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Shelburne and marquisses of Lansdowne; the present marquis sold these and other manors by auction, which were pure chased by lord Carrington. Among these the manor of Loakes, or, as it is otherwise called, WYCOMBE ABBEY, was much improved by lord Shelburne, and the marquis of Lansdowne bestowed much cost in its improvement. The house was almost totally rebuilt in the Gothic style from designs by Mr. Wyatt ; and the small river which passed it, added great beauty to the grounds.
The parish church of High Wycombe is of antient struc. ture, though not so remote as the year 1273. The tower was built in 1522, and the pinnacles added at the expence of the earl of Shelburne in 1755. An agtient oak screen divides the body of the church from the chancel; it bears an inscription, implying that it was put up in 1.460, at the expence of the father of William Redhead, who was mayor in 1476. The altar piece was painted by Mortimer, and represents St. Paul converting the Druids. The chancel contains a fine monument by Soheemakers, for Henry earl of Shelburne, who died in 1751; it cost 20001. and represents the deceased lying on a sarcophagus, ornamented with emblematical figures, and a medallion of the famous Sir William Petty, the earl's father. The south aisle. con, tains a fine monument by Carlini, for Sophia, countess of Shelburne, who died in 1771. There are also memorials for the families of Archdale, Llewelyn, Shrimpton, and Bradshaw. Robert Williams, the late sexton, has a tomb in the churchyard; he died in 1793, aged one hundred and two. Dr. Gamble, who wrote the life of Monk, duke of Albemarle, and was supposed to have assisted in the restora. tion of Charles II. was vicar of this church,
High Wycombe was first incorporated in 1461, and at present consists of a mayor, high steward, twelve aldermen, a recorder, and other officers; these and the bure gesses compose a body of one hundred and eighty persons, who elect members to parliament, This borough first sent members to parliament in the twenty-eighth of Ed
Ward 1.* It also gives the title of earl to the marquis of Lansdowne.
The town hall is a very handsome brick structure on stone pillars, built at the expence of John earl of Shelburne in 1757; there are also a free grammar school, and two almshouses.
The prosperity of High Wycombe in a great degree arises from the corn and paper mills on the Wycombe stream. Another source of wealth is its situation on the road to Oxford, &c. Part of the trade is lace making, and the yearly donations for the poor amount to about 2201. of which 301, is appropriated as the salary of the grammar schoolmaster. The town in 1801, contained four hundred and fifty-eight houses, and two thousand three hundred and forty-nine inhabitants.
In July 1724, in a meadow in the neighbourhood, was discovered a curious piece of Roman antiquity, a pave. ment of about nine feet square, with stones of various coJours, wrought with exquisite art, the biggest no broader than the square of a die.
High Wycombe is at present the residence of the senior department of the ROYAL MILITARY COLLEGE.
This liberal institution was established in 1799, at the suggestion and under the superintendance of major-general
* The three following resolutions are inserted from the Journals of the House of Commons: “ March 17, 1725. Resolved, nem. con. That it appears to this house, that in an entry of burgesses made at the borough of Cheping Wycomb, in the county of Bucks, dated the 20th of May, 1717, there has been an erazure lately made, and the naine of capt. Paget inserted without any legal authority. Resolved, nem. cor. That it appears to this house, that, in an entry of burgesses made in the borough of Cheping Wycomb, dated the 26th of September, 1723, an erazure has been lately made, whereby the name of David Shilfore, a burgess of the said borough, is erazed. Resolved, nem. còn. That Sampson Tresly and John Widiner, who were adınitted to vote at the late election of a buri gess to serve in this present parliament for the said borough of Cheping Wycomb, (having no pretence to be burgesses of the said borough, but under a charter of James II. which was never accepted, or enrolled,) have no right of voting in election of burgesses to serve in parliament for the said borough." 3 L 2
Le Marchant. The establishment is divided into two de partments, the senior and junior, and embraces a complete system of military education. The senior department is intended for such officers as are desirous to qualify themselves as general staff officers; for this purpose four years service in their regiments, thorough knowledge of the care of a company, and their duty in the field, is necessary, preparatory to their introduction to the college.
