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The river Wey was made navigable to Guildford about the year 1656, under the patronage of Sir Richard Weston, bart. of Sutton Place, who first introduced into England those useful inventions of river locks, tumbling bays, and turnpike roads, which now, and for many years past, have enabled the inhabitants of Guildford and its vicinity to convoy their merchandise to and from London, and to supply the surrounding villages on the easiest terms; as well as to carry on a very considerable trade in corn, malt, beer, &c. This navigation is also of great support to Farnham market, corn bought there being brought to the mills on this river within seven miles distance, and, after being ground and dressed, sent down in barges to London. The road from Farnham to Guildford, runs along the ridge of a high chalky hill, which is not much wider than the road itself; whence is an extensive prospect to the north and Rorth-west over Bagshot Heath, aud the other way into Sussex, and almost to the South Downs; in short, the prospect to the west appears as it were unbounded. This hill being of chalk, the reflection of the sun makes the heat almost insupportable to the traveller in summer. This hill reaches from Guildford to within two miles and an half of Farnham, The cross road hence to London, by way of Leatherhead and Epsom, over Banstead Downs, is not much frequented by coaches, or the common stages; but, though not the nearest to London, is by much the pleasantest in this part of England.
Here is a school for clothing and educating twentyfive boys.
Guildford has a good market on Saturday, and three considerable fairs annually, viz. on May 4, October 2, (which is held on St. Catharine's Hill before-mentioned,) and November 22.
A number of other very curious particulars may be found by consulting Mr. Russell's ingenious and well authenticated History of Guildford, to which we are indebted for much useful information. Y y 2
In the road from Guildford to Letherhead, are situated many elegant seats; among others was one inhabited by the posterity of Sir Thomas Bludworth, lord mayor of London, in 1666*. Sir Thomas himself lived and died at Camden House, near Kensington.
WEST CLANDON, three miles from Guildford, on this road, is called Clandon Regis, to distinguish it from Clan. don Abbatis, or East Clandon. The manor and advowson were purchased by Sir Richard Onslow, bart. first lord Onslow, 1716, His son Thomas built the noble seat at this place, in 1731, after a design of Leoni. “ The hall, a cube of forty feet, forms a magnificent entrance. In this apartment are two elegant chimney pieces, the work of that celebratǝd sculptor Rysbrack: the first a sacrifice to Bacchus, and said to be this great master's chef de æuvre in bas-relief; the other a sacrifice to Diana, executed with prodigious taste and ability. The rooms, in general, are stately and convenieut; the pictures good, but not numerous: two of Barlow's best pieces, however, deserve particular notice; they hang in the saloon. On the chamber floor is a fine portrait of Sir Edward Onslow, by Cornelius Jansen, in his best manner. In the gallery is a very curious painting of the antient mansion, with a bird's-eye view of the parish: here also is a portrait of Thomas de Woodstock, duke of Glocester.
The south-west prospect of Clandon House commands a lively and extensive prospect; the park affords rich pasture, and is plentifully stocked with deer; the pleasnre grounds are neat and romantic. The ascent near the house commands a view of the race ground near Guildford; and a chalk pit has been tastefully transformed into a rich scene
* An implacable resentment of the citizens of London, subsisted against this magistrate, for his inconsiderate expression at the commencement of the great fire during his mayoralty; " that the fire was of no consequence, and they might it out.” The joke was never forgotten; but was fixed upon him and his family as an indelible reproach.---Tour through Great Britain, 1724, Vol. I. p. 90.
of pictnresque beauty. The brick stables, built by lord Onslow, from a design of Brown, have the appearance of stone, and are seen to great advantage, surrounded by stately elms. The earl of Onslow is high steward of Guildford, from which town also the noble family of North take the title of earl.
Guildford, being very advantageously situated, has other numerous mansions in its neighbourhood belonging to no. blemen and gentlemen, particularly those of lord Grantley, at Wonersh; lord King, at Ockham; Sir Frederic Evelyn, at Wotton,
Two miles from Guildford, on the banks of the Wey, was a fine seat belonging to lord Onslow. The house was large, but being out of repair, was therefore pulled down, and most of the timber about it sold. Adjoining to the park is a very convenient and ingenious decoy, the first of the kind in this part of England.
