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the south, called the polar regions, in which the cold in winter is far more severe than it is in our climate. There the sea is frozen for many months. Men and animals cannot endure the severity of the weather. What are called “ The Northern Lights," which may be seen sometimes on a clear winter night in our climate, are there very brilliant, and serve to enlighten their long nights.
77.—THE DESERTS OF AFRICA. In the hottest part of the earth, there are wide sandy regions, scorched up by the burning heat of the sun. Hot winds blow across them, carrying clouds of sand, which stifle and smother travellers. How thankful should we be, that in our temperate climate, we are exposed neither to the excessive heat nor intense cold, with which some parts of our earth are visited.
78.—THE PARTS OF SPEECH.—NOUNS. All words which we make use of in speaking or writing, are divided, or distinguished from each other, into different classes. Now, to know these words or parts of speech, apart from each other, helps very much to understand what we read, and to write any thing we have to write correctly. The first part of speech is the noun, which is the name given to any thing we see or know of in existence :-tree, house, man, day, life, truth, joy, pain, are nouns. The
names of places or persons are called proper nouns, as England, London, John, Mary.
79.-ADJECTIVES. All words which are added or joined to nouns, in order to describe them, are called adjectives. Thus, if I say a “green tree,” or a “ dead tree," "tree" is a noun; and “green” and “ dead” are adjectives joined to “ tree,” to shew what sort of tree it is. So we talk of “large houses,” “tall men,” “long days;" the words “large;" “tall,” “long," being used to describe the nouns to which they are joined. Words which stand in the place of nouns, and are used for them, are called pronouns; such as the words who, which, what, I, he, thou.
30.-VERBS. All words which signify motion or action, are called verbs. Thus - life," " walk," " song," are nouns. But, if I say “he lives," "they walk," " we sing," the words " lives," " walk," "sing," are verbs. Verbs, as to their use, are either active or passive ; In the words " he carries a book," " carries” is an active verb. In the words “he is carried,” “is carried” is a passive verb. As to their meaning, verbs are either transitive or neuter. Transitive verbs require a noun to be joined to them, as "he gathers flowers.” Neuter do not, as "he speaks." Adjectives derived from verbs, are called participles, as “painted,” “living,” “ gone.”
81.–OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH. There are some words added to verbs, which describe them, as adjectives describe nouns. These are called adverbs; as in the words “he sings loudly," "loudly” is an adverb. Some words are joined to nouns to describe their place; as in the words “in the house," "behind the door;" the words “in, behind ;” are called prepositions. Some connect nouns or sentences together; as “and," " if," " but;" these are called conjunctions. Some which express pleasure or pain; as, “ Oh!” “Ah!” “alas !” are called interjections.
82.–GRAMMAR. That kind of learning which teaches us to read and speak correctly, is called Grammar. Sentences which we use are made up of words, as words are made up of syllables; and so he who understands the use of words properly, is much more likely to profit by what he reads or hears, than one who does not. What we learn when we are young, is meant to be of use to us and to help us when we are grown up.
83.–MUSIC. Most persons take great delight in music, though they may not possess the talent of playing on any instrument. The tunes most fitted for common use, therefore, are the simplest; and these are often the most beautiful. If we have a love of music, and any talent, however small, in distinguishing sounds
we ought to learOGRAPHIE
or notes, we ought to educate this faculty, just as much as we ought to learn to read and write.
84.-GEOGRAPHY. A knowledge of the earth, of the great seas and continents with which it is covered, of the rivers and mountains, and the natural productions of different climates, is very desirable. Many persons now leave England to seek an honest livelihood in distant parts of the world, which are as yet only partly occupied by man. Their friends love to know what kind of country they are gone to. Geography, or the knowledge of the earth, is necessary to the understanding of most books which fall in our way.
85.—ARITHMETIC. Arithmetic teaches us the use of numbers. The first thing we learn is to read numbers; this is called Numeration. Then we learn to add numbers together; and to take a lesser from a larger number; and to find how often one number is contained in another which is larger than itself. Every one who grows up and earns his livelihood, has to be careful about money: now, how can we do this well, unless we know something of arithmetic?
86.–BOTANY. As the earth is covered with innumerable herbs, grasses, and flowers, and shrubs, the knowledge of these things is both useful and interesting. He who lives in the country, and knows not how to distinguish plants of various kinds from each other, is little better than a blind man. So great is the variety of them, that few persons know them all by name: nevertheless, attention and memory will enable us to gain some knowledge of botany. Some plants also are poisonous: what a good thing it is to know these when we see them!
87.- CHEMISTRY. One of the most useful kinds of knowledge is that which teaches us the nature of different substances. Thus our food is of different kinds, and it is a good thing to know what food is wholesome, and what is not. There are many diseases of our bodies which are cured by the use of certain medicines, extracted from plants and minerals. All this knowledge is called chemistry.
88.--HISTORY. History is the account of all the remarkable events which have taken place since the creation of this world. Sacred History is contained in the Bible: all other history is called, to distinguish it from sacred, Profane History. The history of England is that of our own country, and is that in which we learn of the lives and actions of those who have lived before us in this land; and how we have come to be governed by good laws, and to enjoy the benefit of them.