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CONCLUDING REMARKS. The year 1883 is everywhere assumed as the basis, only extreme paucity of material occasionally inducing me to refer to earlier or later reports. Newer undertakings are therefore unnoticed, and many of those that are reported have experienced a considerable enlargement within two years.

The number of missionaries, simple as its determination may seem, shows at once how missionary statistics still fall a good deal short of absolute accuracy. Many societies reckon only ordained missionaries, others all white laborers. Missionary physicians I have always reckoned as missionaries ; doubtless a good many handicraft helpers are included. Should I ever attempt a similar work at greater leisure, I would, instead of the one, have several headings.

The various terms applied by different societies to native helpers, such as catechist, evangelist, native helper, etc., are used so variously as to result in a good many gaps under this heading.

The female missionaries are not reckoned. There are difficulties, as in a certain sense every missionary's wife is a fellow-laborer. Another time, however, I would gladly devote a special column to ladies who are specially appointed.

Under the next heading the circumstances constrained me, unhappily, to unite numbers of differing significance. Among the native Christians I have sometimes included catechumens and all persons whatever who have broken with heathenism. Some reports give under this heading only regular church-goers. Some reckon only the baptized. But as the conditions of baptism are so various, even here we have, so to speak, fractions which as yet lack a precise general denominator. Almost all American societies omit this heading, and give only the number of communicants. Often the most wearisome computation by analogies, or reference to earlier reports, was necessary to make out the number of children and adherents. But I have made it my effort always to hold these estimates within the possible truth.

Column 10 is peculiarly conjectural in its results.

The expenses ought really to include the products of the various industries pursued in various missions, and often contributing materially to their support. The omission of these, for instance, causes the expenses of the Moravian mission at Surinam to appear unreasonably low.

The outlays of the British and American societies appear in our tables much lower than in other accounts. We could not simply transfer their statements, and, for instance, with the Baptists and Methodists, put down the Christian cities of Berlin, Hamburg, etc., as mission stations. Deducting, therefore, such outlays, we must reduce the costs of administration in like proportion. And even where a society, like the S. P. G., works on the same field among both heathen and colonists, I have done my best to present only the missions to the heathen.

Where measurably complete reports were not obtainable, the fact is indicated by an asterisk, though unhappily none too consistently.

Home Outlays I make to include, besides costs of administration, expenses on account of invalid missionaries, for the promotion of interest at home, printing, and diffusion of missionary literature, etc.; the net profit of the last, where possible, being deducted.

The foregoing statements will make it sufficiently evident how far,

after all my toilsome labor, my contribution to missionary statistics still halts behind completeness. To have attempted to add the various headings which some will be ill content to miss would have been too much for my present strength, and would have involved, perhaps, still greater difficulties in the effort to render them satisfactory.

But, with all its defects, I believe that even the present work will contribute somewhat towards paving the way for a Statistic of Protestant Missions which shall continually be coming nearer to exactness. Above all, it rests with the Missionary Societies to come in some way to an understanding, such as shall secure that computations are made on the same principle.

Dr. Grundemann.

BOOK REVIEWS AND NOTICES.

THE APOSTOLIC FATHERS. Part II. S. IGNATIUS. S. POLYCARP. Re

vised Texts with Introductions, Notes, Dissertations, and Translations. By J. B. LIGHTFOOT, D. D., D. C. L., LL. D., Bishop of Durham. Vol. I. 8vo, pp. xii., 740 ; Vol. II. Sect. 1, 8vo, pp. 584 ; Sect. 2, 8vo, pp. 533 (585–1117). London: Macmillan & Co. 1885.

DR. ADOLF HARNACK (whose own important work on the “Rise of Church Doctrine” has recently been issued) pronounces these volumes of Bishop Lightfoot “the most learned and careful Patristic monograph which has appeared in the nineteenth century,” and adds that“ it has been elaborated with a diligence and knowledge of the subject which show that Lightfoot has made himself master of this department, and placed himself beyond the reach of any rival.” Dr. Salmon in “ The Academy” has greeted it with almost equal praise ; and the reviewer in “ The Athenæum” — which for long has commonly estimated all works of Biblical Introduction and early Patristics in accordance with the conclusions of critics who bring down the date of a large portion of the New Testament writings to the second century — asks, in an unwonted tone, whether the field is to be left in possession of the conservatives, and does not venture to hint at more than a probability that some champion “ may stand up against them [Zahn, Funk, and Lightfoot] with adequate resources and equal power.” We apprehend that such a critic, if he arise, will be far more likely to accept in substance their conclusions, and that the Ignatian problems which remain — and such there undoubtedly are — will be considered from the vantage ground thus secured.

The object, however, of this notice is not to review the discussions opened by these rich and weighty volumes, but to give a brief summary of their contents.

The first volume opens with a critical examination of the testimonies available respecting the legal condition of Christians under Trajan, and with a sifting of the traditions that have gathered around the name of Ignatius. Then follows an elaborate and exhaustive account of the manuscripts and versions on which the text of the letters rests. The discussion of the genuineness of the seven letters recognized by Eusebius is preceded by a collection of all the passages in ancient authors which are supposed to mention Ignatius or his writings, or to quote from them ;

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