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be performed during the earthly life, we need only reply that, under whatever circumstances, faith in Christ will have opportunity to be realized in works of love, but that the illustrations of the principle must be intelligible to hearers, and therefore were drawn from the present state of things. We do not deny that the power of Christ may now be energizing in some who do not consciously and avowedly become his disciples, but in nearly all such cases they know Him by reflection from the lives of those who do accept Him, and from those Christian standards which have become incorporated into custom. Before the judgment we believe they will have conscious faith in Christ. But when there is no real knowledge of the gospel, either in itself or from its results, we find no satisfactory evidence of the Christian life.

And thus we are brought back to the problem which confronted us in the entire discussion. If the heathen are to be judged by the deeds done in the body, and under these tests of the final judgment, then they are to be judged by the highest and most searching tests possible. It would be expected that they will have exhibited conduct and character such as is admirable even in those who have intelligent faith in Christ. Yet practically they have been ignorant of the motive and power by which such results can be produced. To say nothing of exegetical difficulties, if the heathen, not having had the gospel, are to be judged by the tests we have been considering, then the masses of heathendom are hopelessly lost. Instead of being measured by standards within their reach, they are measured by the highest standards possible, by unattainable standards.

Dr. Todd advances the view that humanity merely finds its perfection in Jesus Christ, and that to love and serve our fellow-man is to love and serve Christ. Christ is revealed in humanity. He is the ideal man. This view robs Christianity of its distinctive signification and power. We had supposed that Christ reveals God as well as man; that He brings the love of God to sinful men so that they may be redeemed from sin and brought to their true condition of holiness. In Christ God seeks man, bringing in that truth and motive by which man can become a new creature. Man has conscience, knows the difference between right and wrong, admires virtue and kindness, but without the love of God in Christ is powerless to realize goodness. The good that he would he does not, and crying out, “ () wretched man that I am, who shall deliver me from the body of this death,” finds deliverance only through Jesus Christ our head. Christ is more than the ideal man. He is the Second Adam, the progenitor of a new humanity, the producing cause of a new life. In the old Adam all die ; in Christ only can any be made alive. We agree with Dr. Todd in condemning a dead orthodoxy, which substitutes an ideal conception for devotion of life to human needs. But we regard as most dangerous and pernicious any representation of Christianity which reduces it to a level with natural religion, which discovers no essential difference between the race of sinners, with its various possibilities, and the Lord

and Saviour Jesus Christ, who came to seek and to save that which was lost. We heartily echo the words of Lange, when he says, “We must not weaken the fundamental principle. Out of Christ is no pardon or salvation. We cannot admit different terms of salvation.”



For a layman in architecture to assume a dogmatic tone in expressing himself upon an art he has never in any true sense practiced, or to address himself to skillful practitioners in this difficult and noble profession as instructor, critic, or reformer, would be a manifest impertinence. To ally himself with the dilettanti, and record the subtle, æsthetic emotions that are supposed to be awakened in superior beings while contemplating impressive examples of modern or mediæval ecclesiastical architecture, would justly expose him to ridicule, even though the transcript of his sensations were accompanied by valid reasons to account for the worthiness of his admirations. We attempt no contribution to the literary history of the art, nor do we offer new views upon the disputed questions in the theory and practice of architecture. Architecture that is worthy of the name is adequately understood and interpreted only by the gifted architect or critic who has the capacity to receive and the expressional art to communicate artistic ideas and feeling. He it is who, in matters concerning his art, must give sight to the blind. Unfortunately for the literature of architecture, even the ablest amongst the architects, for the most part, content themselves in their teaching and interpretation with doing rather than with telling. “I criticise by creation,” said Michael Angelo, “ not by finding fault.”

The main purpose of the present writer is a comparatively unambitious one, and purely practical. The aim is, in a brief series of articles, to render useful service to such readers of the “ Andover Review” as may one day find themselves in some way practically engaged in church building, and to contribute to the interest of others who, in various ways, may be concerned in the furtherance of this important influence in the social and religious life of a community. We are not unmindful of the existence of effective organizations for the special purpose of imparting useful information and suggesting wise methods of building to religious societies that propose erecting churches under adverse circumstances of location and resources. Such organizations may find us indirectly helpful in the prosecution of their praiseworthy ends.

The basis of the method adopted to realize the spirit and purpose indicated is not invention but exposition. We have nothing novel to advocate in style, plan, or construction. Neither shall we attempt to revive an interest in the architecture of the remote past, but we shall endeavor faithfully to register some phases of the present. Types of church architecture will be selected from the numerous admirable examples in the country that have been built in the recent past, which seem to us to em

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body interesting and useful features in the worthy expression of the needs of modern church-life.

The exercise of the modest function of registration and exposition may be legitimately assumed by any intelligent layman who has made architecture a favorite study, and who has taken the trouble to see for himself the edifices he proposes as the subjects of his exposition, and to verify the facts of their history and construction. If it is his good fortune to develop his scheme under the impulse of a practical apprenticeship in certain departments of the art, served at some former period of his life, and if he has had an extensive acquaintance with audience-rooms in their relation to public speaking and other requirements, his guidance in the matter undertaken may gain an increment of trustworthiness in the estimation of his readers. Nevertheless, no greater value should be attached to his opinions than would be accorded to any student of the subject, careful for his work and candid in his expression; much less should he think of setting himself up as an authority.

In the selection of illustrative examples the types will be chosen from Protestant churches, and largely, though not altogether, from the nonliturgical churches. The new problems in church architecture lie within the changing needs of Protestant church-life. The religious purposes of the Roman Catholic churches are the same to-day that they were in the Middle Ages, and the essential features of their architectural embodiment retain the boasted quality of permanence. We shall also follow the rule of choosing neither very costly nor very inexpensive edifices, but shall rather take those that are best fitted to meet the ecclesiastical wants of the times, irrespective of the single item of the expense of construction. Through personal critical study, and full and accurate description of such examples, supplemented by a sufficient amount of pictorial illustration, we hope to contribute towards elevating the taste of the religious public in American church architecture, and to influence the efforts of some of the church-building committees of the future in securing for their contemplated houses of worship the possible union of utility, beauty, and economy.

During the last twenty-five years the character of American churchlife in the Protestant denominations has undergone a noteworthy transformation. Formerly the requirements of the Sabbath congregation were met in the satisfaction of the instinct of worship and the need of religious instruction. · In the rapid growth of religious activity a new want has been developed. To the factors of worship and instruction there has been added a third, — the social life of the church. “Sociables” have been multiplied. Associations, conferences, and councils must have “entertainment.” The church should be “given to hospitality,” and the natural roof-tree under which to extend it is the church home. Should there be considerable literary activity in the community, perhaps stimulated by the “ Chautauqua Idea,” it is utilized by the social and religious forces, and brought under the influence of the church. These new modes of churchlife create their own form of expression. The new demands must be satisfied. In close proximity to the place consecrated to prayer and praise and spiritual edification must be found in the modern well-regulated church the new adjuncts of the kitchen, the parlor, and the library.

In addition to the increased intensity of social church-life there is another element that enters into the designing of non-liturgical churches, - the influence of symbolism. In the cities and large towns there is a

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