and fearless action, in turbulent and overmastering emotions. In riper years these gave place to the cognizances of intellect, and into this region he carried the skill and aptitude he had acquired in the other. He went further, as all must who would attain to completeness, and, as he himself very clearly proves in the Faust,' find a haven from life-weariness and sorrow. But he did not, as Miss Fuller would have had bim do, lay down at the portals of Spirit, the Intellect and the Body, as altogether valueless besides what he had now found; but retaining his power of enjoyment in these his former states of being, he, as it were, spiritualized and harmonized his whole nature ; thereby retaining his mental powers and his bodily health to the end of a very long life.
We have been thus particular, not only to call attention to Miss Fuller's Göthe, but to induce a more enlarged study of his works. Whether or not any particular estimate of the character of Göthe be the right one, is a small matter, compared to the question-How may this man aid us in the development of mind, and the attainment of just notions regarding what ought to be our life? That clouds and vapors, arising from earth, will occasionally darken the sky, we all know, but there is a region where clouds and vapors cannot come. So it is with the mental firmament, and out of the cloudless region speaketh the still small voice, that never yet consented to sin. We do not say with Miss Fuller and her friend Mr. Emerson--'Live always in these heights !' but we do say, Let the light of them shine into the lower regions, (for it only is the true light)--the eye of the body--which, if it be simply the whole body, will be full of light; whereas if it be evil, then must the whole body be full of darkness.
No quotation is given from this lady's works,--not from any lack of fine passages, but because we hardly know of any passage, however fine, that would not
suffer from being detached from the whole of which it is a part. We would say to all, Get her book—it is well worthy of careful study. Miss Fuller has been accused of being oracular in conversation. We can believe it. High truths can be uttered only in this way; are ever oracular. Our Great Teacher was oracular -spoke ever in parables. Let no one calling himself by his name, denounce such utterance. But that Miss Fuller's meaning is ever clear, her language transparent and simple, rising at times into richness and poetry, will be evident to those who shall, with unbiased mind, peruse her works.
We have complained that the fault of these works, or rather of Miss Fuller's genius, is a tendency to wrench the higher regions of our nature from that union with the inferior—(baser they are not, but by our leave,)—which God, in his goodness, has seen fit to establish. We think, however, that works setting forth the prevailing neglect of spiritual culture, are much wanted as a counterpoise to anotber and far more dangerous tendency :-that of a contracted Utilitarianism. We wait the epoch of greater completeness, yet rejoice that so much good hath already come. How different this author's productions from the mere fashionable novel! “Ordinary novels,” says a gifted writer, b " which string a number of incidents, and a few common-place, pasteboard characters, around a love-story, teaching people to fancy that the main business of life is to make love and to be made love to, and that when it is made, all is over, are almost purely mischievous. -It is most hurtful to be wishing to act a novel in real life, most hurtful to fancy that the interest of life resides in its pleasures and passions, not in its duties; and it mars all simplicity of character to have the feelings and events of common life spread out under a sort of phantasmogoric illumination before us.” It is so—and we therefore hail this higher and better literature issuing from the female pen, as a proof, nay a very surety, that we now begin to look to the lifeto things rather than shows of things, and that, ere long, there will be added to the knowlege of the Divine Commands, a deeper and more real consideration of these words of the Saviour-If ye know these things, happy are ye if ye do them!
b Archdeacon Hare— Guesses at Truth. Second Series, pp. 344-345.
TEMPERANCE AND INTEMPERANCE.
Journal of Public Health. No. xxi. July 1849. Article—'Juvenile Depravity and
Intemperance. The Examiner. London, October 27, 1949. Article-Demoralisation and Total
Abstinence.' Punch. Nov. 21, 1819. Article— Comfort the Cure for Drunkenness.' SAXURING the fifteen years that the doctrine of Total Abstinence from intoxica.