The gardens at Ockham, the seat of lord King, have been lately much improved, the waters enlarged, and the whole opened according to the modern taste; the house however is inadequate for the residence of a nobleman.
In this village are wells of a purgative nature; and a mill over the Wey. The inhabitants have a tradition, there was formerly a nunnery at Ockham Court; and that a subterraneous passage went from it, under the river, to Newark Abbey, by which there was a communication between the monks and nuns.
RIPLEY, twenty-three miles and a half from London, in the road to Portsmouth, has a chapel of ease to the parish of Send. It is one of the neatest villages in the county, and was formerly famous for cricket players. A handsome house, on the green, belongs to the Onslow family.
Near Ripley are the ruins of Newark PRIORY, situated on the banks of the Wey. This was a priory of Black Canons, supposed to have been founded in the reign of Henry I. and dedicated to the Virgin. The ruins exhibit the remains of a large structure. This foundation, at its
dissolution, was valued at 2581. 11s. Ild.; so that it must have been of considerable revenue. It belongs at present to the earl of Onslow.
WOKING stands on the river Wey, near Ripley and Send Heath, twenty-eight miles from London. Here is a market on Tuesdays; a fair on September 12, and a neat market house; another staple fair is held on Whit Tuesday. This place is half way between Guildford and Weybridge, and gives name to a hundred. In the churchyard, it has been remarked, that so long as there are any remains of a corpse, besides bones, a kind of plant grows from it, about the thickness of a bulrush, with a top like the head of asparagus, which comes near the surface of the earth, but never above it; and, when the corpse is quite consumed,
the plant dies away. The same observation has been made in other churchyards, where the soil is a light red sand, as it is in this. Coffins rot in this churchyard in six years, whilst in the church they remain eighteen.
The town is out of the way of any commerce, and is therefore very obscure. It was the last retreat of Margaret, countess of Richmond, mother to Henry VII. where the king her son repaired an old royal house, on purpose for her residence, and where she ended her days in honour and peace; the former part of her life having been much exposed to storms and dangers. It is remarkable, that the several residences of this lady are more particularly pointed out in history than perhaps those of any other. The market house was built in 1665, by James Zouch, Esq.
Sutton Place, in this parish, is a noble mansion house, built of brick, with a stately gatehouse and high tower, having at each angle, a turret, The window mouldings within the house, and the quoins of the walls, are all of baked white clay, which is as perfect as when it was first set up in the reign of Henry VIII.
We pass over an obscure part of Surrey, and cross the Basingstoke canal, in which there is nothing attractive of particular notice till we arrive at
BAGSHOT, a very pleasant little town, twelve miles from Guildford, twelve from Farnham, ten from Windsor, and nine from Egham, situate on the great Western road, twenty-nine miles from London; it is remarkable for the neatness of its inns, and the good accommodations they afford to travellers. The church was destroyed by lightning in 1676, and rebuilt by the parishioners. This place was formerly called Holy Hall, and was the lordship of the British monarchs, who had a capital palace here, with a park which was laid open after the Civil Wars. King James and king Charles often came to it, on account of its convenient situation for hunting. The heath that surrounds this town, is a prodigious tract of barren country, appearing to be capable of great improvement, if any judgment can be formed from several inclosures on its borders, and even in the centre; which previously to cultivation yielded nothing but heath and worts, but now producing good grass and .corn, and plantations of trees. The striking contrast betwixt the dark barren heath, and those green cultivated spots, affords pleasing sensations to the traveller ; several gentlemen have been induced to build romantic villas and pleasant hunting seats, which are dispersed over every part of this prodigious waste.
Adjoining to the town, is a capital seat and park, formerly occupied by the right honourable lord Keppel. The inclosure is large and capacious; the wood walks and other plantations are at least two miles in circumference; and the park is upwards of three miles round.
Formerly the whole tract of country round Bagshot, for near twenty miles, very much resembled an arid desert. The sheep bred upon it are small, but remarkably fine favoured ; and when well fatted, and in proper order, pro