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The Mole, then proceeding from Leatherhead to Cobham, enters the Thames at East Moulsey, on the south side of Hampton Bridge.
The WANDLE is only a small stream, rising at Cars. halton, near Croydon; after which it continues its course, and falls into the Thames near Wandsworth. It is famous for trout, and is celebrated by Pope as
“ The blue transparent Vandalis." The most curious plants are, Birds.foot, in the fields near Cobham. Wild rue, on Leith Hill. Thorow-war, near Croydon. Maiden pinks, near Esher. Blue swcet. smelling toad-fax, in the hedges near Farnham. Self-heal, pear Kingston. Buckthorn, in the hedges near Leatherhead; and on the Downs near Dorking, are wild black cherries, from which the inbabitants make wine little inferior to French claret.
The inhabitants of Surrey, like those of most other counties, differ in their manners, in proportion to their situation; those in the interior parts devoting their time chiefly to husbandry, and are harmless sober people; but those who live near London may be considered as partaking both of the virtues and vices of the cạpital, there being a constant intercourse kept up between them.
The natural productions of this county are a mineral water at Epsom, formerly in great repute; but the cheapness of its salts has much diminished the use of this water, We have already described the purging waters at Dulwich, Sydenham, St. George's, and Bermondsey Spas. Those at Streatham are still used for similar purposes. There are also chalk pits, producing a variety of extraneous fos. sils.
The manufactures, trade, &c. exclusive of that of Southwark, are numerous and important in their commercial objects; and consist of vast distilleries, starch works, calico printing, bleaching, dying, paper making, and other. considerable branches of employment, which have induced a vast increase of population; whilst that of the remoter dis
tricts of the county, where agriculture only is followed, is scanty and insignificant.
The land throughout the county consists more of arable than pasture; that near the metropolis is mostly appropriated for milch cows; much hay is made on the banks of the Thames, and in its neighbourhood are rye, tares, clover, and turnips, used chiefly as green fodder; the more inland parts produce grain and pulse; the deep sandy districts are planted with potatoes, carrots, and parsnips. On the banks of the Thames also, much land is devoted to the purposes of nurseries and gardening, especially about Battersea, Wandsworth, Barnes, Mortlake, Putney, Richmond, &c. The land is in general much divided, the farms being moderate, and the proportion of enclosed common field land greater than in other counties.
Surrey is not remarkable for its animals: the cows are chiefly from Yorkshire and Durham; the oxen are bred from Welsh and Herefordshire cattle; and the sheep are principally from Wiltshire, Dorsetshire, and South Down. The small native breeds are, however, much valued; among these the sheep fed on Banstead Down, produce the celebrated mutton, which has excited the praise of our eminent poets. The house lambs are very fine, and are very profitable; and the hogs fed on the refuse of the distilleries and starch manufactories, are so numerous, that nearly four thousand are annually sent to the London markets.
As Callico Printing is more immediately connected with the county of Surrey, its history and the ingenious process of that manufacture is worthy of attention.
Augsbourg, in Germany, is said to have been the first European city where the inhabitants attempted to imitate those productions of the East, denominated by the name of Chintz. The neatness of the German soon exceeded that of the original manufacture, and as France was found to afford a ready market for these elegant garments, the manufacturers endeavoured to adapt them to the taste of that gạy people, by introducing borders and other decorations
of beaten gold and silver. After some time the French themselves acquired the ability of manufacturing for them. selves, and the art of callico printing was introduced into England about the latter end of the seventeenth century, being most probably brought here, with many other valuable branches of manufacture, by the distressed subjects of Louis XIV. who were expatriated in consequence of the cruel edict of Nantes, set forth by that inconsiderate monarch against the Protestants.
The perfection of ingenious discovery, however, is proverbial with respect to Great Britain, at least it was so in this instance; for during the last forty years of the eighteenth century, the vast improvement in callico, both in design and execution, that, till the destructive French war, this country was enabled, from the excellence of this manufacture, to stand pre-eminent in all the foreign markets; and we trust that ere long the ravage of mankind by war and bloodshed, will again give place to the benign influ. ence of
and mutual commerce; and that this, as well as other articles of British manufacture, will be duly appreciated, and ingenuity amply rewarded.