2 ting liquors, as a physiological and a remedial principle, has been before Used the public, it has encountered every variety of opposition. It has been assailed from all quarters, and from parties standing at the antipodes of each other on ordinary occasions. From saint and sinner, punster and politician, religious tract and infidel newspaper, pothouse and pulpit, missiles have alike been hurled at a morement which. among all the efforts of the age, alone shows itself capable of grapling with the vice of intemperance. It is amusing to look at the tactics of its opponents. Piety and profanity harmoniously object to it as unscriptural, pseudo-philosophy as fanatical. Catholics assail it as 'heretical,' and protestants attack it as presumptuously aspiring to achieve what the gospel should alone ac. complish; while others condemn it as an ascetic and gloomy doctrine-as monkery revived’! Almost all who have entered the lists against it, have been uncharitable and unscrupulous. They seem to think that the end justifies the means, and hence resort to reckless misrepresentation, ridicule, and abuse. In many instances they have adopted the old bigot cry. They have pelted the principle with texts. Those who are barren in argument are generally profuse in epithet, and the advocates of Temperance have had a weight of words hurled upon them, that must inevitably have crushed them had names been as heavy as things. Notwithstanding all this fury, the cause has survived and prospered. It cannot be the poor and puny thing some would have it to be. It must possess some inherent vitality, that has enabled it to grow amid a storm and tempest of opposition.
The cause, however, has had a more powerful and dangerous enemy to contend with than any of those already indicated. The foe who openly challenges the principle, whatever may be his weapons, or method of warfare, is not greatly to be feared. We know him to be a foe, and are prepared to meet him. But there is another who comes in the guise of a friend. He looks blandly, smiles graciously, and speaks in a patronizing tone. He is reluctant to say one word against a cause that has done so much good! It has undoubtedly been a blessing to thousands of families-it is a great pity that every drunkard cannot see the propriety of signing the pledge. The inexperienced become quite assured that this soft, smooth-spoken gentleman is an ally and a friend. But let the question be put, and it turns out that he has some reservation. He thinks there is 'a fallacy'at the bottom of the total-abstinence question—that alcoholic wine is a good creature of God, and that the pledge is only useful to those who cannot govern then
seltes. This man is more dangerous than the unyielding, uncompromizing enemy. Some are grateful for the concession he makes of the value of the temperance movement: we have neither gratitude nor respect for admissions that damn with faint praise,' and involve so much of falsehood. We tolerate no philosophy, however specious, which teaches that error can, under any circumstances, be other than mischievous. We must not be told, if wine or any particular kind of strong drink is good in itself, that teaching an opposite doctrine can be useful to the human family. We cannot recognize the sen:e of calling upon any class of men to abstain from that which is essentially good. We are not wise above what God has written in his Works. We believe that it is always right, always best, to proclaim the whole truth. Prove to us that alcohol is useful, in any quantity or in any form, as an article of diet, and, not withistanding all the acknowleged evils of intemperance, we will abandon the ground we have taken, and advocate the use of wine and beer. 'A tree is known by its fruits-A good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit. We have had too much of this bowing to expediency this homage to the opinions of bigoted or timid men, who either will not investigate the subject, or who shrink from the avowal of the convictions at which they arrive. This temporizing policy brings with it endless vexations, perpetual disappointments. It is time the Temperance Cause assumed that proud position and dignified attitude on which some of its leaders have always insisted—that it took its place in the front rank of the great movements of the day. It has already done noble things, and nothing can retard its further and triumphant progress but the cowardice or indiscretion of its advocates. It is of all things the most important that we should keep steadily before us the original principles which were enunciated by Beecher and Edwards in America, and extended to all alcoholic fluids by the seven men of Preston,—that we should not waver in the assertion of what we believe to be true, taking care to rest our argument upon the firm and lasting foundation of Experience and Science.
Perhaps at no time in the history of the temperance movement was a conscientious discharge of duty-a clear and unmistakable enunciation of sound principle —more required than at this juncture. The literature of the age has already begun to acknowlege and diffuse the facts which temperance writers have collected. Public Journalists have manifested a desire to speak favorably of the labors and efforts of Temperance Societies, and hence the greater need for watchful care that the principles are faithfully represented. These remarks have been extorted from us by a few circumstances of recent occurrence-more especially by the articles which have appeared in the Journal of Public Health, in a late number of The Examiner Newspaper, and in a still later number of our facetious cotemporary, Punch. There is nothing of power or novelty in the articles themselves, but they mauifest the prevailing notions among gentlemen of the Press as to the causes and cure of drunkenness; they moreover represent the opinions of a considerable portion of the community, and show us that much yet remains to be done before the public mind is indoctrinated with sound views on this matter.
We congratulate ourselves that the temperance cause has been brought to a position that commands attention. It remains for us to explain and simplify its philosophy. We avail ourselves of the opportunity afforded by these lucubrations,