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the present Haram area. In a second article he shows that the identification of Zion with the western hill, instead of with the Temple mount, dates from the fourth century A. D., when the Jews who had settled again on the western hill revived the ancient and revered name Zion ; 2 in a third, the author seeks to identify that part of the region of the Temple mount which lies facing the city as the Lower City of Josephus. A fourth article treats of the City of David, the Pool of Solomon, and the Tombs of the Kings. A very thorough and rigidly scientific discussion of the same controverted points is contained in Klaiber's essay, Zion, the City of David and the Akra within Ancient Jerusalem, according to the testimony of the canonical books of the Old Testament, as well as of the first book of Maccabees and of Josephus. Of the results of the first article we call particular attention to the following propositions: Neither the name “ Zion" nor “ City of David ” is in the canonical books brought into any connection whatever with the southwest hill; Zion is originally the name of the fort of the Jebusites ; the city of David, with the house and the tomb of David, lay on the eastern hill, south, therefore, of the Temple, and somewhat lower; the palace of Solomon is distinguished from the city of David, but lay likewise upon the eastern ridge, higher than the city of David, lower than the Temple, beyond doubt upon the southeastern part of the present Haram area. In view of the arguments with which Klaiber has anew established these positions, which for the most part have long been accepted by German special students in this department, it is hard to understand the obstinacy with which especially English investigators persist in identifying Zion with the higher western hill, the site of the Zion church and monastery. In the second article Klaiber defends with great thoroughness the hypothesis that the Akra was originally a separate elevation within the Lower City, — on the Ophel, south of the Temple mount. After the leveling down of this elevation by the Asmoneans, however, the name was used, as particularly in Josephus, for the whole Lower City. Professor Sepp gives various notices of the stone hat-toim on the Ecce Homo Arch in Jerusalem. A statement of Hammer's about supposed Ghassanide tombs in the neighborhood of the tomb of Mary in Jerusalem is corrected by Gildemeister, who shows that in the Arabic verses in question the Ghassanide Prin1 1. 61 ff.
2 II. 18 ff.
8 II. 189 . 4 III. 116 ff.
5 III. 189 ff.
6 VI. 18 ff. 7 II. 48 .
cess Mary and tombs in Damascus are meant. The Journal is indebted to the same scholar for the proof that the name of Khan Minye, on the Sea of Galilee, comes from the Arabic (properly Coptic) munya, farm, hamlet, and is therefore shortened from combination with a proper name (very likely munyat hishâm). Korea or Koreai, mentioned by Josephus (Ant. xiv. 3, § 4), Gildemeister identifies 3 with the Oasis Karâwâ in the Ghor; Alexandrium he finds upon the mountain Sartaba, four or five miles from Karawa; on the other hand, the Salamias mentioned by Antoninus Placentinus, ch. x., is shown by Gildemeister to be identical with Livias, and a mere textual error. In regard to the ruins of the great church in Tyre, Gildemeister shows that the church was not, as has been erroneously maintained, called manâra, but the church near the manâra (light-house), and communicates in the same connection a document referring to the excavations at this church as an interesting specimen of modern Turkish-Arabic legal forms. Architect C. Schick discusses the question into what region of the wilderness the scape-goat was led on the Jewish day of atonement, and decides for the chalk-hill Tantur Hudedun, twelve Roman miles east of Jerusalem. In the paper on Saul's journey (1 Sam. ix.), Schick endeavors to solve the topographical difficulties by the assumption of two different tombs of Rachel. In his studies on the number of inhabitants in ancient Jerusalem the same writer concludes that the former population of Jerusalem may easily have amounted to 200,000 - 250,000.8 The valley of Zeboim (1 Sam. xii. 18) Marti finds in the modern Wady abu dabâ, north of Khan hadrûr. Professor Philip Schaff defends the identification of Capernaum with Tell Hum.10 In regard to the controversy over Elkôsh, the birthplace of the prophet Nahum, E. Nestle calls attention to a note taken from a Syriac manuscript, that Nahum the Elkoshite was born beyond bêt-Gabrê, in the tribe of Simeon, and this bêt-Gabrê Nestle holds to be the same with Betogabra, that is, Bet Jibrîn, or Eleutheropolis.11 The Mohammedan traditions about the tomb of Joshua are discussed by Goldziher.12 The deserving explorer K. Furrer writes on the places on the Lake of Gennesaret, 18 and on the ancient cities and villages in the district of the Lebanon.14 The Taricheæ mentioned by Josephus is identified by F. Spiess with the modern Mejdel, or is at least to be sought in its immediate neighborhood. A guide to the interpretation of names of places is given by Socin in his list of Arabic common nouns used in names of places.?
1 III. 177 ff.
2 IV. 194 ff.
8 IV. 245 f.
VII. 125 ff. 12 II. 13 f.
Of interest both for the topography and the customs of the country is the article of H. Dechent on mineral baths and bathing in Palestine, in which he treats of the warm baths of Tiberias, Gadara, and Callirrhoë, the so-called warm baths of Moses, the pools of Bethesda and Siloam, and the fountain of Amwâs.3 Professor Budde in Bonn communicates the account given by the Italian traveler Mariti of a funeral witnessed by him in Jaffa in the year 1767, and points out the agreement between the customs there described and the mourning for the dead in Syria observed by Wetzstein. Budde's object is to stimulate to investigations, as to where and in what form the Hebrew lament for the dead, to which the beginning of the article is devoted, may still survive in the Holy Land.