The following will more fully express the system of education for those of the junior department: ABSTRACT OF THE REGULATIONS, &c. OF THE JUNIOR
DEPARTMENT. “ The junior departmentof the Royal Military College is appropriated to the instruction of those, who from early life are intended for the military profession, and who, by this means, may be grounded in science, previously to their attaining the age that enables them, consistently with our regulations, to bold commissions in the army. This department of the college is also intended to afford a provision for the orphan sons of those meritorious officers who have fallen, or been disabled, in the service of their country, as well as for the sons of those officers in our military service, who, from pecuniary difficulties, might not otherwise be able to give them an adequate education, One company of this department shall be formed, to consist of one hundred gentlemen cadets, and to be called “ The First Company of the Junior Department of the Royal Military College.” The said company shall be formed and governed, according to the following rules, orders, and regulations, and by such others as his majesty, from time to time, 'shall think fit to direct.
“ Section the First, The cadets shall, for the present, be received into the junior department, upon three different establishments, according to the following specification, viz. Thirty, the orphan sons of officers who have died, or been maimed, in our service, and who have left such orphans in pecuniary distress: these shall receive their education, board, 5
and clothing, free from expence. Twenty, the sons of officers actually in our service: these shall pay forty pounds per annum each, for which sum they shall receive their educa. tion, board, and clothing. Thirty, the sons of noblemen and gentleinen; and, Twenty, the cadets of the East India Company's service: these shall pay ninety guineas per annum each, for which sum they shall receive their education, board, and clothing. Linen is not included under the head of clothing.
“ Section the Second. No cadet shall be admitted, who is under thirteen, or above fifteen years of age, or who has any mental or bodily defect which may disqualify him for military service; and he shall produce a sufficient certificate of the time of his birth. Every candidate for admission shall be well grounded in a knowledge of grammar, and of common arithmetic; he shall likewise write a good hand. If he should be found deficient in any of these elementary parts of learning, he will not be qualified for admission ; and his application will be rejected, or must be postponed. The sums directed to be paid by each cadet for education, board, and clothing, shall be paid half yearly, in advance; and should any cadet leave the college before the expiratiou of the half year, he shall be regularly accounted with for the six months advance. Each cadet shall nominate an army agent, in London, from whom the half yearly payments are to be received by the trea. surer of the Royal Military College. No cadet sball at any time join his company with a greater sum of money in his possession, than one guinea; and this regulation is considered to be so indispensable, that the governor shall communicate it to the parents or friends of each candidate pre. viously to his being admitted, and inform them, that any deviation therefrom will subject the cadet to be sent away from the college. The parents or friends of each cadet may, however, if they think proper, make an arrangement for his receiving an allowance not exceeding half a crown per week, for pocket money.
Section the Third. The undermentioned military staffsball; for the present, be appointed to the junior department, viz. One Superintendent. This officer shall not be under the rank of captain in the army. He shall act as commandant of the department, until one is appointed. · He shall receive his orders from the governor, or lieutenant-governor, of the college, and report to them accordingly. He shall also diligently superintend and direct the studies in strict conformity to the orders on that head; and shall be responsible for the discipline, interior regulation, and government, of the department. One Inspector of a Company. This appointment shall be filled by a person not uitder the rank of a subaltern officer in the army. He shall com: mand the first company of gentlemen cadets, under the orders of the superintendent. He shall attend the cadets at the hours of stụdy, and shall in all instances act in conformity to the rules and regulations of the department. One Serjeunt Major of a Company. This appointment shall be filled by a person who has served in a regiment of the line. He is to do the duty of serjeant major to the first company of gentlemen cadets.
“ Section the Fourth. In order that the cadets may be instructed in military exercises and duties, they shall be formed into a military body; and those composing the first company shall be formed according to the following distribution, viz. one captain-lieutenant, two lieutenants, one ensign, five serjeants, ten tents, or squads, of nine each, one supernumerary, making a total of one hundred.
“ Section the Fifth. The cadets shall be instructed in the study of mathematics, fortification, and the general principles of gunnery, and artillery service. They shall also be taught drawing of plans, military movements, and perspective; likewise the knowledge of tactics, military geography, and history; together with the German and French languages. Frequent lectures shall be given on natural and moral philosophy. Riding and fencing, the use of the sabre, and swimming, are also to be included among their