The first operation the cloth undergoes after it is received by the printer, is that of boiling in water with an infusion of American ash, to prepare it for the bleaching it must undergo in the different stages of printing. This alkali is cleanscd away by rincing in vitriol and water, and the vitriol is, in its turn, detached by a copious applica. tion of pure water; after which the goods are dried and calendered, and are then fit for printing. It is not in our recollection, that any other manufacture of so many distinct branches as that of printing linen, has been carried on under one roof; for here the designer of the pattern, the ingenious cutter on wood, the colour maker, the printer, the boiler, the penciller, and a variety of others in subordinate capacities, occupying their different stations, receive and pass the goods in their progressive state, till they are fit to return to the draper from whom the linen was first received.
The pattern being drawn on a paper, in its proper colours, the cutter begins to prepare the blocks, making a separate block for every distinct colour or shade of colour to be printed, which in some patterns amount to fifteen, exclusive of those which are put in by the pencil. The printer begins with the block, which gives the general outline of the patterns, and then proceeds with the different shades of black, red, and purple. These colours, which are always the first that are inserted, are afterwards fixed, and, as the technical phrase is, brought up, that is, receive their greatest lustre by being boiled in water with an infusion of the root of madder, the particles left by the madder, on the cloth being extracted by its being again boiled with cow-dung. After being rinced in a stream of water, it is boiled a third time with bran; it is then laid on the grass with the impression downwards, and is kept constantly wet. Having lain in this state for a week or ten days, it is again callendered, and returned to the printer, who proceeds to put in the different shades of blue and yellow, which are fixed on the cloth by boiling it in a decoction of a plant called wold, the flower of which only is applicable to the purpose; the cloth is then again rinced, boiled in bran, and laid on the grass, as before. These operations are repeated till every tint is conveyed on the cloth which the original pattern contains, excepting, perhaps, some few, which from the nature of the materials of which they are composed, are obliged to be inserted by a pencil; but of these blue is the only one, which is not liable to be discharged by soap.
The colours which are thus pencilled on the cloth, are dried by a stove; which is the last operation performed by the callico printer, wlio then returns the cloth to the draper. Before the linen, however, is offered for sale, it undergoes the operation of glazing by fixing a thin coat of wax on the cloth, which is thus rendered more brilliant in its appearance, and less liable to be soiled in wearing.
The pencilling is chiefly performed by children, or by girls from twelve to twenty years of age, who can earn
about six shillings and upwards per weck. The wages of most of the other persons employed are sufficiently high to enable them to support their families with much comfort.
It must be observed that the process which has been described, is entirely on the same plan as that of printing what are termed wooden cuts, on paper, with the distinction of having a different cut for each colour. There is, however, another mode of printing linen, which is performed by engraved plates and a rolling press; but this is not equal in beauty to the former, and it is believed that two colours are the utmost, that by this process have been inserted. Handkerchiefs, and other small articles, are executed in this mode with great expedition and advantage.
The excise laws are extended to this manufacture of British cloth; the whole of the duty is, however, returned on those goods which are exported.
We have already, in the former part of this volume, given ample descriptions of Lambeth, Stockwell, New. ington, Walworth, Camberwell, Dulwich, and Peckham. The present Route will therefore commence at
STREATHAM. This village derives its name from being situated near the great Roman road, which led from Sussex to London. The manor was given by William I. to Odo, bishop of Bayeus, having before this time been jointly held by Harold II. and the canons of Waltham, in Essex. It afterwards came into various possessions; and in 1600 was alienated by Henry Pakenham, to Sir Giles Howland, whose brother Richard was bishop of Peterborough. The manor came afterwards into the Bedford family, by the intermarriage of WrioTHESLEY, duke of Bedford, with Elizabeth, daughter and sole heir of John Howland, Esq.
It is a village five miles from London, in the road to Croydon. The duke of Bedford is lord of one of the manors formerly belonging to the above Mr. Howland, a merchant of London; and the duke takes his title of baron Howland, of