Of purely historical character are, lastly, the essays of Prutz on the Possessions of the Order of St. John in Palestine and Syria, and of K. Herquet, New Contributions to the History of the Order of St. John in the “ Archives de l'Orient Latin.” 6 An interesting sketch of the local history of Jerusalem from 1834– 1884, based upon personal observation and a very extensive correspondence with prominent inhabitants of the city, is given by Pastor Ph. Wolff, who has also made the excellent indexes to the first five volumes of the Journal.
This rapid review of the contributions to learning which have in the past eight years appeared in the pages of the Journal, meagre as any such sketch must be, may suffice to show how varied and how fruitful the work of the society has been. The record is laid before our readers in the confidence that it will commend itself to all who are interested in Palestine research. That it may have the hearty support of all such is earnestly hoped and desired.
E. Kautzsch. TÜBINGEN, GERMANY. 1 VIII. 95 ff.
2 IV. 1 ff.
8 VII. 173 ff. 4 VI. 180 ff.
6 IV. 157 ff.
6 VI. 206 ff. 7 VIII. 1 ff.
THE RECURRENCE OF RIOTS.
A Few days before the battle of Lexington the following scene was enacted in what is now the township of Westminster, Vermont, then a part of Cumberland County, New York. A force of nearly one hundred men had taken possession of a courthouse in order to prevent the holding of the courts. When summoned by the sheriff and magistrates to surrender they refused, with oaths, and threats of terrible import if the representatives of the law should draw near. The latter fired three guns over the heads of the rioters. The fire was returned with ball, and one of the justices of the court was wounded. A second volley against the rioters resulted in the killing of one, the wounding of nine, and their temporary withdrawal from the temple of justice. On the following day the courts — in two branches — attempted to convene, but adjournment was made for fear of more disturbance. Before the court -room could be cleared the mob, now swollen to much larger proportions, rushed in, seized the judges, the sheriff, and other court officers, and confined them in the county jail. The excitement runs higher while the prisoners are confined. Threats to burn the jail are with the greatest difficulty prevented from being put into execution. The prisoners are kept in suspense from Wednesday until Sunday, when the judge of the superior court and several of the court's employees are released on giving bonds with security to appear and take their trials along with the other prisoners whom they found in the jail. The judge of the inferior court, an assistant justice, a justice of the peace, the high sheriff, the deputy sheriff, and the clerk — all officers of the county — are marched off under guard to the jail at Northampton in Massachusetts Bay, nearly 50 miles distant, where they remain until it is safe to return once more.
The cause of the riot was not politics, not patriotism, not rebellion against the mother country. The grievance was that many of the rioters and their friends who had been sued for debts were unable to collect what was owing them in Massachusetts Bay! For similar reasons the rioters in Bennington, Vermont, had already passed sentence upon a justice of the peace, inflicted one hundred lashes, and then banished him from that part of the country ; while five years before there had been a series of rebellions against the courts in the present territory of Vermont, the
VOL. V. — NO. 27. 19
people of New Hampshire having encouraged the idea that New York had no authority to establish tribunals of justice there.
The riot at Westminster in 1775 was virtually repeated in principle in the riot at Cincinnati in 1884. The late anti-Chinese riots on the Pacific slope are only repetitions of outbreaks that, have appeared in some form before. In fact, riots persistently' repeat themselves at irregular intervals of time. They seem in many instances to move in cycles, as if subject to a law of periodicity.
It will be the object of this paper to call attention to the comparative frequency of riots in the history of the country, and to point out the variety of causes from which they have sprung. The simple narration of facts, with a suggestion as to the only sufficient remedy, may be of value in this period of social disturbance at home and abroad.
Scarcely a city or large community in the land has escaped disturbances on account of the robbing of graves in order to furnish subjects for the scalpel of the dissecting room. No one of these instances varies materially from the hospital riot of 1788 in New York city. At that time the old hospital was in Broadway, opposite Pearl Street. One fine spring morning a medical student showed an amputated arm to a group of boys who were playing on the green below. When the largest boy came nearer the window he was told by the student that it was the arm of his mother. The boy, whose mother had recently died, told his father. The mother's grave was searched, and the body was missing. Other bodies were missing also. A mob attacked the hospital, and the students were removed to jail for safety. On the next day the mob searched Columbia College, and also the houses of several leading physicians, but no more bodies were found. The breaking of the jail was then attempted in order to kill the students. A small force of militia was ordered out, laughed at by the mob, and its arms taken away. A larger force was called out, which fired on the mob and killed several of the number. This was denounced by some as murder; and so high did the feeling run that the students and the physicians were obliged to leave the city until the storm had blown over.
The horrors of the St. Domingo uprising and massacre were only repetitions, on a larger scale, of what happened in New York city in 1712 and again in 1741. At the earlier date the northern boundary of the city was scarcely above Wall Street. The negroes - who formed about one fourth of the population — were wrought